Johns Hopkins Hospital co-founder William Osler was also an avid historian. He redefined medical education with his emphasis on clinical experience and his book The Principles and Practice of Medicine. Born to a missionary father in Canada, he was to follow in his father’s footsteps but decided to study medicine instead.
Howard Florey was an Australian pathologist and pharmacologist. He is best remembered for his role in the formation of penicillin, for which he shared the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Alexander Fleming and Ernst Chain in the year 1945. Florey is credited with carrying out the first clinical trial of penicillin at the Radcliffe Infirmary in 1941.
Nobel Prize-winning cytologist and physician Camillo Golgi is remembered for his contribution to the study of the central nervous system. He revolutionized medical science with his staining technique and discoveries such as the Golgi cell, the Golgi tendon organ, and the Golgi apparatus, apart from his research on malaria.
Robin Warren is an Australian pathologist best known for re-discovering the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Along with Barry J. Marshall, Warren proved that Helicobacter pylori causes stomach ulcers. In 2005, he won the prestigious Nobel Prize in Medicine, which he shared with Marshall. Their Nobel Prize-winning work became the subject of a documentary titled The Winner's Guide to the Nobel Prize.
14 René Dubos
German pathologist and anatomist Friedrich Gustav Jacob Henle is best remembered for his discovery of two of the most significant parts of the kidney, the loop of Henle and Henle's tubules. His Allgemeine Anatomie, or General Anatomy, was the first systematic written work on histology.
25 Robin Coombs
One of the first specialists in cytopathology, Elizabeth Stern is noted for her work on progression of a healthy cell to a cancerous state. She became interested in cervical cancer while serving as professor of epidemiology at UCLA and began extensive research on the subject, eventually helping to establish that cervical cancer can be successfully treated by prophylactic measures.
32 John Simon
Sophia Getzowa had lost her mother at 8. A prominent Zionist, she studied medicine and became known for her research on solid cell nests and for being the first woman to teach at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. She was also engaged to Chaim Weizmann, who later became Israel’s first president.
Pathologist Friedrich Theodor von Frerichs, considered the founder of experimental pathology, had initially been an optician and had also taught at several universities. His contributions include studies in kidney and liver diseases and research on multiple sclerosis. He also released the first German book on nephrology.