The 19th century was a period marked by major political upheavals in several parts of the world. The era also witnessed increased industrialization and fast development of science and technology. The century is however best remembered as the era which witnessed the birth of some of the greatest—and most notorious—political figures to have ever emerged in human history. On one hand, the much revered pacifist Mahatma Gandhi was born in India during this century, while continents away, the would-be dictator and Nazi leader Adolf Hitler took birth in Europe. The 19th century also saw rampant war, widespread violence, and systematic abuse of certain sections of the society. This in turn gave birth to social rights activists, civil rights activists, and feminists like Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Margaret Fuller who fought for the betterment of the society. Great scientists like Albert Einstein, Marie Curie, Thomas Edison, and Louis Pasteur were also born in this century as were the famous writers Charles Dickens, Walt Whitman, Oscar Wilde, and Emily Bronte. Read on to learn more about the life and works of famous people of the 19th century.
Mahatma GandhiMahatma Gandhi
(Leader of Indian Independence Movement)

02 October 1869

Indian

Adolf HitlerAdolf Hitler
(Nazi Leader, German Dictator and Chancellor of Germany)

20 April 1889

German

Queen Victoria Queen Victoria
(Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland)

24 May 1819

British

Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein
(Father of Modern Physics)

14 March 1879

German,American

Winston ChurchillWinston Churchill
(Prime Minister of the United Kingdom)

30 November 1874

British

Abraham LincolnAbraham Lincoln
(American President.)

12 February 1809

American

Joseph StalinJoseph Stalin
(Communist Revolutionary & Ruler of former USSR)

18 December 1878

Georgian,Russian

Jawaharlal NehruJawaharlal Nehru
(First PM of India & Freedom Fighter)

14 November 1889

Indian

Charles DickensCharles Dickens
(Writer)

07 February 1812

British

Nikola TeslaNikola Tesla
(Father of Radio)

10 July 1856

American

Theodore RooseveltTheodore Roosevelt
(26th U.S. President)

27 October 1858

American

Ernest HemingwayErnest Hemingway
(Writer)

21 July 1899

American

Vincent van GoghVincent van Gogh
(Painter)

30 March 1853

French,Dutch

J. Paul GettyJ. Paul Getty
(Businessman)

15 December 1892

British,American

Srinivasa RamanujanSrinivasa Ramanujan
(Mathematician)

22 December 1887

Indian

Edward VIIEdward VII
(King of United Kingdom)

09 November 1841

British

Dwight D. EisenhowerDwight D. Eisenhower
(34th U.S. President)

14 October 1890

American

Charlie ChaplinCharlie Chaplin

16 April 1889

British

B. R. AmbedkarB. R. Ambedkar

14 April 1891

Indian

Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso
(Painter)

25 October 1881

Spanish

Karl MarxKarl Marx
(Economist, Philosopher)

05 May 1818

German,French,British,Prussian

Marie CurieMarie Curie
(First woman to win a Nobel Prize)

07 November 1867

Polish

Thomas EdisonThomas Edison
(Inventor, Businessman)

11 February 1847

American

Ludwig van BeethovenLudwig van Beethoven
(Composer)

16 December 1770

German

Grigori RasputinGrigori Rasputin
(Peasant, Mystical Faith healer)

21 January 1869

Russian

Edgar Allan PoeEdgar Allan Poe
(Author, Poet, Editor and Literary Critic)

19 January 1809

American

Oscar WildeOscar Wilde
(Playwright)

16 October 1854

Irish

Benito MussoliniBenito Mussolini
(Former Duce)

29 July 1883

Italian

Harry S. TrumanHarry S. Truman
(33rd President of the United States)

08 May 1884

American

Subhas Chandra BoseSubhas Chandra Bose

23 January 1897

Indian

Lizzie BordenLizzie Borden

19 July 1860

American

J. R. R. TolkienJ. R. R. Tolkien
(Writer, Poet)

03 January 1892

British

Friedrich NietzscheFriedrich Nietzsche
(Philosopher and Philologist)

15 October 1844

German

Helen KellerHelen Keller
(Writer, Member of Socialist Party of America, Campaigner of socialism, women’s suffrage and several leftist social causes)

27 June 1880

American

Wyatt EarpWyatt Earp

19 March 1848

American

Babe RuthBabe Ruth

06 February 1895

American

Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud
(Neurologist, Psychiatrist)

06 May 1856

Austrian

Vladimir LeninVladimir Lenin
(Russian Revolutionary & Head of Communist Party)

22 April 1870

Russian

Mao ZedongMao Zedong
(Communist Leader of China)

26 December 1893

Chinese

Agatha ChristieAgatha Christie

15 September 1890

British

Rabindranath TagoreRabindranath Tagore
(Poet and Author)

07 May 1861

Indian

John French, 1st Earl of YpresJohn French, 1st Earl of Ypres
(British Army Officer)

28 September 1852

British

Mark TwainMark Twain
(Author and Humorist)

30 November 1835

American

Ulysses S. GrantUlysses S. Grant
(President of the U.S.A)

27 April 1822

American

Woodrow WilsonWoodrow Wilson
(Father of the League of Nations)

28 December 1856

American

Dadasaheb PhalkeDadasaheb Phalke
(Father of Indian Cinema)

30 April 1870

Indian

Charles DarwinCharles Darwin
(Naturalist, Geologist)

12 February 1809

British

Swami VivekanandaSwami Vivekananda
(Leader)

12 January 1863

Indian

John D. RockefellerJohn D. Rockefeller
(Businessman)

08 July 1839

American

Aleister CrowleyAleister Crowley

12 October 1875

British

Leon TrotskyLeon Trotsky
(Founder and first leader of the Red Army)

07 November 1879

Russian,Ukrainian,Russian

Jenny LindJenny Lind
(Opera Singer)

06 October 1820

Swedish

Joseph GoebbelsJoseph Goebbels
(German Nazi politician)

29 October 1897

German

Doc HollidayDoc Holliday
(Gambler, Gunfighter)

14 August 1851

American

Frederick DouglassFrederick Douglass
(American orator)

01 February 1818

American

Fred AstaireFred Astaire
(Dancer)

10 May 1899

American

Herbert HooverHerbert Hoover
(31st U.S. President)

10 August 1874

American

Henry FordHenry Ford
(Businessman)

30 July 1863

American

Andrew CarnegieAndrew Carnegie
(Industrialist, Businessman, Entrepreneur and a major Philanthropist.)

25 November 1835

American,Scottish

Albert, Prince ConsortAlbert, Prince Consort
(Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha)

26 August 1819

German

Robert E. LeeRobert E. Lee
(Confederate General in the American Civil War)

19 January 1807

American

Alfred HitchcockAlfred Hitchcock
(Film Director and Producer)

13 August 1899

British

J. Edgar HooverJ. Edgar Hoover
(First Director of FBI)

01 January 1895

American

Andrew Johnson - 17 President of the United States of America From April 15, 1865 to March 4, 1869Andrew Johnson

29 December 1808

American

Ada LovelaceAda Lovelace
(Countess of Lovelace)

10 December 1815

British

Nikita KhrushchevNikita Khrushchev
(Prime Minister of Soviet Union)

15 April 1894

Russian,Russian

Rudyard KiplingRudyard Kipling
(Author & Poet)

30 December 1865

British

Coco ChanelCoco Chanel
(Fashion Designer)

19 August 1883

French

Mary of TeckMary of Teck
(Former Queen of the United Kingdom)

26 May 1867

British

Alexander Graham BellAlexander Graham Bell
(Inventor of Telephone)

03 March 1847

Canadian,Scottish

Humphrey BogartHumphrey Bogart
(Actor)

25 December 1899

American

Muhammad Ali JinnahMuhammad Ali Jinnah

25 December 1876

Pakistani

Grover ClevelandGrover Cleveland
(President of the U.S.A)

18 March 1837

American

Colonel SandersColonel Sanders
(Founder of KFC)

09 September 1890

American

William Howard TaftWilliam Howard Taft
(President of the U.S.A)

15 September 1857

American