2 Alexander Fleming(Physician and Microbiologist)
Alexander Fleming was a Scottish microbiologist and physician. He is credited with discovering penicillin, the world's first effective antibiotic substance; a discovery that changed the course of history. He also discovered lysozyme, an antimicrobial enzyme which forms part of the innate immune system. In 1999, Fleming was named in Time magazine's 100 Most Important People of the 20th century list.
3 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek(Scientist)
Seventeenth-century Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, also known as the Father of Microbiology, is remembered as a pioneer of microscopy. His contribution to microbiology included the discovery of spermatozoa, bacteria, and muscle fibers. Though he had not authored any book, his letters to the Royal Society were later published.
4 Robert Koch(Physician)
Robert Koch was a German microbiologist and physician. One of the prominent co-founders of modern bacteriology, Koch is credited with creating and improving laboratory techniques and technologies in the field of microbiology. He is also credited with making important discoveries in public health. In 1905, Robert Koch won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his research on tuberculosis.
5 Francis Crick(Co-discoverer of the Structure of the DNA Molecule, Nobel Prize Winner)
Nobel Prize-winning British biophysicist Francis Crick is best known for his ground-breaking work to determine the structure of the DNA, along with James Watson, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalind Franklin. He taught at various institutes, such as the Salk Institute, and was also awarded the Order of Merit.
6 Sucharit Bhakdi(Known for Microbiology, fringe ideas about COVID-19)
7 Emmanuelle Charpentier(Researcher)
8 Bruce Edwards Ivins(Biologist, Scientist, Circus performer, Politician)
Bruce Edwards Ivins was a microbiologist and vaccinologist. He served as the senior biodefense researcher at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). He was the suspected perpetrator of the 2001 anthrax attacks and died in an apparent suicide after realizing that he was likely to face criminal charges for his alleged role in the attacks.
9 Carlo Urbani(Epidemiologist)
10 Richard M. Krause(Physician)
11 Maurice Hilleman(Microbiologist)
Maurice Hilleman was an American microbiologist who developed more than 40 vaccines. His vaccines save almost eight million lives every year and he is regarded as one of the most important vaccinologists of all time. He also played a major role in the discovery of antigenic drift and shift. In 1988, he was honored with the National Medal of Science.
12 Selman Waksman(Inventor)
13 Peter Piot(Microbiologist)
14 Martinus Beijerinck(Microbiologist)
15 Salvador Luria(Microbiologist)
Nobel Prize-winning Italian microbiologist Salvador Luria is best remembered for his work on bacteriophages, or viruses that infect bacteria. He had also chaired Microbiology and later, the Center for Cancer Research at MIT. As a political activist, he was against nuclear weapon testing and was once banned from receiving funds.
16 Waldemar Haffkine(Bacteriologists)
17 Sergei Winogradsky(Microbiologist)
18 John Franklin Enders(The Father of Modern Vaccines)
19 Ferdinand Cohn(Founder of Bacteriology and Microbiology)
Ferdinand Cohn was a German biologist who is credited with co-founding microbiology and modern bacteriology. Apart from publishing more than 150 research reports, Cohn also made significant contributions to the field of botany. He was also the first person to classify algae as plants. Ferdinand Cohn received the prestigious Leeuwenhoek Medal in 1885.
20 Werner Arber(Microbiologist & Geneticist)
Werner Arber is a Swiss geneticist and microbiologist whose discovery of restriction endonucleases earned him the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1978; he shared the award with Daniel Nathans and Hamilton Smith. Arber's work alongside Nathans and Smith led to the progression of recombinant DNA technology. Werner Arber is also credited with co-founding the World Cultural Council.
21 Daniel Nathans(Microbiologist)
22 Ken Alibek(Creating the most virulent strain of anthrax ever synthesized)
23 Heinrich Anton de Bary(Botanist)
German surgeon and botanist Heinrich Anton de Bary is regarded as the pioneer of plant pathology and mycology. Apart from teaching botany, he chalked the life cycles of many fungi and also coined the term symbiosis to explain the mutually beneficial co-existence of many orgnanisms, such as fungi and algae.
24 Hamilton O. Smith(Microbiologist)
25 Albert Schatz(Microbiologist)
26 Jules Bordet(Microbiologist and Immunologist)
27 René Dubos(Microbiologist)
28 Rebecca Lancefield(Microbiologist)
29 Nkandu Luo(Scientist)
30 Jacob Dolson Cox(Statesman)
Apart from being a lawyer and a war historian, Jacob Dolson Cox had served as the governor of Ohio and as a US representative from Ohio's 6th district. During the American Civil War, he was a Union general. As the Secretary of the Interior, he introduced a civil service merit system.
31 Friedrich Loeffler(Bacteriologist)
32 Johannes Eugenius Bülow Warming(Danish botanist)
33 Shiga Kiyoshi(Physician)
34 André Lwoff(Microbiologist)
35 Max Schultze(Anatomist)
36 Froilano de Mello(Microbiologist and Author)
37 Monica Musenero(Ugandan women scientist)
38 Félix d'Hérelle(Microbiologist)
39 Fritz Schaudinn(Zoologist)
40 Kenneth V. Thimann(Author)
British-American plant physiologist Kenneth V. Thimann is best remembered for isolating and identifying the plant hormone auxin. Associated with Harvard University for most of his initial career, he later joined the University of California. His best-known works include Phytohormones on plant hormones and The Life of Bacteria on microbiology.