The 19th century was a period marked by major political upheavals in several parts of the world. The era also witnessed increased industrialization and fast development of science and technology. The century is however best remembered as the era which witnessed the birth of some of the greatest—and most notorious—political figures to have ever emerged in human history. On one hand, the much revered pacifist Mahatma Gandhi was born in India during this century, while continents away, the would-be dictator and Nazi leader Adolf Hitler took birth in Europe. The 19th century also saw rampant war, widespread violence, and systematic abuse of certain sections of the society. This in turn gave birth to social rights activists, civil rights activists, and feminists like Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Margaret Fuller who fought for the betterment of the society. Great scientists like Albert Einstein, Marie Curie, Thomas Edison, and Louis Pasteur were also born in this century as were the famous writers Charles Dickens, Walt Whitman, Oscar Wilde, and Emily Bronte. Read on to learn more about the life and works of famous people of the 19th century.
Queen Victoria Queen Victoria
24 May 1819, British
Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein
14 March 1879, German, American
Physicist

Mahatma GandhiMahatma Gandhi
02 October 1869, Indian
Leader of Indian Independence Movement

Abraham LincolnAbraham Lincoln
12 February 1809, American
American President.

J. R. R. TolkienJ. R. R. Tolkien
03 January 1892, British
Writer, Poet

Joseph StalinJoseph Stalin
18 December 1878, Georgian, Russian
Communist Revolutionary & Ruler of former USSR
Edward VIIEdward VII
09 November 1841, British
King of United Kingdom

George VGeorge V
03 June 1865, British
Former King of the United Kingdom

David BenioffDavid Benioff
25 September 1970, American
TV Producer

Nikola TeslaNikola Tesla
10 July 1856, American
Father of Radio
Vincent van GoghVincent van Gogh
30 March 1853, French, Dutch
Painter

B. R. AmbedkarB. R. Ambedkar
14 April 1891, Indian
 
Theodore RooseveltTheodore Roosevelt
27 October 1858, American
26th U.S. President

Charlie ChaplinCharlie Chaplin
16 April 1889, British
 

Benito MussoliniBenito Mussolini
29 July 1883, Italian
Former Duce
Albert, Prince ConsortAlbert, Prince Consort
26 August 1819, German
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Marie CurieMarie Curie
07 November 1867, Polish
First woman to win a Nobel Prize
Ernest HemingwayErnest Hemingway
21 July 1899, American
Writer

Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso
25 October 1881, Spanish
Painter

Karl MarxKarl Marx
05 May 1818, Prussian
Economist, Philosopher
Jawaharlal NehruJawaharlal Nehru
14 November 1889, Indian
First PM of India & Freedom Fighter

Vladimir LeninVladimir Lenin
22 April 1870, Russian
Russian Revolutionary & Head of Communist Party
Mao ZedongMao Zedong
26 December 1893, Chinese
Communist Leader of China

Babe RuthBabe Ruth
06 February 1895, American
 

Margaret SangerMargaret Sanger
14 September 1879, American
Birth Control Activist

Oscar WildeOscar Wilde
16 October 1854, Irish
Playwright
Rabindranath TagoreRabindranath Tagore
07 May 1861, Indian
Poet and Author
Thomas EdisonThomas Edison
11 February 1847, American
Inventor, Businessman

Ludwig van BeethovenLudwig van Beethoven
16 December 1770, German
Composer

Helen KellerHelen Keller
27 June 1880, American
Writer, Member of Socialist Party of America,

Wild Bill HickokWild Bill Hickok
27 May 1837, American
Gunfighter
Srinivasa RamanujanSrinivasa Ramanujan
22 December 1887, Indian
Mathematician

Ulysses S. GrantUlysses S. Grant
27 April 1822, American
President of the U.S.A

Calamity JaneCalamity Jane
01 May 1852, American
American scout

Friedrich NietzscheFriedrich Nietzsche
15 October 1844, German
Philosopher and Philologist

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Wyatt EarpWyatt Earp
19 March 1848, American
 
Harry S. TrumanHarry S. Truman
08 May 1884, American
33rd President of the United States

Grigori RasputinGrigori Rasputin
21 January 1869, Russian
Peasant, Mystical Faith healer
Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud
06 May 1856, Austrian
Neurologist, Psychiatrist

Robert E. LeeRobert E. Lee
19 January 1807, American
Confederate General in the American Civil War

Harriet TubmanHarriet Tubman
1820 AD, American
 
Agatha ChristieAgatha Christie
15 September 1890, British
 

Edgar Allan PoeEdgar Allan Poe
19 January 1809, American
Author, Poet, Editor and Literary Critic
Charles DarwinCharles Darwin
12 February 1809, British
Naturalist, Geologist

Charles DickensCharles Dickens
07 February 1812, British
Writer

Aleister CrowleyAleister Crowley
12 October 1875, British
 

John D. RockefellerJohn D. Rockefeller
08 July 1839, American
Businessman

Leopold II of BelgiumLeopold II of Belgium
09 April 1835, Belgian
Founder of Congo Free State
Swami VivekanandaSwami Vivekananda
12 January 1863, Indian
Leader

Nikita KhrushchevNikita Khrushchev
15 April 1894, Russian, Russian
Prime Minister of Soviet Union

Subhas Chandra BoseSubhas Chandra Bose
23 January 1897, Indian
 

Henry FordHenry Ford
30 July 1863, American
Businessman
Doc HollidayDoc Holliday
14 August 1851, American
Gambler, Gunfighter

Mary of TeckMary of Teck
26 May 1867, British
Former Queen of the United Kingdom
Mark TwainMark Twain
30 November 1835, American
Author and Humorist

Woodrow WilsonWoodrow Wilson
28 December 1856, American
Father of the League of Nations

Joseph GoebbelsJoseph Goebbels
29 October 1897, German
German Nazi politician
Coco ChanelCoco Chanel
19 August 1883, French
Fashion Designer

Colonel SandersColonel Sanders
09 September 1890, American
Founder of KFC
Billy the KidBilly the Kid
17 November 1859, American
Gunman

Leon TrotskyLeon Trotsky
07 November 1879, Russian, Ukrainian, Russian
Founder and first leader of the Red Army

Douglas MacArthurDouglas MacArthur
26 January 1880, American
 
Victor HugoVictor Hugo
26 February 1802, French
Author & Poet

Harry HoudiniHarry Houdini
24 March 1874, Hungarian
Illusionist
Carl JungCarl Jung
26 July 1875, Swiss
Psychiatrist

Alfred HitchcockAlfred Hitchcock
13 August 1899, British
Film Director and Producer

Humphrey BogartHumphrey Bogart
25 December 1899, American
Actor

C. S. LewisC. S. Lewis
29 November 1898, Irish, British
Novelist
Florence NightingaleFlorence Nightingale
12 May 1820, British
Statistician
Muhammad Ali JinnahMuhammad Ali Jinnah
25 December 1876, Pakistani
 

H.H. Holmes H. H. Holmes
16 May 1861, American
Serial Killer

Robert FrostRobert Frost
26 March 1874, American
Poet

Haile SelassieHaile Selassie
23 July 1892, Ethiopian
Former Emperor of Ethiopia
Virginia WoolfVirginia Woolf
25 January 1882, British
Novelist

J. Paul GettyJ. Paul Getty
15 December 1892, British, American
Businessman

Lizzie BordenLizzie Borden
19 July 1860, American
 

J. Edgar HooverJ. Edgar Hoover
01 January 1895, American
First Director of FBI

Andrew Johnson - 17 President of the United States of America From April 15, 1865 to March 4, 1869Andrew Johnson
29 December 1808, American
 
F. Scott FitzgeraldF. Scott Fitzgerald
24 September 1896, American
Novelist

Francisco FrancoFrancisco Franco
04 December 1892, Spanish
Dictator of Spain
Franz KafkaFranz Kafka
03 July 1883, Austrian
Novelist

Frank Lloyd WrightFrank Lloyd Wright
08 June 1867, American
Architect

Herbert HooverHerbert Hoover
10 August 1874, American
31st U.S. President
Lucky LucianoLucky Luciano
11 November 1897, American
Gangster

John Wilkes BoothJohn Wilkes Booth
10 May 1838, American
Assassinated Abraham Lincoln
Alexander Graham BellAlexander Graham Bell
03 March 1847, Canadian, Scottish
Inventor of Telephone

Ho Chi MinhHo Chi Minh
19 May 1890, Vietnamese
Former PM and President of Democratic Republic of

P L TraversP. L. Travers
09 August 1899, Australian
Writer & Journalist

Gertrude BellGertrude Bell
14 July 1868, British
Writer, Diplomat
Grover ClevelandGrover Cleveland
18 March 1837, American
President of the U.S.A

Charles de GaulleCharles de Gaulle
22 November 1890, French
Former President of France
Leo TolstoyLeo Tolstoy
09 September 1828, Russian
 

Otto von BismarckOtto von Bismarck
01 April 1815, German
German Statesman

Louis VuittonLouis Vuitton
04 August 1821, French
Businessman

Lord ByronLord Byron
22 January 1788, British
Poet, Politician
Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek
31 October 1887, Chinese
President of the Republic of China