Presidents

A president is the head of the state or the chief executive of a country though the term may also be used to refer to the chief officer of a branch of government or other organizations.  Presidents are typically elected by popular vote in a modern republic or a democracy though they may also be chosen by the legislature or by a special electoral college. The president, being the symbolic leader of a nation is considered the representative of the country they preside upon. The United States of America was the first country in modern times to use the term “President” to denote the head of state of a republic when the United States Constitution of 1787 created the office of President of the United States. In the U.S.A, the president is entrusted with two roles. He is the chief executive of the federal government and Commander in Chief of the armed forces. The role of the president is largely ceremonial in parliamentary republics like India, Ireland, Turkey, Germany and Greece. This section provides you information about the life and works of various famous presidents from all over the world.

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 1 Barack Obama

Barack Obama.
33
Famous As: 44th U.S. President
Birthdate: August 4, 1961
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Honolulu, Hawai, USA

Former President of the United States, Barack Obama, has the distinction of being the first African-American president of the nation. A civil rights attorney and an academic, he has been credited with bringing about a significant improvement in America’s reputation abroad. His efforts to strengthen international diplomacy was recognized with the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize.

 2 Donald Trump

Donald Trump.
21
Famous As: 45th U.S. President
Birthdate: June 14, 1946
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: New York City, New York

The former President of the United States, Donald Trump was arguably the most controversial president in the American history. He has been characterised as racist and his actions and policies divided America like never before. He lost his bid for re-election to Joe Biden in a bitterly fought election .

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 3 John F. Kennedy

John F. Kennedy.
6
Famous As: 35th President of the United States
Birthdate: May 29, 1917
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Brookline
Died: November 22, 1963

The 35th President of the United States, John F Kennedy was a charismatic leader who, during his tenure, ably dealt with Cuban missile crisis, proposed public service programmes and lent support to the growing civil rights movement. Before becoming one of the youngest Presidents of the country, he served in the navy, U.S. House of Representatives and the US Senate.

 4 Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln.
6
Famous As: American President.
Birthdate: February 12, 1809
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Hodgenville, Kentucky, United States
Died: April 15, 1865

A self-educated lawyer, Abraham Lincoln rose from modest background to become one of the greatest presidents of America. The 16th president of the country, who is also known as Honest Abe and the Great Emancipator, played a crucial role in establishing a truly democratic government, abolished slavery, modernised economy and led the country during the American Civil War.

 5 Joe Biden

Joe Biden.
26
Famous As: 46th President of the United States
Birthdate: November 20, 1942
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Scranton, Pennsylvania, United States

Joe Biden is the president-elect of the United States and will become the 46th president when he will assume the charge on 20 January 2021. Biden is the oldest person ever elected to the White House. One of the youngest senators in the US history and Delaware’s longest-serving senator, Joe Biden served as the 47th vice president of the United States from 2009 to 2017.

 6 Ronald Reagan

Ronald Reagan.
6
Famous As: 40th U.S. President
Birthdate: February 6, 1911
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Tampico, Illinois, United States
Died: June 5, 2004

An actor turned union leader turned politician, Ronald Wilson Reagan served as the 40th president of America. Hailed for his public speaking and communication skills, Reagan is one of the most popular Presidents of USA, mainly due to his ‘America First’ economic policies which led to a decrease in inflation and unemployment rates during his tenure.

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 7 F D Roosevelt

F D Roosevelt.
4
Famous As: 32nd President of the United States
Birthdate: January 30, 1882
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Hyde Park, New York, United States
Died: April 12, 1945

F D Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States and was in the office from 1933 to1945. Qualified as a lawyer, he entered politics as an ambitious young man, inspired by his relative Theodore Roosevelt, a fellow politician. F D Roosevelt had an illustrious political career and is rated by scholars among the nation's greatest presidents.

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 8 George H. W. Bush

George H. W. Bush.
10
Famous As: 41st U.S. President
Birthdate: June 12, 1924
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Milton, Massachusetts, United States
Died: December 1, 2018

The 41st president of the U.S, George H.W. Bush also twice served as the vice president of the country and held various other important political positions before assuming the presidency. During his presidency, he led successful military operation against Panama and Iraq which made him popular, but domestic issues prevented him from winning a second term at the office.

 9 George W. Bush

George W. Bush.
10
Famous As: 43rd U.S. President
Birthdate: July 6, 1946
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: New Haven, Connecticut, United States

The 43rd president of the United States, George W. Bush served two consecutive term in the top office beginning 2001 and led his country post the 9/11 terrorist attacks. He later ordered the invasion of Iraq. Before this, he was twice elected as the governor of Texas and had even helped his father, George H. W. Bush—the 41st president, in his presidential campaigns.

 10 Bill Clinton

Bill Clinton.
10
Famous As: 42nd President of the United States
Birthdate: August 19, 1946
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Hope, Arkansas, U.S.

Bill Cinton was the 42nd president of the United States who served for two terms from 1993 to 2001. He was the third-youngest president in the American history and presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history. The second-term of his presidency was rocked by the infamous Monica Lewinsky sex-scandal for which he was impeached and later acquitted.

 11 Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Putin.
10
Famous As: President of Russia
Birthdate: October 7, 1952
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia

The current President of Russia, Vladimir Putin is a popular politician, with the highest approval rating of any leader in the world as of July 2020. As a high-level politician who has the support of his citizens, he is a powerful figure in world politics. He has been accused by human rights organizations of persecuting political critics and activists.

 12 Jimmy Carter

Jimmy Carter.
4
Famous As: 39th U.S. President
Birthdate: October 1, 1924
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Plains, Georgia, U.S.

Jimmy Carter, the 39th President of USA, is one of the rare Presidents whose legacy continues even after leaving office. He is known as a champion of human rights and a mediator of peace efforts across the world. His humanitarian works earned him the prestigious Nobel Peace Prize in 2002.

 13 George Washington

George Washington.
0
Famous As: First U.S. President
Birthdate: February 22, 1732
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Westmoreland County, Virginia, United States
Died: December 14, 1799

America’s first president, George Washington led the country with integrity, firmness and prudence that made him one of the greatest presidents in American history. He became a national hero before assuming presidency, when he led the Continental Army to victory against the British during the American Revolution.

 14 Richard Nixon

Richard Nixon.
8
Famous As: 37th President of the United States
Birthdate: January 9, 1913
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Yorba Linda, California, United States
Died: April 22, 1994

Richard Nixon is the only American president in the history so far to resign from the office. His name is synonymous with the infamous Watergate scandal which led to his resignation. But his regime saw several positives too, such as end to the U.S involvement in the Vietnam War, improvement in the relationship with Soviet Union and China, and the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency.

 15 Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt.
4
Famous As: 26th U.S. President
Birthdate: October 27, 1858
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: New York City, New York, United States
Died: January 6, 1919

The 26th president of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt is generally ranked as one of the five best presidents of the country. A man of many talents, he was a politician, conservationist, naturalist, and writer. He supported  Progressive Era policies in the early 20th century and championed his "Square Deal" domestic policies.

 16 Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela.
12
Famous As: Anti-Apartheid Activist, President of ANC and Former President of South Africa
Birthdate: July 18, 1918
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Mvezo
Died: December 5, 2013
Revered as the Father of the Nation by the South Africans, Nelson Mandela was a statesman who rose to become the country’s first black head of state. He reconciled a nation divided along racial lines and dismantled the legacy of apartheid.

 17 Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson.
10
Famous As: 36th President of the U.S.A
Birthdate: August 27, 1908
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Stonewall, Texas, United States
Died: January 22, 1973

The era of Lyndon B Johnson, the 36th president of the United States, saw the passage of many important laws pertaining to civil rights, gun control and social security.  Also, his ‘war on poverty’ helped millions to rise above the poverty line. However, he was criticised for the escalation of the Vietnam War.

 18 Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson.
4
Famous As: 3rd U.S. President
Birthdate: April 13, 1743
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Shadwell, Virginia, United States
Died: July 4, 1826

The 2nd Vice President and the 3rd President of America, Thomas Jefferson was one of the Founding Fathers of USA and the principal draftsman of the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson was a staunch advocate of democracy and a strong believer of individual rights and religious freedom, despite the fact that he himself owned nearly 600 slaves.

 19 Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight D. Eisenhower.
4
Famous As: 34th U.S. President
Birthdate: October 14, 1890
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Denison, Texas, United States
Died: March 28, 1969

The 34th president of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower held office from 1953 to 1961. An army officer During World War II, he was part of many successful operations. He signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957, and his two terms as president saw widespread economic prosperity in USA. He is ranked high among American presidents.

 20 Fidel Castro

Fidel Castro.
8
Famous As: Former Prime Minister of Cuba
Birthdate: August 13, 1926
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Birán, Cuba
Died: November 26, 2016

Serving as the Cuban prime minister from 1959 to 1976 and as president from 1976 to 2008, Fidel Castro was one of the most prominent Cuban leaders in the history. As the longest-reigning non-royal head of the 20th and 21st centuries, Castro was responsible for making Cuba a communist state.

 21 Gerald Ford

Gerald Ford.
8
Famous As: President of the USA
Birthdate: July 14, 1913
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Omaha, Nebraska, United States
Died: December 26, 2006

Gerald Ford Jr served as the 38th president of US from August 1974 to January 1977. His 895 day-long stint as the American president is the shortest in US history for any president who did not die in office. In a controversial act, he granted a presidential pardon to his predecessor Richard Nixon for his role in the Watergate scandal.

 22 Emmanuel Macron

Emmanuel Macron.
11
Famous As: President
Birthdate: December 21, 1977
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Amiens, France

Emmanuel Macron, the President of France, created history on May 14, 2017 when at age 39 he became the youngest person to occupy the chair in the history of the country. He was initially a member of the Socialist Party, but fought the presidential elections under the banner of En Marche, a centrist political movement founded by him in 2016.

 23 Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson.
6
Famous As: 7th President of the United States
Birthdate: March 15, 1767
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Waxhaws
Died: June 8, 1845

Andrew Jackson was the 7th President of USA. His presidential reign has been termed as Jacksonian democracy and witnessed the shift of political power from established elites to ordinary voters. Coming from humble beginnings, Jackson knew the struggle of the masses and thus, worked towards creating a more inclusive country.  His picture has been featured on the front side of $20 bill since 1928.

 24 A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam.
8
Famous As: Former President of India, Missile Man of India
Birthdate: October 15, 1931
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu
Died: July 27, 2015
A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, India’s 11th president, had earlier been an aerospace scientist at DRDO and ISRO. Known as the “People’s President” and the “Missile Man of India,” he was instrumental in India's Pokhran-II nuclear tests. He died of a cardiac arrest while delivering a lecture at IIM Shillong.

 25 Harry S. Truman

Harry S. Truman.
6
Famous As: 33rd President of the United States
Birthdate: May 8, 1884
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Lamar, Missouri, United States
Died: December 26, 1972

Harry Truman was the US president from 1945 to 1953 and his administration successfully guided the US economy through the post-war challenges. He established the Truman Doctrine to contain Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War. He authorised the first and only use of nuclear weapons during a war when he sanctioned bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945.

 26 Saddam Hussein

Saddam Hussein.
13
Famous As: Dictator & President of Iraq
Birthdate: April 28, 1937
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Al-Awja
Died: December 30, 2006

Saddam Hussein ruled Iraq as its president from 1979 to 2003. Described as one of the last of the great dictators of the 20th century, his regime caused the deaths of at least 250,000 Iraqis. Saddam was deposed in 2003 when a U.S led coalition invaded Iraq. Accused of crimes against humanity, Saddam Hussein was sentenced to death in 2006.

 27 John Adams

John Adams.
6
Famous As: 2nd U.S. President
Birthdate: October 30, 1735
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Braintree, Massachusetts, United States
Died: July 4, 1826

One of the Founding Fathers of America, John Adams was a statesman, attorney, and diplomat who served as the second president of the United States. He was a principal leader of the American Revolution. As a lawyer, he was devoted to the right to counsel and presumption of innocence. His administration has been favorably ranked by historians and scholars.

 28 Angela Merkel

Angela Merkel.
8
Famous As: Chancellor of Germany
Birthdate: July 17, 1954
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Hamburg, Germany

The current chancellor of Germany, Angela Merkel is widely described as the world's most powerful woman. Also considered the de facto leader of the European Union (EU), Angela Merkel has played an important role in strengthening international trade agreements. In 2020, she was named in Time magazine's list of 100 Most Influential People.

 29 Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler.
28
Famous As: Nazi Leader, German Dictator and Chancellor of Germany
Birthdate: April 20, 1889
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Braunau am Inn
Died: April 30, 1945

One of the most powerful leaders of the 20th century, Adolf Hitler was a German dicator whose policies started the WWII that resulted in the death of millions of people. He had a visceral hatred for Jews and during his regime nearly six million Jews were killed in Holocaust.

 30 Ulysses S. Grant

Ulysses S. Grant.
6
Famous As: 18th U.S. President
Birthdate: April 27, 1822
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Point Pleasant, Ohio, United States
Died: July 23, 1885

The 18th president of the United States, Ulysses S. Grant held office from 1869 to 1877. He led the Union Army as Commanding General of the United States Army during the American Civil War and was a war hero. As president, he stabilized the post-war national economy and created the Department of Justice. Historians generally recognize his presidential accomplishments.

 31 Xi Jinping

Xi Jinping.
15
Famous As: General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
Birthdate: June 15, 1953
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Beijing, China

Xi Jinping, President of China since 2013, is said to be the most powerful Chinese leader since Chairman Mao Zedong. He is an authoritarian leader and his reign is marked by an increase in censorship and deterioration in human rights . Also, China’s foreign policy under Xi has been more assertive, leading to a deterioration of relations with many countries.

 32 Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Gorbachev.
4
Famous As: Former General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Birthdate: March 2, 1931
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Privolnoye, Russia

Born into a poor peasant family, Mikhail Gorbachev went on to become one of the most influential figures of the Soviet Union. He served in various positions, most notably as the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. He is regarded as one of the most prominent personalities of the 20th century.

 33 Woodrow Wilson

Woodrow Wilson.
4
Famous As: 28th U.S. President
Birthdate: December 28, 1856
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Staunton, Virginia, United States
Died: February 3, 1924

From presidential cabin of Princeton University to presidential office of the White House, Woodrow Wilson ushered a series of progressive reforms that changed the American politics forever. The 28th President of USA, Woodrow Wilson introduced several ground-breaking policies including the Federal Reserve Act. He played a key role in founding the first intergovernmental organisation—the League of Nations—for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

 34 Bashar al-Assad

Bashar al-Assad.
4
Famous As: President of Syria
Birthdate: September 11, 1965
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Damascus

Bashar al-Assad is the current president of Syria and has been serving in this position since 17 July 2000. Over the years, he has also had a major impact on Syria as the commander-in-chief of the country's Armed Forces. In 2011, his decision to impose military sieges on protesters participating in the Arab Spring resulted in the ongoing Syrian Civil War.

 35 Herbert Hoover

Herbert Hoover.
2
Famous As: 31st U.S. President
Birthdate: August 10, 1874
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: West Branch
Died: October 20, 1964

The 31st president of the United States, Herbert Hoover, was sworn into the office in 1929, the year the Great Depression struck the American economy. Earlier, Hoover was a successful mining engineer and had earned a reputation of a humanitarian who fed numerous Europeans during and after WWI. His policies during the depression, though, could not provide relief to people.

 36 Andrew Johnson

Andrew Johnson - 17 President of the United States of America From April 15, 1865 to March 4, 1869.
4
Famous As: 17th U.S. President
Birthdate: December 29, 1808
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
Died: July 31, 1875

The 17th president of the United States, Andrew Johnson assumed the presidency while serving as the vice president when Abraham Lincoln was assassinated. Born in poverty, Andrew Johnson did not attend school. However, he worked his way up to become a prominent politician—an inspiring story indeed!

 37 Warren G. Harding

Warren G. Harding.
4
Famous As: President of the U.S
Birthdate: November 2, 1865
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Blooming Grove, Ohio, United States
Died: August 2, 1923

The 29th President of the United States, Warren G. Harding assumed office in 1921 shortly after the end of WWI and became very popular. He died in 1923 while still in office. Later, various scandals that occured during his presidency were uncovered and his image suffered a serious setback. His presidency is today ranked amongst the worst in the American history.

 38 Rodrigo Duterte

Rodrigo Duterte.
8
Famous As: President of Philippines
Birthdate: March 28, 1945
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Maasin, Philippines

The current president of the Philippines Rodrigo Duterte took office at age 71, making him the oldest president of the country. His war on drugs has had a major impact in the Philippines. Known for his straightforward attitude in public, Duterte has admitted to killing three men in 1988 in an attempt to save a girl from being raped.

 39 Grover Cleveland

Grover Cleveland.
4
Famous As: Former U.S. President
Birthdate: March 18, 1837
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Caldwell, New Jersey, United States
Died: June 24, 1908

Grover Cleveland, a Democratic Party member, was the President of the United States from 1885 to 1889 and then again from 1893 to 1897. He is known for his campaign for political reform and fiscal conservatism. However, he was unable to deal with the economic depression in his second term as President, which led to massive decline in his popularity.

 40 William McKinley

William McKinley.
4
Famous As: President of the U.S.A
Birthdate: January 29, 1843
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Niles
Died: September 14, 1901

The 25th President of the United States, William McKinley led America to victory in the Spanish-American War. During his presidency, he played a major role in promoting American industry by raising protective tariffs, which in turn boosted the country's economic growth. He also played a key role in the American Civil War.

 41 Robert Mugabe

Robert Mugabe.
4
Famous As: Former PM & President of Zimbabwe
Birthdate: February 21, 1924
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Harare, Zimbabwe
Died: September 6, 2019

Robert Mugabe was a Zimbabwean revolutionary. He played a major role in the Rhodesian Bush War, which eventually led to the Lancaster House Agreement, resulting in the creation of the Republic of Zimbabwe. Subsequently, Mugabe served as the first prime minister of Zimbabwe and later as its president. A controversial figure, Mugabe is also often criticized for his tyrannical ways.

 42 James Madison

James Madison.
4
Famous As: 4th President of the United States
Birthdate: March 16, 1751
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Port Conway
Died: June 28, 1836

James Madison played an important role in drafting the US Constitution and the US Bill of Rights and is hailed as the Father of the Constitution. He also co-wrote The Federalist Papers, considered to be a seminal work of political science. As president, he led the country into the 1812 war and historians place him as an above-average president.

 43 William Howard Taft

William Howard Taft.
4
Famous As: President of the U.S.A
Birthdate: September 15, 1857
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Cincinnati
Died: March 8, 1930

The 27th president of the United States, William Howard Taft also served as the tenth Chief Justice of the US; he is the only person in the history of the US to have held both the offices. He had a great impact as chief justice and has been regarded as the greatest US chief justices of all time.

 44 Calvin Coolidge

Calvin Coolidge.
4
Famous As: President of the U.S.A
Birthdate: July 4, 1872
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Plymouth Notch, Vermont
Died: January 5, 1933

The 30th president of the United States, Calvin Coolidge started his career as a lawyer before becoming an influential American politician. A man of few words with a dry sense of humor, Calvin Coolidge represented the middle class, which worked in his favor. Despite being a reclusive politician, Coolidge gave 520 press conferences, making himself available to reporters quite often.

 45 Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.
6
Famous As: 12th President of Turkey
Birthdate: February 26, 1954
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Kasımpaşa

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is a Turkish politician and the current president of Turkey. After founding the Justice and Development Party (AKP), he played a major role in leading the party to election victories and thereby helping AKP become a force to reckon with in Turkey. Described as an authoritarian, his government has restricted access to sites like Wikipedia and YouTube.

 46 James A. Garfield

James A. Garfield.
4
Famous As: President of the U.S.A
Birthdate: November 19, 1831
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Moreland Hills
Died: September 19, 1881

The 20th president of the United States, James A. Garfield began his career as an attorney. Born into poverty, he struggled throughout his childhood and youth to become a respected lawyer. He eventually entered politics and rose through the ranks to be elected the president. Unfortunately, he was assassinated less than seven months after he took office.

 47 Kim Il-sung

Kim Il-sung.
6
Famous As: Former President of North Korea
Birthdate: April 15, 1912
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Pyongyang
Died: July 8, 1994
Kim Il-sung, Eternal President of the Republic, ruled as North Korea’s premier from 1948 to 1972 and as its president from 1972 to 1994. He also led the Workers' Party of Korea and initiated the invasion of South Korea. He was Kim Jong-il’s father and Kim Jong-un’s grandfather.

 48 Augusto Pinochet

Augusto Pinochet.
6
Famous As: Former President of Chile
Birthdate: November 25, 1915
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Valparaíso
Died: December 10, 2006
Augusto Pinochet was the president of the Chilean Military Junta from 1973 to 1981. He ousted the elected government of President Salvador Allende through a U.S.-supported coup and became the Chilean President in December 1974. Following this, he persecuted all political opponents and leftists and also advocated for Operation Condor

 49 Otto von Bismarck

Otto von Bismarck.
4
Famous As: German Statesman
Birthdate: April 1, 1815
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Schönhausen
Died: July 30, 1898
Otto von Bismarck was a German statesman. Bismarck is credited with masterminding the unification of Germany and served as its first chancellor. He is also credited with creating the first modern welfare state in the world. Regarded as a hero by German nationalists, Otto von Bismarck's life has inspired a couple of TV series.

 50 Chiang Kai-shek

Chiang Kai-shek.
4
Famous As: President of the Republic of China
Birthdate: October 31, 1887
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Xikou
Died: April 5, 1975

Chiang Kai-shek was a Chinese revolutionary who led the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and later on in Taiwan until his death. He is credited with successfully leading the Northern Expedition against the Beiyang government, achieving Chinese unification. He was involved in a civil war with Communist Party of China, which he lost in 1949 and retreated to Taiwan.

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