Scientists

A typical view of a scientist is that of a person in a white coat, conducting experiments. The truth is that a scientists can be defined as a person who is involved in the systematic and documented study of the phenomena that occur in nature but are not limited to just physics, chemistry or biology. They even indulge in studies related to the makeup of the earth and social scenarios where they study and try to understand the behavior of a group of individual of a particular species, sub-species or any other such classification. They can be classified into various categories based on the branch of science that they are involved in. Some such categories are social scientists, astronomers, physicist, biologists, chemical engineers or chemists, agriculturists and earth scientists. There are many more branches of science which a person can become a specialist of. Some of the notable people from this field are people like Charles Darwin, Marie Curie, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr. Scientists have always led the way in understand the environment we live in and this is a collection of the biographies of these studious people, along with information about their professional and personal lives, including their life stories, timelines and trivia.

 1 George Washington Carver

George Washington Carver
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Famous As: Scientist & Inventor
Birthdate: January 1, 1864
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Nationality: American
Died: January 5, 1943
Agricultural scientist George Washington Carver is best remembered for promoting crops that were alternative to cotton, such as peanuts and sweet potatoes. He invented ways to prevent soil depletion and developed scores of products made from peanuts, including paints and cosmetics. He won numerous honors, such as the Spingarn Medal.

 2 Alan Turing

Alan Turing
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Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: June 23, 1912
Sun Sign: Cancer
Nationality: British
Died: June 7, 1954

Regarded as the father of computer science and artificial intelligence, Alan Turing was a distinguished mathematician and logician. During WWII, he successfully broke the challenging German Enigma machine codes thereby reducing the duration of war by a couple of years. The scientist, who was convicted for being gay, has been an inspiration for numerous films, plays and novels.

 3 Gregor Mendel

Gregor Mendel
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Listed In: Geneticists
Birthdate: July 22, 1822
Sun Sign: Cancer
Nationality: Austrian
Died: January 6, 1884

A scientist, meteorologist, mathematician, and biologist, Gregor Mendel is considered the founder of the modern science of genetics. He conducted a series of experiments on pea plants between 1856 and 1863, establishing many rules of heredity. Besides his work on pea plants, he also described novel plant species and conducted experiments with hawkweed and honeybees.

 4 Georges Lemaître

Georges Lemaître
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Famous As: Scientist & Priest
Birthdate: July 17, 1894
Sun Sign: Cancer
Nationality: Belgian
Died: June 20, 1966
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 5 Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein
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Listed In: Physicists
Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: March 14, 1879
Sun Sign: Pisces
Nationality: German, American
Died: April 18, 1955
Deemed as the most influential physicist of the 20th century, the German-born physicist Albert Einstein was one of the greatest minds to have ever lived. Even his name is now synonymous with the term genius. The father of Modern Physics is credited with developing the theory of relativity and explaining the photoelectric effect. The latter won him the Nobel Prize.

 6 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
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Listed In: Physicists
Birthdate: October 19, 1910
Sun Sign: Libra
Nationality: Indian
Died: August 21, 1995
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 7 Ronald McNair

Ronald McNair
1
Famous As: Physicist, Astronaut
Birthdate: October 21, 1950
Sun Sign: Libra
Nationality: American
Died: January 28, 1986
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 8 Jonas Salk

Jonas Salk
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Listed In: Virologists
Famous As: Medical researcher
Birthdate: October 28, 1914
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Nationality: American
Died: June 23, 1995
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 9 Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei
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Famous As: Astronomer
Birthdate: February 15, 1564
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Nationality: Italian
Died: January 8, 1642

An Italian astronomer, engineer, and physicist, Galileo Galilei is widely regarded as the father of observational astronomy, the father of the scientific method, the father of modern physics, and the father of modern science. He is credited with popularizing the telescope, which changed the course of history.

 10 Katherine Johnson

Katherine Johnson
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Listed In: Mathematicians
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: August 26, 1918
Sun Sign: Virgo
Nationality: American
Katherine Johnson was a physicist and mathematician, remembered as the first African-American female NASA scientist. Her calculations helped launch the space missions of Alan Shepard and John Glenn. She was crucial to the Apollo program and won a Congressional Gold Medal and a Presidential Medal of Freedom for her achievements.
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 11 Lewis Howard Latimer

Lewis Howard Latimer
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Listed In: Inventors
Famous As: Inventor
Birthdate: September 4, 1848
Sun Sign: Virgo
Nationality: American
Died: December 11, 1928
Lewis Howard Latimer was born to former slaves and went on to become a skilled patent draftsman. He had worked with Alexander Graham Bell on the patent of his telephone, and with the Edison Electric Light Company. He had also invented a modification of the process of making carbon filaments. 

 12 Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton
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Listed In: Physicists
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: January 4, 1643
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Nationality: British
Died: March 31, 1727

One of the most influential and popular scientists of all time, Sir Isaac Newton played a prominent role in our understanding of natural phenomena. He formulated the law of universal gravitation and laws of motion. He also developed the Newtonian telescope among other devices. Apart from science, Newton was also intrigued by religion, occult, and alchemy.

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 13 Stephen Hawking

Stephen Hawking
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Listed In: Physicists
Famous As: Theoretical Physicist, Cosmologist
Birthdate: January 8, 1942
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Nationality: British
Died: March 14, 2018

Stephen Hawking was an English theoretical physicist and cosmologist, who despite being afflicted motor neurone disease that severely limited his physical abilities, was able to build a phenomenally successful career. He was the first to set out a theory of cosmology explained by a union of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. Hawking was ranked 25 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons, in 2002.

 14 Srinivasa Ramanujan

Srinivasa Ramanujan
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Listed In: Mathematicians
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: December 22, 1887
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Nationality: Indian
Died: April 26, 1920

A self-taught genius Indian mathematician, Srinivasa Ramanujan is known for his contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory and continued fractions. Born into a humble family, the celebrated mathematician struggled with poverty but still managed to publish first of his papers in the Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society. Later, his collaboration with English mathematician G. H. Hardy proved very productive.

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 15 Richard Feynman

Richard Feynman
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Listed In: Physicists
Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: May 11, 1918
Sun Sign: Taurus
Nationality: American
Died: February 15, 1988

Theoretical physicist Richard Feynman won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965, along with Julian Schwinger and Shin'ichirō Tomonaga, for his research on quantum electrodynamics. He also contributed to the development of the atomic bomb. Feyman made it to Physics World’s list of the 10 greatest physicists of all time.

 16 Shakuntala Devi

Shakuntala Devi
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Listed In: Mathematicians
Famous As: Human Computer
Birthdate: November 4, 1929
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Nationality: Indian
Died: April 21, 2013

A child prodigy who was never formally educated, Shakuntala Devi became a mathematical genius earning the title of Human Computer for her exceptional calculating abilities. The Indian genius was also an astrologer and a gifted writer who authored books on maths, astrology, homosexuality in India and a crime thriller novel.

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 17 Niels Bohr

Niels Bohr
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Listed In: Physicists
Famous As: Nobel Prize Winning Physicist
Birthdate: October 7, 1885
Sun Sign: Libra
Nationality: Danish
Died: November 18, 1962

 18 Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday
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Listed In: Physicists, Chemists
Famous As: Physicist & Chemist
Birthdate: September 22, 1791
Sun Sign: Virgo
Nationality: British
Died: August 25, 1867

Michael Faraday was an English scientist known for his contribution to the study of electrochemistry and electromagnetism. Considered one of the most influential scientists ever, Faraday's inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices established the basis for electric motor technology. His research also helped understand the concept of the electromagnetic field. Ernest Rutherford called him one of the greatest scientific discoverers ever.

 19 John Dalton

John Dalton
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Birthdate: September 6, 1766
Sun Sign: Virgo
Nationality: British
Died: July 27, 1844

 20 Paul Dirac

Paul Dirac
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Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: August 8, 1902
Sun Sign: Leo
Nationality: British
Died: October 20, 1984
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 21 Wallace Carothers

Wallace Hume Carothers
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Famous As: Inventor of Neoprene & Nylon
Birthdate: April 27, 1896
Sun Sign: Taurus
Nationality: American
Died: April 29, 1937

 22 Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla
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Famous As: Inventor, Father of Radio
Birthdate: July 10, 1856
Sun Sign: Cancer
Nationality: Austrian, American
Died: January 7, 1943

Inventor, engineer and futurist, Nikola Tesla, is best remembered for his contribution to the development of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system. A prolific inventor, he had around 300 patents for his inventions. Even though he earned a considerable amount of money, he had poor money management skills and died a poor man.

 23 Isaac Asimov

Isaac Asimov
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Famous As: Writer, Professor
Birthdate: January 2, 1920
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Nationality: American
Died: April 6, 1992

Isaac Asimov was an American writer. Best known for his science fiction works, Asimov was regarded as one of the Big Three writers along with Arthur C. Clarke and Robert A. Heinlein. Asimov is credited with influencing most sci-fi writers since the 1950s. Nobel Prize winner Paul Krugman stated that one of Asimov's works inspired him to take up Economics.

 24 Pythagoras

Pythagoras
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Famous As: Philosopher and Mathematician
Birthdate: 0570 BC
Nationality: Greek
Died: 0495 BC

Pythagoras was an Ionian Greek philosopher. He is credited with many scientific and mathematical discoveries, including the Sphericity of the Earth, the Theory of Proportions, the five regular solids, Pythagorean tuning, and the Pythagorean Theorem. Pythagoras influenced other philosophers like Plato and Aristotle. His philosophy also had a major impact on personalities like Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, and Nicolaus Copernicus.

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 25 Aryabhata

Aryabhata
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Birthdate: 0476 AD
Nationality: Indian
Died: 0550 AD
Indian mathematician and astronomer Aryabhata pioneered the concept of “zero” and used it in his “place value system.” He had also worked on the approximation of pi and laid down the basic concepts of trigonometry, such as sine and cosine. He also mentioned that the Earth rotates on its axis.

 26 Walter Lewin

Walter Lewin
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Famous As: Astronomer, University teacher, Astrophysicist, Physicist
Birthdate: January 29, 1936
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Nationality:
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 27 Freeman Dyson

Freeman Dyson
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Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: December 15, 1923
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Nationality: British, American
Died: February 28, 2020

 28 Lise Meitner

Lise Meitner
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Listed In: Physicists
Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: November 7, 1878
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Nationality: Austrian
Died: October 27, 1968

 29 John Forbes Nash Jr.

John Forbes Nash Jr.
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Listed In: Mathematicians
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: June 13, 1928
Sun Sign: Gemini
Nationality: American
Died: May 23, 2015
The inspiration behind the movie A Beautiful Mind, John F. Nash was a legendary mathematician whose work in the area of game theory earned him the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. In his later years, he was riddled with mental illness. He later died in a car crash.

 30 Marie Curie

Marie Curie
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Listed In: Physicists, Chemists
Famous As: First woman to win a Nobel Prize
Birthdate: November 7, 1867
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Nationality: French, Polish
Died: July 4, 1934
Amongst the most notable scientists of her time, the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the sole person to win two Nobel Prize in two different category, and the first woman professor at the University of Paris—Marie Curie’s list of achievements is incredible. She did extensive research in the field of radioactivity and discovered polonium and radium.
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 31 Roger Penrose

Roger Penrose
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Listed In: Mathematicians
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: August 8, 1931
Sun Sign: Leo
Nationality: British

Roger Penrose’s contribution to the research related to the black hole and general relativity earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2020. The Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at Oxford, Roger is also a fellow of Wadham College, St John's College of Cambridge, and University College London.

 32 Archimedes

Archimedes
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Famous As: Mathematician, Engineer, Inventor, Physicist, Astronomer
Birthdate: 0287 BC
Nationality: Greek
Died: 0212 BC
Greek mathematician, physicist, and astronomer Archimedes is remembered for his contribution to mathematics, especially geometry. He laid down theorems related to the area of a circle, and the area and volume of a sphere, and reached an accurate value of pi. He also invented machines such as the screw pump.
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 33 Tom Lehrer

Tom Lehrer
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Listed In: Mathematicians
Famous As: American musician
Birthdate: April 9, 1928
Sun Sign: Aries
Nationality: American

 34 Antoine Lavoisier

Antoine Lavoisier
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Listed In: Chemists
Famous As: Chemist
Birthdate: August 26, 1743
Sun Sign: Virgo
Nationality: French
Died: May 8, 1794

 35 Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin

Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin
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Listed In: Astronomers
Famous As: Astronomer, University teacher
Birthdate: May 10, 1900
Sun Sign: Taurus
Nationality: British, American
Died: December 7, 1979

 36 Rachel Carson

Rachel Carson
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Famous As: Marine biologist
Birthdate: May 27, 1907
Sun Sign: Gemini
Nationality: American
Died: April 14, 1964

 37 John Logie Baird

John Logie Baird
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Famous As: Engineer
Birthdate: August 13, 1888
Sun Sign: Leo
Nationality: British, Scottish
Died: June 14, 1946

 38 Alfred Russel Wallace

Alfred Russel Wallace
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Famous As: Naturalist, Explorer, Geographer, Anthropologist and Biologist
Birthdate: January 8, 1823
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Nationality: British
Died: November 7, 1913

 39 Peter Higgs

Peter Higgs
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Listed In: Physicists, Educators
Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: May 29, 1929
Sun Sign: Gemini
Nationality: British

 40 Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
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Listed In: Physicists, Inventors
Famous As: Physicist, Inventor
Birthdate: May 24, 1686
Sun Sign: Gemini
Nationality: Polish
Died: September 16, 1736

 41 Gerty Cori

Gerty Cori
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Listed In: Biochemists
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: August 15, 1896
Sun Sign: Leo
Nationality: American
Died: October 26, 1957

 42 J. Robert Oppenheimer

J. Robert Oppenheimer
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Listed In: Physicists
Birthdate: April 22, 1904
Sun Sign: Taurus
Nationality: American
Died: February 18, 1967

Hailed as a brilliant scientific mind, American physicist J Robert Oppenheimer, led the Manhattan Project which resulted in the development of atomic bomb during the World War II. The bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. However, Oppenheimer was in a constant conflict over the moral issue of the weapons of mass destruction and rallied against nuclear proliferation.

 43 Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus
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Listed In: Biologists, Botanists
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: May 23, 1707
Sun Sign: Gemini
Nationality: Swedish
Died: January 10, 1778

Swedish botanist and lecturer Carl Linnaeus, who established the concept of binomial nomenclature, or the system of naming organisms, is also known as the father of modern taxonomy. His system of classification is known as Linnaean taxonomy. He was the first to include humans and apes under the header Anthropomorpha.

 44 Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur
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Famous As: Chemist and Microbiologist
Birthdate: December 27, 1822
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Nationality: French
Died: September 28, 1895
Considered one of the founders of bacteriology, Louis Pasteur created vaccines for anthrax and rabies, and invented the process of heating food and wine to kill microbes that cause contamination, which was named pasteurization after him. Known as the “father of microbiology,” he also founded the Pasteur Institute in Paris.  

 45 C. V. Raman

C. V. Raman
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Listed In: Physicists
Famous As: Physicist, University teacher
Birthdate: November 7, 1888
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Nationality: Indian
Died: November 21, 1970

 46 Avicenna

Avicenna
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Famous As: Persian Plymath
Birthdate: 0980 AD
Nationality:
Died: May 31, 1037
Renowned as father of early modern medicine, Avicenna was an illustrious Persian polymath. He is specifically distingusihed for his contributions in the fields of medicine and Aristotelian philisophy. He is best-known for his works namely, The Canon of Medicine and The Book of Healing. The corpus of his writings also include alchemy, geology, psychology, geography, physics, poetry and Islamic theology.

 47 Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler
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Famous As: Mathematician, Physicist
Birthdate: April 15, 1707
Sun Sign: Aries
Nationality: Swiss, Russian
Died: September 18, 1783

 48 Carl Friedrich Gauss

Carl Friedrich Gauss
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Famous As: Mathematician, Geophysicist, Astronomer, Science writer, Physicist, Geodesist, University teacher
Birthdate: April 30, 1777
Sun Sign: Taurus
Nationality: German
Died: February 23, 1855

 49 Eratosthenes

Eratosthenes
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Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Nationality: Greek

 50 Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford
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Listed In: Physicists
Famous As: Physicist, Chemist
Birthdate: August 30, 1871
Sun Sign: Virgo
Nationality: New Zealander, British
Died: October 19, 1937
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