Vladimir Vernadsky was a geochemist and mineralogist who is widely regarded as one of the founders of radiogeology, biogeochemistry, and geochemistry. He is also credited with founding the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Vernadsky is best remembered for his book, The Biosphere, which discusses Eduard Suess' work. He won the prestigious Stalin Prize in 1943.
Victor Moritz Goldschmidt was a Norwegian mineralogist. He is credited with co-founding crystal chemistry and modern geochemistry along with Vladimir Vernadsky. He is also credited with developing the Goldschmidt Classification of elements. The Geochemical Society has established the V. M. Goldschmidt Medal in his honor, which is awarded annually.
Johan Gadolin was a Finnish physicist, chemist, and mineralogist. He achieved popularity for his description of yttrium, the first rare-earth element. Johan Gadolin is also remembered for his service as a professor at the Royal Academy of Turku, where he became one of the first chemists to give laboratory exercises to students.
Copley Medal-winning US geologist and mineralogist James Dwight Dana is remembered for his path-breaking studies on topics such as mountain building, marine life, coral reefs, volcanic activity, and continents. A System of Mineralogy and Manual of Mineralogy are 2 of his iconic works, the latter of which became a standard text.
Charles Friedel was a French chemist and mineralogist. He studied under famed chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur at the Sorbonne. He later obtained the post of professor of chemistry and mineralogy at the Sorbonne. He collaborated with James Crafts to develop the Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation reactions. His son Georges also became a renowned mineralogist.
José Bonifácio de Andrada was a Brazilian statesman. He was also a naturalist, mineralist, and professor. He was a significant proponent of Brazilian independence and also spearheaded the abolition project in Brazil. He was of the opinion that a new national capital should be created in Brazil's underdeveloped interior. As a naturalist, he discovered four new minerals.
Georg Brandt was a Swedish mineralogist and chemist best remembered for discovering cobalt. He is also credited with identifying and exposing fraudulent alchemists. Georg Brandt also served as a professor at Uppsala University.
Axel Fredrik Cronstedt was a Swedish chemist and mineralogist. He is best remembered for discovering nickel in 1751. Widely regarded as a founder of modern mineralogy, Cronstedt is credited with introducing the blowpipe for mineralogists. In 1753, Axel Fredrik Cronstedt was inducted into the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Torbern Olof Bergman was a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He is best remembered for his 1775 work Dissertation on Elective Attractions, which contains the largest chemical affinity tables. He also contributed immensely to the development of quantitative analysis. Torbern Olof Bergman also taught physics and mathematics at the University of Uppsala.
Per Teodor Cleve was a Swedish biologist, chemist, oceanographer, and mineralogist. He is best remembered for his discovery of holmium and thulium. He is also credited with discovering aminonaphthalenesulfonic acids. Per Teodor Cleve is also remembered for his service as professor of general and agricultural chemistry at Uppsala University. His contributions were honored with the Davy Medal.
Best known for exploring the geology of the Tertiary Period, Alexandre Brongniart initially taught natural history and then became a professor of mineralogy. He also worked for the development of porcelain enameling in France. His other works include a classification of reptiles and the introduction of geologic dating.
While Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton was sent to Paris to study theology, he ended up studying medicine instead and later became a pioneering naturalist. He taught natural history and zoology and contributed immensely to the domains of comparative anatomy and paleontology. He also contributed to Georges Buffon’s Histoire naturelle.
Apart from recognizing the volcanic nature of central France’s Auvergne district, French geologist and mineralogist Jean-Étienne Guettard also wrote extensively on the geological aspects of the terrains of France and England. He was the first to make a geological survey of France and study the Paris Basin bedrock.
German mineralogist and geologist Johann Gottlob Lehmann is remembered for his pioneering contribution to the science of stratigraphy. He also worked a museum director and professor in Russia and discovered what is now known as crocoite. He died when an arsenic-filled retort he was working in exploded.
Waldemar Christofer Brøgger was a Norwegian geologist and mineralogist best known for his research on Permian igneous rocks of the Oslo district. His contribution helped to greatly advance petrologic theory on the formation of rocks. He studied under Theodor Kjerulf at University of Christiania and pursued an academic career. He later became rector of the senate of University of Christiania.