Medical Scientists

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Medical scientists conduct research with the aim of improving human health. They study the various diseases that afflict human beings, their causes, and how they can be prevented and treated. Medical research adds to the existing base of scientific knowledge on health and medicine through experimentation. By studying human diseases and their underlying causes, scientists are able to develop newer drugs or improve existing treatment procedures. New breakthroughs in the field of medicine that has the potential to save thousands of lives each year is the result of extensive medical research. The main purpose of medical research is to search for newer methods of improving healthcare available to human beings which culminates in the development of better medicines and treatment procedures. These scientists also work to investigate methods of disease prevention through drugs and vaccination. Medical scientists may conduct research in laboratories, or work directly with patients in trial procedures to analyze how they respond to certain treatments. They basically work in research institutions, clinics, hospitals and other healthcare facilities. The findings of their research are published in scientific papers in order to disseminate their results to others. Browse this section to explore biographies and timelines about the life and works of various famous medical scientists from all over the world.
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 1 
Karl Landsteiner
(Physician)
Karl Landsteiner
27
Birthdate: June 14, 1868
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Vienna
Died: June 26, 1943

Karl Landsteiner was a physician, biologist, and immunologist. He is credited with distinguishing the main blood groups as well as identifying the Rhesus factor. He is also credited with discovering the polio virus along with Erwin Popper and Constantin Levaditi. He won the Aronson Prize in 1926. In 1930, Landsteiner was honored with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

 2 
Joseph Lister
(British Medical Scientist and a Pioneer in the Field of Antiseptic Medicine and Surgery)
Joseph Lister
4
Birthdate: April 5, 1827
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Upton House, West Ham, England
Died: February 10, 1912

British surgeon Joseph Lister was a pioneer of antiseptic medicine usage and made a huge contribution to the development of preventive medicine for bacterial infection. His achievements have been honored by many, such as the makers of Listerine antiseptic and mouthwash, who named their product after him.

 3 
Paul Ehrlich
(Scientist)
Paul Ehrlich
20
Birthdate: March 14, 1854
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Strzelin, Poland
Died: August 20, 1915

German scientist Paul Ehrlich is remembered for his contribution to immunology, which also won him a Nobel Prize. Known as the pioneer of chemotherapy, he also discovered the first-known treatment of syphilis. Born into a business family, he was introduced to the method of studying cells by his pathologist uncle.

 4 
Harold E. Varmus
(American Scientist Who Won Nobel Prize in Medicine for Discovery of the Cellular Origin of Retroviral Oncogenes)
Harold E. Varmus
15
Birthdate: December 18, 1939
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Oceanside, New York, United States

Harold E. Varmus is an American scientist who shared the 1989 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with J. Michael Bishop for their discovery of the retroviral oncogenes' cellular origin. From 1993 to 1999, he served as the director of the National Institutes of Health. From 2010 to 2015, he served as the director of the National Cancer Institute.

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 5 
Abdul Rahman Al-Sumait
(Medical practitioner)
Abdul Rahman Al-Sumait
18
Birthdate: October 15, 1947
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Kuwait
Died: August 15, 2013
 6 
Cesar Milstein
(Biochemist, Immunologist)
Cesar Milstein
13
Birthdate: October 8, 1927
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Bahía Blanca, Argentina
Died: March 24, 2002

Cesar Milstein was an Argentine biochemist renowned for his work in antibody research. He is credited with developing the Hybridoma technology, a method to produce identical antibodies in large numbers, for which he was honored with the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1984. He also received several other awards, including the Copley Medal in 1989.

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 7 
Daniel Vasella
(Swiss medical doctor)
Daniel Vasella
22
Birthdate: August 15, 1953
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Fribourg, Switzerland
 8 
Baruj Benacerraf
(Immunologist)
Baruj Benacerraf
14
Birthdate: October 29, 1920
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Caracas, Venezuela
Died: August 2, 2011

Baruj Benacerraf was a Venezuelan-American immunologist whose discovery of the MHC genes earned him the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1980; he shared the prize with George Davis Snell and Jean Dausset. Over the course of his illustrious career, Benacerraf received several other awards, such as the National Medal of Science in 1990.

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 9 
Joseph L. Goldstein
(Molecular Geneticist)
Joseph L. Goldstein
4
Birthdate: April 18, 1940
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Kingstree, South Carolina, United States

American molecular geneticist Joseph L. Goldstein was born to clothing store owner parents in South Carolina. He ended up winning a Nobel Prize for his research on cholesterol metabolism, which later helped researchers develop statin drugs. He currently chairs the molecular genetics department of the University of Texas.

 10 
Jacinto Convit
(Physician)
Jacinto Convit
6
Birthdate: September 12, 1913
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Caracas, Venezuela
Died: May 12, 2014
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 11 
Joep Lange
(Medical researcher)
Joep Lange
10
Birthdate: September 25, 1954
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Nieuwenhagen, Netherlands
Died: July 17, 2014
 12 
Henry Faulds
(Scientist)
Henry Faulds
8
Birthdate: June 1, 1843
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Beith
Died: March 19, 1930
 13 
August Krogh
(Zoophysiologist)
August Krogh
2
Birthdate: November 15, 1874
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Grenå
Died: September 13, 1949

August Krogh was a Danish professor who taught at the University of Copenhagen between 1916 and 1945. He is best remembered for receiving the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1920. Apart from his contributions to medicine, August Krogh is also remembered for co-founding the popular multinational pharmaceutical company, Novo Nordisk. 

 14 
Elsie Effah Kaufmann
(Biomedical engineer)
Elsie Effah Kaufmann
6
Birthplace: Unknown
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 15 
Florence R. Sabin
(Medical Scientist)
Florence R. Sabin
8
Birthdate: November 9, 1871
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Central City, Colorado, United States
Died: October 3, 1953

Florence R. Sabin was an American medical scientist best remembered as a pioneer for women in science. Sabin was the first woman to hold a membership at the National Academy of Sciences and a full professorship at the prestigious Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Florence R. Sabin was made an inductee of the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1973.

 16 
Michael S. Brown
(Geneticist)
Michael S. Brown
2
Birthdate: April 13, 1941
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Brooklyn, New York, United States

Michael S. Brown is an American geneticist who received the 1985 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. His research on cholesterol metabolism along with Joseph L. Goldstein paved the way for the development of statin drugs, which are used today by 16 million Americans. For his contributions to medicine, Brown was honored with the National Medal of Science in 1988.

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 17 
Jules Bordet
(Nobel Prize-Winning Belgian Scientist Known for His Discovery of Factors in Blood Serum that Destroy Bacteria)
Jules Bordet
10
Birthdate: June 13, 1870
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Soignies
Died: April 6, 1961

Nobel Prize-winning Belgian immunologist and microbiologist Jules Bordet is remembered for his discovery of blood serum components that are capable of destroying bacteria. He later established the Pasteur Institute of Brussels and taught at the Free University of Brussels. He also discovered the Bordetella pertussis bacteria that causes whooping cough.

 18 
Ulf von Euler
(Physiologist and Pharmacologist)
Ulf von Euler
1
Birthdate: February 7, 1905
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Stockholm, Sweden
Died: March 9, 1983

Noted Swedish physiologist and pharmacologist Ulf von Euler was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology (1970) for his work on discovery of neurotransmitters. A full Professor of Physiology at Karolinska Institute for over three decades, he also received the Gairdner prize, became a Foreign Member of the Royal Society and a founding member of the World Cultural Council.

 19 
Victor A. McKusick
(American Medical Geneticist Known for His Early Recognition of the Significance of Mapping the Entire Human Genome)
Victor A. McKusick
7
Birthdate: October 21, 1921
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Parkman, Maine, United States
Died: July 22, 2008

Victor A. McKusick was an American medical geneticist and internist. Widely regarded as the father of medical genetics, McKusick was an ardent supporter of the mapping of the human genome. A celebrated geneticist, Victor A. McKusick won many prestigious awards including the Benjamin Franklin Medal for his contribution to science. 

 20 
Ghada Karmi
(Doctor of medicine)
Ghada Karmi
3
Birthdate: 1939 AD
Birthplace: Jerusalem

Palestinian doctor of medicine, author and academic Ghada Karmi is associated with the Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies at the University of Exeter as research fellow and lecturer. A Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, Karmi has penned several articles on Palestinian issues in Wayback Machine and in newspapers and magazines like Journal of Palestine Studies and The Guardian.

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 21 
Jean Dausset
(French Immunologist Who was One of the Co-Recipients of the1980 Nobel Nobel Prize in Medicine)
Jean Dausset
5
Birthdate: October 19, 1916
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Toulouse, France
Died: June 6, 2009

Jean Dausset was a French immunologist best remembered for winning the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He won the award along with George Davis Snell and Baruj Benacerraf. Jean Dausset is also remembered for founding the Human Polymorphism Study Center in 1984.   

 22 
Upendranath Brahmachari
9
Birthdate: December 19, 1873
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Jamalpur
Died: February 6, 1946

The son of an East Indian Railways physician, leading Indian scientist and doctor Upendranath Brahmachari was the first to use Urea-Stibamine as a treatment for Kala-azar. Apart from winning honors such as the knighthood and the title of Rai Bahadur, he was also nominated for the Nobel Prize twice.

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 23 
Frederick Chapman Robbins
(Virologist and Paediatrician)
Frederick Chapman Robbins
7
Birthdate: August 25, 1916
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Auburn, Alabama, United States
Died: August 4, 2003

Nobel Prize-winning American pediatrician and virologist Frederick Chapman Robbins is best remembered for his pathbreaking research on the poliomyelitis virus, which later helped in the development of polio vaccines. He also taught pediatrics at the Case Western Reserve University and worked with the US Army’s virus and rickettsia lab.

 24 
Leopold Auenbrugger
3
Birthdate: November 19, 1722
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Graz, Austria
Died: May 17, 1809
 25 
Diana Atwine
(Physician, Scientist)
Diana Atwine
2
Birthdate: 1973 AD
Birthplace: Galiraya, Uganda
 26 
Nina Gray
(Entrepreneur)
Nina Gray
2
Birthdate: August 23, 1974
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Tehran, Iran

Apart from being a dentist and the founder and CEO of Dental Plus California, Nina Gray is also a popular social media influencer. She not only promotes healthy food on her YouTube channel but is popular on Instagram, too. She is also the mother of YouTube star Nicolette Gray.

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 27 
María Luisa Ávila Agüero
(Infectious disease specialist)
María Luisa Ávila Agüero
0
Birthdate: January 30, 1961
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: San José, Costa Rica
 28 
Ludvig Puusepp
(Estonian Surgeon and the World's First Professor of Neurosurgery)
Ludvig Puusepp
4
Birthdate: 1875 AD
Birthplace: Kiev
Died: October 19, 1942

Ludvig Puusepp was an Estonian researcher and surgeon. He was the first professor of neurosurgery in the world. Consequently, Puusepp traveled all over the world as he was often invited as a visiting professor from universities worldwide. Ludvig Puusepp also contributed as an author, publishing books on the surgery of the nervous system and brain tumors.

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 29 
Eliza Maria Mosher
6
Birthdate: October 2, 1846
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Cayuga County, New York, United States
Died: October 16, 1928