Mathematicians

A mathematician is an expert in the field of mathematics; a person who is highly skilled and knowledgeable. It is a science that deals with numbers and their interrelations, combinations and operations, data, measurements, quantity, structure, space and generalizations. The science is extensively used in the fields of finance, engineering, industries, robotics, astronomy, business, information technology, and various other fields. Mathematicians analyze data, study patterns and develop mathematical models that not only help to further human knowledge, but are also utilized for solving problems in various fields. These scientists work in the fields of pure and applied mathematics. In the pure form of this science, the researchers work through abstract problems with the sole motive of furthering human knowledge and contributing to theory formation. On the other hand, professionals working in the applied form formulate mathematical models for problem solving in real-world situations. But these two fields are overlapping—what starts out as a theoretical study may spawn some practical applications, while applied study of maths may sometimes contribute to its theoretical base. They need to be highly analytical and technologically savvy with excellent reasoning skills. Browse this section to explore about the life and works of various famous mathematicians from all over the world.
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 1 Srinivasa Ramanujan

Srinivasa Ramanujan
25
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: December 22, 1887
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Nationality: Indian
Died: April 26, 1920

A self-taught genius Indian mathematician, Srinivasa Ramanujan is known for his contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory and continued fractions. Born into a humble family, the celebrated mathematician struggled with poverty but still managed to publish first of his papers in the Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society. Later, his collaboration with English mathematician G. H. Hardy proved very productive.

 2 Katherine Johnson

Katherine Johnson
17
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: August 26, 1918
Sun Sign: Virgo
Nationality: American
Died: February 24, 2020
Katherine Johnson was a physicist and mathematician, remembered as the first African-American female NASA scientist. Her calculations helped launch the space missions of Alan Shepard and John Glenn. She was crucial to the Apollo program and won a Congressional Gold Medal and a Presidential Medal of Freedom for her achievements.

 3 Alan Turing

Alan Turing
26
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: June 23, 1912
Sun Sign: Cancer
Nationality: British
Died: June 7, 1954

Regarded as the father of computer science and artificial intelligence, Alan Turing was a distinguished mathematician and logician. During WWII, he successfully broke the challenging German Enigma machine codes thereby reducing the duration of war by a couple of years. The scientist, who was convicted for being gay, has been an inspiration for numerous films, plays and novels.

 4 Aryabhata

Aryabhata
6
Birthdate: 0476 AD
Nationality: Indian
Died: 0550 AD
Indian mathematician and astronomer Aryabhata pioneered the concept of “zero” and used it in his “place value system.” He had also worked on the approximation of pi and laid down the basic concepts of trigonometry, such as sine and cosine. He also mentioned that the Earth rotates on its axis.
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 5 Shakuntala Devi

Shakuntala Devi
33
Famous As: Human Computer
Birthdate: November 4, 1929
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Nationality: Indian
Died: April 21, 2013

A child prodigy who was never formally educated, Shakuntala Devi became a mathematical genius earning the title of Human Computer for her exceptional calculating abilities. The Indian genius was also an astrologer and a gifted writer who authored books on maths, astrology, homosexuality in India and a crime thriller novel.

 6 Pythagoras

Pythagoras
7
Famous As: Philosopher and Mathematician
Birthdate: 0570 BC
Nationality: Greek
Died: 0495 BC

Pythagoras was an Ionian Greek philosopher. He is credited with many scientific and mathematical discoveries, including the Sphericity of the Earth, the Theory of Proportions, the five regular solids, Pythagorean tuning, and the Pythagorean Theorem. Pythagoras influenced other philosophers like Plato and Aristotle. His philosophy also had a major impact on personalities like Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, and Nicolaus Copernicus.

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 7 Archimedes

Archimedes
0
Famous As: Mathematician, Engineer, Inventor, Physicist, Astronomer
Birthdate: 0287 BC
Nationality: Greek
Died: 0212 BC
Greek mathematician, physicist, and astronomer Archimedes is remembered for his contribution to mathematics, especially geometry. He laid down theorems related to the area of a circle, and the area and volume of a sphere, and reached an accurate value of pi. He also invented machines such as the screw pump.
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 8 Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus
2
Birthdate: February 19, 1473
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Nationality: Polish
Died: May 24, 1543

Nicolaus Copernicus was a mathematician and astronomer. He is credited with formulating Heliocentrism, which led to the Copernican Revolution. Although Aristarchus of Samos had formulated Heliocentrism 18 centuries earlier, Copernicus was responsible for popularizing it. Copernicus is also credited with formulating an economic principle, which was later called Gresham's law.

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 9 John Forbes Nash Jr.

John Forbes Nash Jr.
11
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: June 13, 1928
Sun Sign: Gemini
Nationality: American
Died: May 23, 2015
The inspiration behind the movie A Beautiful Mind, John F. Nash was a legendary mathematician whose work in the area of game theory earned him the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. In his later years, he was riddled with mental illness. He later died in a car crash.

 10 Carl F. Gauss

Carl F. Gauss
0
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: April 30, 1777
Sun Sign: Taurus
Nationality: German
Died: February 23, 1855

German mathematician and physicist Carl Friedrich Gauss is remembered for his work in math and science. Known as the Princeps mathematicorum, he laid down tenets such as the Gauss's Law. He had exhibited his talent since an early age and had completed writing Disquisitiones Arithmeticae by 21.

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 11 René Déscartes

René Déscartes
2
Famous As: Mathematician, Philosopher and Writer
Birthdate: March 31, 1596
Sun Sign: Aries
Nationality: French
Died: February 11, 1650
René Descartes, the father of modern philosophy, laid down the idea of rationalism, later followed by Spinoza and Leibniz. Descartes also contributed to the field of analytical geometry and led to the Cartesian coordinate system being named after him. His Meditations on First Philosophy is still taught at many universities.

 12 Charles Babbage

Charles Babbage
0
Famous As: Father of the computer
Birthdate: December 26, 1791
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Nationality: British
Died: October 18, 1871
Charles Babbage, or the “father of the computer,” invented the prototype of the world’s first mechanical calculator, the Difference Engine. With the help of mathematician Ada Lovelace, he also created the Analytical Engine, the first general-purpose computer and a precursor of the modern computer, with its looping and sequential mechanism.
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 13 Lewis Carroll

Lewis Carroll
2
Famous As: Author, Mathematician and Photographer
Birthdate: January 27, 1832
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Nationality: British
Died: January 14, 1898
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known by his pseudonym, Lewis Carroll, is remembered for his iconic children’s fiction such as Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. He explored the genre of literary nonsense with his poems such as Jabberwocky. He was also a photographer, a mathematician, and an inventor.

 14 Avicenna

Avicenna
0
Famous As: Persian Plymath
Birthdate: 0980 AD
Died: May 31, 1037
Renowned as father of early modern medicine, Avicenna was an illustrious Persian polymath. He is specifically distingusihed for his contributions in the fields of medicine and Aristotelian philisophy. He is best-known for his works namely, The Canon of Medicine and The Book of Healing. The corpus of his writings also include alchemy, geology, psychology, geography, physics, poetry and Islamic theology.
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 15 Euclid

Euclid
0
Famous As: Mathematician - Euclidean Geometry, Euclid's Elements and Euclidean Algorithm
Birthdate: 0330 BC
Nationality: Greek
Died: 0260 BC
Greek mathematician Euclid, also known as Euclid of Alexandria, is remembered as the father of geometry. One of his most significant works was his book on mathematics, Elements. He had worked extensively on conic sections, spherical geometry, and number theory.

 16 Carl Friedrich Gauss

Carl Friedrich Gauss
0
Famous As: Mathematician, Geophysicist, Astronomer, Science writer, Physicist, Geodesist, University teacher
Birthdate: April 30, 1777
Sun Sign: Taurus
Nationality: German
Died: February 23, 1855

 17 John von Neumann

John von Neumann
0
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: December 28, 1903
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Nationality: Hungarian, American
Died: February 8, 1957
Hungarian-American scientist John von Neumann contributed to the development of game theory and the concept of self-replication. His work covered vast areas including math, economics, physics, and computer science. His research on nuclear physics led him to be part of the advisory committee of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

 18 Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler
0
Famous As: Mathematician, Physicist
Birthdate: April 15, 1707
Sun Sign: Aries
Nationality: Swiss, Russian
Died: September 18, 1783

Leonhard Euler was a Swiss physicist, mathematician, logician, geographer, astronomer, and engineer. He is credited with making influential and important mathematical discoveries, such as graph theory and infinitesimal calculus. Widely regarded as one of the greatest and most prolific mathematicians of all time, Leonhard Euler also made pioneering contributions to analytic number theory and topology.

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 19 Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Russell
4
Famous As: Philosopher
Birthdate: May 18, 1872
Sun Sign: Taurus
Nationality: British, Welsh
Died: February 2, 1970

Bertrand Russell was a British polymath and Nobel laureate. His work, which is spread across various fields, has had a considerable influence on philosophy, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, mathematics, linguistics, and logic. Russell is also credited with leading the revolt against idealism in Britain and is regarded as one of the founders of analytic philosophy.

 20 Tom Lehrer

Tom Lehrer
6
Famous As: American musician
Birthdate: April 9, 1928
Sun Sign: Aries
Nationality: American

 21 Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei
2
Famous As: Astronomer
Birthdate: February 15, 1564
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Nationality: Italian
Died: January 8, 1642

An Italian astronomer, engineer, and physicist, Galileo Galilei is widely regarded as the father of observational astronomy, the father of the scientific method, the father of modern physics, and the father of modern science. He is credited with popularizing the telescope, which changed the course of history.

 22 Roger Penrose

Roger Penrose
5
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: August 8, 1931
Sun Sign: Leo
Nationality: British

Roger Penrose’s contribution to the research related to the black hole and general relativity earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2020. The Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at Oxford, Roger is also a fellow of Wadham College, St John's College of Cambridge, and University College London.

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 23 Eratosthenes

Eratosthenes
0
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Nationality: Greek

Greek polymath Eratosthenes of Cyrene was a mathematician, poet, geographer, music theorist, and astronomer. He also served as the Library of Alexandria’s chief librarian. He was also the first to calculate the Earth’s circumference and the tilt of the Earth's axis. Nicknamed Pentathlos, he also invented many scientific terms.

 24 Freeman Dyson

Freeman Dyson
0
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: December 15, 1923
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Nationality: British, American
Died: February 28, 2020
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 25 Hypatia

Hypatia
5
Famous As: Mathematician, Philosopher, Astronomer, Writer
Birthdate: 0370 AD
Nationality: Ancient Roman
Died: 0415 AD
Hypatia was a Hellenistic Neoplatonist philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer who lived during the 4th and 5th centuries. She also taught and served as a counselor. She is remembered for her commentary on Diophantus's Arithmetica. She was later murdered and became a symbol of feminism and of opposition to Catholic ideals.

 26 Gottfried W. Leibniz

Gottfried W. Leibniz
0
Famous As: Philosopher, Mathematician
Birthdate: July 1, 1646
Sun Sign: Cancer
Nationality: German
Died: November 14, 1716
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a significant logician, mathematician, and philosopher of the Enlightenment era. He laid down his own concepts of differential and integral calculus. He was behind the invention of the mass-produced mechanical calculator and modified the binary number system. He also laid down a separate library cataloging system.

 27 Kurt Gödel

Kurt Gödel
0
Famous As: Mathematician, Philosopher
Birthdate: April 28, 1906
Sun Sign: Taurus
Nationality: American
Died: January 14, 1978

 28 Paul Dirac

Paul Dirac
0
Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: August 8, 1902
Sun Sign: Leo
Nationality: British
Died: October 20, 1984
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 29 Donald Knuth

Donald Knuth
0
Famous As: Computer Scientist
Birthdate: January 10, 1938
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Nationality: American

 30 Maryam Mirzakhani

Maryam Mirzakhani
13
Famous As: mathematician, topologist, university teacher
Birthdate: May 3, 1977
Sun Sign: Taurus
Nationality: Iranian
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 31 Claudius Ptolemy

Claudius Ptolemy
0
Famous As: Astronomer, Cartographer & Mathematician
Birthdate: 0090 AD
Nationality: Ancient Roman
Died: 0168 AD
Claudius Ptolemy was a 2nd-century mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, and geographer, who had written a number of scientific treatises, such as The Great Treatise, Geography, and the Tetrábiblos. He lived in Alexandria under the Roman rule in Egypt. He had also authored Harmonics, a book on music theory.

 32 Max Born

Max Born
0
Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: December 11, 1882
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Nationality: German
Died: January 5, 1970
From being home-schooled for being too sickly to attend school, Max Born went on to win the Nobel Prize in Physics for his contribution to quantum mechanics. Being a Jew, with the rise of the Nazi power, he lost his professorship at the University of Göttingen, and moved to Cambridge.

 33 Sal Khan

Sal Khan
0
Famous As: Teacher
Birthdate: October 11, 1976
Sun Sign: Libra
Nationality: American

 34 Paul Erdős

Paul Erdős
11
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: March 26, 1913
Sun Sign: Aries
Nationality: Hungarian
Died: September 20, 1996

Hungarian mathematician Paul Erdős spent most of his childhood at home, due to his mother’s overprotectiveness after his sisters died of scarlet fever. Known for his eccentricity, he used his own vocabulary. His contributions include the Ramsey theory, and he skipped many university job offers to continue working independently.

 35 Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler
5
Famous As: Astronomer, Mathematician & Astrologer
Birthdate: December 27, 1571
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Nationality: German
Died: November 15, 1630

This 17th-century German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer is remembered for his pathbreaking work on optics. He invented a developed version of the refracting telescope. He also laid down Kepler's laws of planetary motion and wrote Astronomia Nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae.

 36 James Maxwell

James Maxwell
0
Famous As: Mathematician & Physicist
Birthdate: June 13, 1831
Sun Sign: Gemini
Nationality: Scottish
Died: November 5, 1879

Scottish physicist James Maxwell’s contributions included the formulation of the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation and the production of the first light-fast color photograph. His Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution explored the kinetic theory of gases. He has also written poems and was an Elder of the Church of Scotland.

 37 John Horton Conway

John Horton Conway
0
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: December 26, 1937
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Nationality: British
Died: April 11, 2020

 38 George Boole

George Boole
5
Famous As: Mathematician, Philosopher and Logician
Birthdate: November 2, 1815
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Nationality: British
Died: December 8, 1864

 39 James Harris Simons

James Harris Simons
0
Famous As: Mathematicians & Hedge Fund Manager
Birthdate: 1938 AD
Nationality: American

 40 G. H. Hardy

G. H. Hardy
5
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: February 7, 1877
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Nationality: British
Died: December 1, 1947

 41 Eric Weinstein

Eric Weinstein
0
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: October 26, 1965
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Nationality: American

 42 Omar Khayyam

Omar Khayyam
5
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: May 18, 1048
Sun Sign: Taurus
Nationality: Iranian
Died: December 4, 1131

Omar Khayyam was a Persian polymath, mathematician, philosopher, astronomer, and poet. In the field of mathematics, he is best known for his work on the classification and solution of cubic equations. As an astronomer, he designed a solar calendar known as the Jalali calendar. His philosophical attitude towards life had elements of pessimism, nihilism, Epicureanism, and fatalism. 

 43 Brahmagupta

Brahmagupta
5
Famous As: Mathematician and Astronomer
Birthdate: 0598 AD
Nationality: Indian
Died: 0670 AD

 44 David Hilbert

David Hilbert
5
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: January 23, 1862
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Nationality: German
Died: February 14, 1943

German mathematician David Hilbert was first drawn to math inspired by his mother, who was a budding math enthusiast. He contributed to a host of concepts, theories, and postulates, such as Hilbert space, Hilbert's program, and Hilbert's problems. He died in oblivion, with a handful of people at his funeral.

 45 Pierre-Simon Laplace

Pierre-Simon Laplace
5
Famous As: Scientist
Birthdate: March 23, 1749
Sun Sign: Aries
Nationality: French
Died: March 5, 1827

Though French scholar Pierre-Simon Laplace is primarily known for his work on the solar system, his research extended to areas such as mathematics and physics, apart from astronomy. Widely known as the Newton of France, he escaped being executed during the French Revolution, owing to his lack of political views.

 46 Hero of Alexandria

Hero of Alexandria
0
Famous As: Inventor, Mathematician
Birthdate: 0010 AD
Nationality: Egyptian, Greek
Died: 0070 AD

Greek inventor and mathematician Hero of Alexandria is remembered for his iconic work on geometry, Metrica, which was lost for many years but was then discovered after 1896. His most significant contributions include the Heron’s formula to find the area of a triangle, the Hero engine, and a wind-harnessing machine.

 47 Andrew Wiles

Andrew Wiles
11
Famous As: Mathematician, University teacher
Birthdate: April 11, 1953
Sun Sign: Aries
Nationality: British, American

 48 Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī

Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī
0
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: 0780 AD
Nationality: Persian
Died: 0850 AD

 49 Edwin Powell Hubble

Edwin Powell Hubble
0
Famous As: Astronomer & Mathematician
Birthdate: November 20, 1889
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Nationality: American
Died: September 28, 1953

 50 Thales

Thales
0
Famous As: Philosopher
Birthdate: 0624 BC
Nationality: Greek
Died: 0546 BC

One of the Seven Wise Men of Greece, Thales was a 6th-century mathematician who believed that the Earth was a flat disk floating on a huge ocean. Legend has it that he had predicted a solar eclipse that stopped a major battle and had also laid down several geometrical theorems.

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