The 19th century was a period marked by major political upheavals in several parts of the world. The era also witnessed increased industrialization and fast development of science and technology. The century is however best remembered as the era which witnessed the birth of some of the greatest—and most notorious—political figures to have ever emerged in human history. On one hand, the much revered pacifist Mahatma Gandhi was born in India during this century, while continents away, the would-be dictator and Nazi leader Adolf Hitler took birth in Europe. The 19th century also saw rampant war, widespread violence, and systematic abuse of certain sections of the society. This in turn gave birth to social rights activists, civil rights activists, and feminists like Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Margaret Fuller who fought for the betterment of the society. Great scientists like Albert Einstein, Marie Curie, Thomas Edison, and Louis Pasteur were also born in this century as were the famous writers Charles Dickens, Walt Whitman, Oscar Wilde, and Emily Bronte. Read on to learn more about the life and works of famous people of the 19th century.
Elizabeth Schuyler HamiltonElizabeth Schuyler Hamilton
09 August 1757, American
Alexander Hamilton's Wife
Thomas JeffersonThomas Jefferson
13 April 1743, American
3rd U.S. President

Abraham LincolnAbraham Lincoln
12 February 1809, American
American President.

Marie CurieMarie Curie
07 November 1867, French, Polish
First woman to win a Nobel Prize

Theodore RooseveltTheodore Roosevelt
27 October 1858, American
26th U.S. President

Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein
14 March 1879, German, American
Physicist
Queen Victoria Queen Victoria
24 May 1819, British
Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and

Mahatma GandhiMahatma Gandhi
02 October 1869, Indian
Leader of Indian Independence Movement

Robert E. LeeRobert E. Lee
19 January 1807, American
Confederate General in the American Civil War
John AdamsJohn Adams
30 October 1735, American
2nd U.S. President

Harriet TubmanHarriet Tubman
29 February 1822, American
Abolitionist
Andrew JacksonAndrew Jackson
15 March 1767, American
7th President of the United States

Nikola TeslaNikola Tesla
10 July 1856, Austrian, American
Inventor, Father of Radio

Ulysses S. GrantUlysses S. Grant
27 April 1822, American
18th U.S. President

Ludwig van BeethovenLudwig van Beethoven
16 December 1770, Austrian, German
Composer

Joseph StalinJoseph Stalin
18 December 1878, Georgian, Russian
Communist Revolutionary & Ruler of former USSR
George VGeorge V
03 June 1865, British
Former King of the United Kingdom

George III of the United KingdomGeorge III of the United Kingdom
04 June 1738, British
King

Man RayMan Ray
27 August 1890, American
Modernist Artist

Woodrow WilsonWoodrow Wilson
28 December 1856, American
28th U.S. President
Alexandre DumasAlexandre Dumas
24 July 1802, French
 

Charlie ChaplinCharlie Chaplin
16 April 1889, British
 
Karl MarxKarl Marx
05 May 1818, Prussian
Philosopher

Frederick DouglassFrederick Douglass
01 February 1818, American
American orator

James MadisonJames Madison
16 March 1751, American
4th President of the United States
Vincent van GoghVincent van Gogh
30 March 1853, French, Dutch
Painter

Edward VIIEdward VII
09 November 1841, British
Former King of the United Kingdom
Sally HemingsSally Hemings
1773 AD, American
Thomas Jefferson’s Slave

Helen KellerHelen Keller
27 June 1880, American
Author

Ernest HemingwayErnest Hemingway
21 July 1899, American
Journalist
Vladimir LeninVladimir Lenin
22 April 1870, Russian
Former Premier of the Soviet Union

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Leopold II of BelgiumLeopold II of Belgium
09 April 1835, Belgian
Founder of Congo Free State
J. R. R. TolkienJ. R. R. Tolkien
03 January 1892, British, South African
Writer

Mao ZedongMao Zedong
26 December 1893, Chinese
Communist Leader of China

Benito MussoliniBenito Mussolini
29 July 1883, Italian
Former Duce

Grigori RasputinGrigori Rasputin
21 January 1869, Russian
Peasant
Jefferson DavisJefferson Davis
03 June 1808, American
Former President of the Confederate States of
B. R. AmbedkarB. R. Ambedkar
14 April 1891, Indian
Indian Jurist

Susan B. AnthonySusan B. Anthony
15 February 1820, American
Women’s Rights Activist

Angelica HamiltonAngelica Hamilton
25 September 1784, American
Alexander Hamilton's Daughter

Grover ClevelandGrover Cleveland
18 March 1837, American
President of the U.S.A
Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso
25 October 1881, Spanish
Painter

Friedrich NietzscheFriedrich Nietzsche
15 October 1844, German
Philosopher

Thomas EdisonThomas Edison
11 February 1847, American
Inventor, Businessman

Madam C. J. WalkerMadam C. J. Walker
23 December 1867, American
Entrepreneur

Jawaharlal NehruJawaharlal Nehru
14 November 1889, Indian
First PM of India & Freedom Fighter
Oscar WildeOscar Wilde
16 October 1854, Irish
Playwright

J. Edgar HooverJ. Edgar Hoover
01 January 1895, American
First Director of FBI
Andrew Johnson - 17 President of the United States of America From April 15, 1865 to March 4, 1869Andrew Johnson
29 December 1808, American
 

Herbert HooverHerbert Hoover
10 August 1874, American
31st U.S. President

Warren G. HardingWarren G. Harding
02 November 1865, American
President of the U.S
Hattie McDanielHattie McDaniel
10 June 1895, American
Actress

Nathan Bedford ForrestNathan Bedford Forrest
13 July 1821, American
Military commander
J. Paul GettyJ. Paul Getty
15 December 1892, British, American
Businessman

Babe RuthBabe Ruth
06 February 1895, American
 

Leo TolstoyLeo Tolstoy
09 September 1828, Russian
 

Jack the RipperJack the Ripper
1865 AD, British
Serial Killer

John D. RockefellerJohn D. Rockefeller
08 July 1839, American
Businessman
William McKinleyWilliam McKinley
29 January 1843, American
President of the U.S.A

Subhas Chandra BoseSubhas Chandra Bose
23 January 1897, Indian
Political leader

Mary of TeckMary of Teck
26 May 1867, British
Queen consort of the United Kingdom

Wyatt EarpWyatt Earp
19 March 1848, American
 
Alfred HitchcockAlfred Hitchcock
13 August 1899, British, American
Film Director

Rabindranath TagoreRabindranath Tagore
07 May 1861, Indian
Poet
Aleister CrowleyAleister Crowley
12 October 1875, British
Occultist

Calvin CoolidgeCalvin Coolidge
04 July 1872, American
President of the U.S.A

Joseph GoebbelsJoseph Goebbels
29 October 1897, German
German Nazi politician
W. E. B. Du BoisW. E. B. Du Bois
23 February 1868, Ghanaian
Civil Rights Activists

Edgar Allan PoeEdgar Allan Poe
19 January 1809, American
Writer
Stonewall JacksonStonewall Jackson
21 January 1824, American
General

Charles DickensCharles Dickens
07 February 1812, British
Writer

Colonel SandersColonel Sanders
09 September 1890, American
Founder of KFC
Nikita KhrushchevNikita Khrushchev
15 April 1894, Russian
Former Premier of the Soviet Union

Mark Twain ImageMark Twain
30 November 1835, American
Writer
Alexander Hamilton Jr.Alexander Hamilton Jr.
26 January 1816, American
Lawyer

Lucky LucianoLucky Luciano
11 November 1897, Italian, American
Gangster

Henry FordHenry Ford
30 July 1863, American
Industrialist

Haile SelassieHaile Selassie
23 July 1892, Ethiopian
Former Emperor of Ethiopia
Pierre CuriePierre Curie
15 May 1859, French
Nobel Laureate in Physics
Charles DarwinCharles Darwin
12 February 1809, British
Naturalist

Margaret SangerMargaret Sanger
14 September 1879, American
Educator

Benjamin HarrisonBenjamin Harrison
20 August 1833, American
23rd President of the United States

Carl JungCarl Jung
26 July 1875, Swiss
Psychiatrist
William Howard TaftWilliam Howard Taft
15 September 1857, American
President of the U.S.A

Francisco FrancoFrancisco Franco
04 December 1892, Spanish
Former Caudillo of Spain

Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-PowellRobert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell
22 February 1857, British
Founder of the Scout Movement

Doc HollidayDoc Holliday
14 August 1851, American
Gambler, Gunfighter

Henry David ThoreauHenry David Thoreau
12 July 1817, American
Writer and Philosopher
Franz KafkaFranz Kafka
03 July 1883, Austrian
Novelist

Coco ChanelCoco Chanel
19 August 1883, French
Fashion Designer
Swami VivekanandaSwami Vivekananda
12 January 1863, Indian
Indian Monk

John Wilkes BoothJohn Wilkes Booth
10 May 1838, American
Assassinated Abraham Lincoln
James A. GarfieldJames A. Garfield
19 November 1831, American
President of the U.S.A
Harry HoudiniHarry Houdini
24 March 1874, Hungarian
Illusionist