A neuroscientist is a specialist in the study of the brain. Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system that deals with anatomy, physiology and molecular biology of nerves, spinal cord, and nervous tissue. Neuroscience is a very wide field; though considered a part of biology, it is multidisciplinary in nature and encompasses scientific fields like physics and mathematics also. Studying the brain and understanding it’s functioning is critical for many fields as the brain is involved in every endeavour taken up by human beings. Neuroscience in its various forms is applicable to fields like medicine, psychology, engineering, law, and education. The techniques used by neuroscientists includes preparing tissue and cell samples, molecular and cellular studies of individual nerve cells, and imaging of sensory and motor tasks in the brain. Traditional neuroscientists study psychiatric disorders of the brain while others may choose to work for pharmaceutical companies to develop medication for such disorders. Some of the major branches of neuroscience are affective neuroscience, behavioral neuroscience, clinical neuroscience and molecular neuroscience. This collection of biographies, trivia and timelines provides you information about the life and works of various famous neuroscientists from all over the world.
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 1 Francis Crick

Francis Crick.
Famous As: Co-discoverer of the Structure of the DNA Molecule, Nobel Prize Winner
Birthdate: June 8, 1916
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Weston Favell, Northamptonshire, England
Died: July 28, 2004

Nobel Prize-winning British biophysicist Francis Crick is best known for his ground-breaking work to determine the structure of the DNA, along with James Watson, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalind Franklin. He taught at various institutes, such as the Salk Institute, and was also awarded the Order of Merit.

 2 Mayim Bialik

Mayim Bialik.
Famous As: Actress
Birthdate: December 12, 1975
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: San Diego, California, United States

 3 Wilder Penfield

Wilder Penfield.
Famous As: Surgeon, Neuroscientist, Neurosurgeon, University teacher, Neurologist
Birthdate: January 26, 1891
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Spokane
Died: April 5, 1976

Neuroscientist Wilder Penfield redefined medical science with his innovative way of treating epilepsy patients through surgery. He would note down his patients’ responses when they would be conscious under local anesthesia. He also founded the Montreal Neurological Institute, but was unable to cure his sister’s brain cancer.

 4 Alexandra Elbakyan

Alexandra Elbakyan.
Famous As: Programmer
Birthdate: November 6, 1988
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Almaty, Kazakhstan
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 5 Ricardo Rossello

Ricardo Rossello.
Famous As: Politician
Birthdate: March 7, 1979
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: San Juan, Puerto Rico

 6 Oliver Sacks

Oliver Sacks
Famous As: Scientist, Neurologist, Educator, Psychiatrist
Birthdate: July 9, 1933
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Cricklewood, London, England
Died: August 30, 2015
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 7 John Lilly

John Lilly
Famous As: Neuroscientist
Birthdate: January 6, 1915
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States
Died: September 30, 2001

Born to rich Catholic parents, John Lilly spent his childhood treating science as a hobby. While studying medicine, he performed gruelling medical experiments on himself. He later invented isolating floatation tanks, studied bottlenose dolphins, and researched on psychedelic drug-induced near-death experiences. He also explored yoga and human consciousness.

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 8 Aafia Siddiqui

Aafia Siddiqui
Famous As: Neuroscientist
Birthdate: March 2, 1972
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Karachi
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 9 Santiago Ramón y Cajal

Santiago Ramón y Cajal.
Famous As: Father of Modern Neuroscience
Birthdate: May 1, 1852
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Petilla de Aragón, Navarre, Spain
Died: October 18, 1934

While he apprenticed as a cobbler and a barber in childhood, Santiago Ramón y Cajal later took up medicine inspired by his father, a professor of anatomy. Cajal’s study of the microscopic structure of the human brain later formed the basis of neuroscience and earned him a Nobel Prize.

 10 Eric Kandel

Eric Kandel
Famous As: Neurologist, Psychiatrist, Neuroscientist, Psychologist, Biochemist
Birthdate: November 7, 1929
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Vienna

Nobel Prize-winning neurobiologist Eric Kandel is known for his research on the role of synapses in memory and learning. An Austrian Jew, he left his country with his family and moved to the U.S. in the wake of anti-Semitism. A doctor, specializing in psychiatry, he later taught at Columbia University.

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 11 Antonio Damasio

Antonio Damasio
Famous As: Neuroscientists
Birthdate: February 25, 1944
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Lisbon, Portugal

 12 Vladimir Bukovsky

Vladimir Bukovsky
Famous As: Writer, Human rights activist
Birthdate: December 30, 1942
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Belebey

Vladimir Bukovsky was a Russian-born British writer and human rights activist. An important member of the Soviet dissident movement, Bukovsky spent 12 years in prisons, psychiatric prison-hospitals, and labor camps of the Soviet Union. A neurophysiologist, Bukovsky is celebrated for his efforts to expose Soviet Union's political abuse of psychiatry. In 2001, he was awarded the Truman-Reagan Medal of Freedom.

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 13 Donald O. Hebb

Donald O. Hebb
Famous As: Psychologist, Neuroscientist, University teacher
Birthdate: July 22, 1904
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Chester, Nova Scotia
Died: August 20, 1985

Though born to physicians, Donald O. Hebb had initially aspired to be a novelist. He later pioneered neuropsychology by merging elements of psychology and neuroscience, and thus establishing psychology as part of bio science. His iconic work The Organization of Behavior spoke about many innovate concepts such as Hebb’s Rule.

 14 May-Britt Moser

May-Britt Moser
Famous As: Psychologist
Birthdate: January 4, 1963
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Fosnavåg, Norway
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 15 Franz Joseph Gall

Franz Joseph Gall
Famous As: Physician, Neuroscientist
Birthdate: March 9, 1758
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Tiefenbronn
Died: August 22, 1828

German neuroanatomist and physiologist Franz Joseph Gall was the founding father of cranioscopy, or the determination of intelligence and personality traits from the shape of a person’s skull, now known as phrenology. He was also the first to separate the gray matter of the brain from the white matter.

 16 Brenda Milner

Brenda Milner
Famous As: Neuroscientist, Psychologist, University teacher
Birthdate: July 15, 1918
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Manchester

Considered a pioneer in her field, centenarian neuropsychologist Brenda Milner is known for her immense contribution to clinical neuropsychology. Especially known for her work on memory and cognition, she has contributed immensely to the study of temporal lobe. Her papers on the frontal lobes in problem-solving and the lateralization of hemispheric function in language are also highly regarded by scholars.

 17 Michael Persinger

Michael Persinger
Famous As: Psychologist, Neuroscientist, Ufologist, University teacher
Birthdate: June 26, 1945
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Jacksonville

 18 Carl Wernicke

Carl Wernicke
Famous As: Anatomist, Physician, Neuroscientist, Psychiatrist, University teacher, Neurologist
Birthdate: May 15, 1848
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Tarnowskie Góry
Died: June 15, 1905

German neurologist, pathologist, and anatomist Carl Wernicke is best remembered for his extensive work on the various types of aphasia, or disorders that hinder the ability to speak or write. He also distinguished between motor aphasia and sensory aphasia, or what is now known as Wernicke's aphasia.

 19 David Servan-Schreiber

David Servan-Schreiber
Famous As: Neuroscientist and psychiatrist
Birthdate: April 21, 1961
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Neuilly-sur-Seine, France
Died: July 24, 2011

 20 Charles Bell

Charles Bell
Famous As: Surgeon
Birthdate: November 12, 1774
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Edinburgh, Scotland
Died: April 28, 1842

Charles Bell was a Scottish surgeon, physiologist, anatomist, and neurologist. He was also an artist and philosophical theologian. He discovered the difference between sensory nerves and motor nerves in the spinal cord. He is also known for describing Bell's palsy. He played a key role in the creation of the Middlesex Hospital Medical School. 

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 21 Sir John Eccles

Sir John Eccles.
Famous As: Neurophysiologist
Birthdate: January 27, 1903
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Melbourne, Australia
Died: May 2, 1997

Sir John Eccles was a philosopher and neurophysiologist whose services to physiological research earned him the title of Knight Bachelor in 1958. His work on the synapse earned him the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, which he shared with Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley in 1963. The same year, he also received the Australian of the Year Award.

 22 Paul Churchland

Paul Churchland
Famous As: Philosopher
Birthdate: October 21, 1942
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Vancouver, Canada

Canadian philosopher and academic Paul Churchland is best known for his research on eliminative materialism. Born to a science teacher father, he was obsessed with science fiction and initially aspired to become an aerodynamical engineer. He later studied philosophy and became a significant figure in the field of neurophilosophy.  

 23 Karl Deisseroth

Karl Deisseroth
Famous As: Professor of Bioengineering and of Psychiatry
Birthdate: November 18, 1971
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Boston, Massachusetts, United States

 24 Susan Greenfield, Baroness Greenfield

Susan Greenfield, Baroness Greenfield
Famous As: Politician, Biologist
Birthdate: October 1, 1950
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Hammersmith
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 25 Edvard Moser

Edvard Moser
Famous As: Neuroscientist
Birthdate: April 27, 1962
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Alesund, Norway

 26 Endel Tulving

Endel Tulving
Famous As: Neuroscientist, Psychologist
Birthdate: May 26, 1927
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Pechory

Endel Tulving is an Estonian-born Canadian experimental psychologist and cognitive neuroscientist. He is best known for his pioneering research on human memory. He earned a Ph.D. from Harvard University and began his academic work at the University of Toronto, where he remained for the rest of his career. He is a recipient of the Canada Gairdner International Award. 

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 27 Arvid Carlsson

Arvid Carlsson
Famous As: Neuropharmacologist
Birthdate: January 25, 1923
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Uppsala, Sweden
Died: June 29, 2018

 28 Paul Greengard

Paul Greengard
Famous As: Neuroscientist
Birthdate: December 11, 1925
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: New York City
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 29 Roderick MacKinnon

Roderick MacKinnon
Famous As: Professor, Chemist
Birthdate: February 19, 1956
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Burlington

 30 Henry Markram

Henry Markram
Famous As: Neuroscientist, University teacher, Neurologist
Birthdate: March 28, 1962
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: South Africa
Born in South Africa, Henry Markram completed his PhD in Israel and then moved to the U.S. as a Fulbright scholar. The acclaimed neuroscientist and Brain Mind Institute founder now teaches at the EPFL in Switzerland. His now-famous Blue Brain Project was aimed at digitally reconstructing the mouse brain.
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 31 Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond

Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond
Famous As: Physician
Birthdate: November 7, 1818
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Berlin, Germany
Died: December 26, 1896

 32 Victor Horsley

Victor Horsley
Famous As: British surgeon
Birthdate: April 14, 1857
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: London, England
Died: July 16, 1916
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 33 Eleanor Maguire

Eleanor Maguire
Famous As: Neuroscientist
Birthdate: March 27, 1970
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Dublin, Ireland

 34 Nathaniel Kleitman

Nathaniel Kleitman
Famous As: Physiologist
Birthdate: April 26, 1895
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Moldova
Died: August 13, 1999

 35 Auguste Forel

Auguste Forel
Famous As: Psychiatrist
Birthdate: September 1, 1848
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Morges, Switzerland
Died: July 27, 1931

 36 Hiroshi Nakajima

Hiroshi Nakajima
Famous As: Doctor
Birthdate: May 16, 1928
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Chiba, Chiba, Japan
Died: January 26, 2013

 37 Suzanne Corkin

Suzanne Corkin
Famous As: Neuroscientist
Birthdate: May 18, 1937
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Hartford, Connecticut
Died: May 24, 2016

 38 Patricia Goldman-Rakic

Patricia Goldman-Rakic
Famous As: Professor
Birthdate: April 22, 1937
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Salem, Massachusetts
Died: July 31, 2003

 39 Berta Scharrer

Berta Scharrer
Famous As: Scientist
Birthdate: December 1, 1906
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Munich, Germany
Died: July 23, 1995

 40 Daniela Schiller

Daniela Schiller
Famous As: Neuroscientist
Birthdate: October 26, 1972
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Rishon LeẔiyyon, Israel

 41 Michal Schwartz

Michal Schwartz
Famous As: Neuroimmunologist
Birthdate: January 1, 1950
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Tel Aviv–Yafo, Israel

 42 Louis Sokoloff

Louis Sokoloff
Famous As: Neuroscientist
Birthdate: October 14, 1921
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
Died: July 30, 2015

 43 Robert Galambos

Robert Galambos
Famous As: Neuroscientist
Birthdate: April 20, 1914
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Lorain, Ohio, United States
Died: June 18, 2010

 44 Gazi Yaşargil

Gazi Yaşargil
Famous As: Medical scientist
Birthdate: July 6, 1925
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Lice, Turkey

 45 Michael Posner

Michael Posner
Famous As: Psychologist, Neuroscientist
Birthdate: September 12, 1936
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

 46 Tatyana Chernigovskaya

Tatyana Chernigovskaya
Famous As: Linguist
Birthdate: February 7, 1947
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia

 47 Sandra Witelson

Sandra Witelson
Famous As: Neuroscientist
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Birthplace: Canada

 48 John O'Keefe

John O'Keefe
Famous As: Neuroscientist
Birthdate: November 18, 1939
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: New York, New York, United States

John O'Keefe is an American-British neuroscientist and psychologist. He is best known for his discovery of place cells in the hippocampus. Along with May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser, he won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2014. He is also the recipient of several other awards. He spent his entire academic career at the University College London.  

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