Guy Fawkes was a member of an infamous group which unsuccessfully plotted the murder of King James I. The plot, which came to be known as the Gunpowder Plot, became popular and Guy Fawkes became synonymous with the plot. The failure of the plot has been commemorated as Guy Fawkes Night, during which Fawkes' effigy is burned on a bonfire.
Marquis de Lafayette was a French aristocrat and military officer, who is remembered for fighting in the American Revolutionary War, as the commander of American troops in several battles. After returning to France, he played key roles in the French Revolution of 1789 and the July Revolution of 1830. Considered a hero in both America and France, he advocated the end of slavery.
Philippe I, Duke of Orléans received the dukedoms of Chartres and Valois in 1661 as the younger son of Louis XIII of France. Unlike most royal persons of his generation, Philippe was open about his homosexuality and did not think twice before acting effeminately in public. However, he fathered several children and earned the nickname the grandfather of Europe.
Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia was the heir apparent to the Russian Empire's throne. The only son of Empress Alexandra Feodorovna and Emperor Nicholas II, Alexei was born with haemophilia, which was treated by the popular faith healer Grigori Rasputin. In 1918, Alexei and his family members were executed brutally by Communist revolutionaries.
Antoine Lavoisier was a French chemist and nobleman. He played a crucial role during the chemical revolution of the 18th-century. Widely regarded as the father of modern chemistry, Lavoisier had a major influence on the history of biology as well as the history of chemistry. He also helped build the metric system.
Otto von Habsburg was the son of Charles I, the last emperor of Austria. A staunch opponent of Nazism, he called for the unification and integration of Europe. He had been a European Parliament member and spearheaded the Pan-European Picnic at the Austrian-Hungarian border during the 1989 revolution.
John of Gaunt was an English prince, statesman, and military leader. An influential figure, John of Gaunt is credited with founding the royal House of Lancaster, which would later produce men to ascend the royal throne. Early in his career, John spent considerable time in Spain participating in the Hundred Years' War.
Grigory Potemkin was a Russian statesman, military leader, and nobleman. A favorite of Catherine the Great, Grigory Potemkin was appointed governor-general of Russia's southern provinces in 1775. An influential personality, Potemkin supervised the construction of several important edifices, such as the Tauride Palace. He is also credited with founding the towns of Ekaterinoslav, Sevastopol, Kherson, and Nikolayev.
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn was the father of Queen Victoria. His army career took him to Canada and the West Indies, making him the first royal family member to stay in North America. He was also the governor of Gibraltar and played a major role in Canada’s development.
Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria was heir apparent to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The only son of Elisabeth in Bavaria and Emperor Franz Joseph I, Rudolf died at the age of 30 at the Mayerling hunting lodge in an assumed suicide pact with his lover Mary Vetsera. The incident has inspired several works of art, such as cinema.
William the Silent played an important role in the Dutch Revolt where he led a group of fighters against the Spanish Habsburgs. The revolt resulted in the Eighty Years' War, which in turn paved the way for the independence of the United Provinces. Thanks to his efforts during the Dutch Revolt, William is referred to as Father of the Fatherland.
Legendary Welsh hero Owain Glyndŵr was part of the last major Welsh attempt at overthrowing the English reign. With the help of local rebels, he declared himself the prince of Wales and even set up a parliament, ignoring Henry IV’s rule. He eventually disappeared and was presumed dead.
Henry FitzRoy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset, was the son of Henry VIII and his mistress Elizabeth Blount. Henry FitzRoy was the only illegitimate child acknowledged by King Henry VIII of England. In spite of being an illegitimate child, Henry FitzRoy was made Duke of Richmond and Somerset. He was later made Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland.
Hephaestion was an ancient Macedonian army general and nobleman who served under Alexander the Great. A close ally of Alexander the Great, Hephaestion shared all his secrets with the former and their relationship has been compared to that of Patroclus and Achilles. Hephaestion has been portrayed in many films such as the 2004 epic historical drama film Alexander.
Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg was exiled with his family following the German occupation of Luxembourg during World War II. A Royal Military Academy Sandhurst alumnus, he was part of the D-Day landings and the liberation of Luxembourg from the Nazis, and later turned Luxembourg into a financial hub.
Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria was the younger brother of both Maximilian I of Mexico and Franz Joseph I of Austria. Ludwig is remembered as the father of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria whose assassination in Sarajevo is widely regarded as the most immediate cause of the First World War. Ludwig's grandson Charles I was the last emperor of Austria.
The son of king Farouk I of Egypt, Fuad II became a king at age 6 months, following his father’s abdication. He ruled for less than a year and was exiled soon after. He grew up in Switzerland and France and was given back his Egyptian citizenship years later.
Afonso de Albuquerque was a Portuguese statesman, admiral, and general. A fierce military commander, Albuquerque expanded the influence of the Portuguese across the Indian Ocean while serving as the viceroy of the Portuguese State of India from 1509 to 1515. Afonso de Albuquerque's military brilliance in the initial Portuguese campaigns helped Portugal to become the first intercontinental empire in history.
Pedro Álvares Cabral was a Portuguese nobleman, navigator, explorer, and military commander. Regarded as a prominent figure of the Age of Discovery, Cabral is often remembered as one of the earliest Europeans to set his foot on Brazil. Pedro Álvares Cabral is also remembered for his voyage to India in a failed attempt to return to Europe with valuable spices.
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn was the third son of Prince Albert and Queen Victoria. He was the only British prince to serve as the Governor General of Canada. Prince Arthur is also remembered for performing various royal duties in the United Kingdom and India.
Folke Bernadotte was a Swedish diplomat and nobleman. He is best remembered for negotiating the release of over 30,000 prisoners from German concentration camps during World War II. Folke Bernadotte was assassinated at the age of 53 by a Zionist paramilitary organization called Lehi.
Leopold von Sacher-Masoch lent his name to the term masochism, a form of sexual deviation. Best known for his novel Venus in Furs, one of his rare books that have been translated in English, he depicted Galician romance and fantasies. He spent his final years in a mental asylum.