The 19th century was a period marked by major political upheavals in several parts of the world. The era also witnessed increased industrialization and fast development of science and technology. The century is however best remembered as the era which witnessed the birth of some of the greatest—and most notorious—political figures to have ever emerged in human history. On one hand, the much revered pacifist Mahatma Gandhi was born in India during this century, while continents away, the would-be dictator and Nazi leader Adolf Hitler took birth in Europe. The 19th century also saw rampant war, widespread violence, and systematic abuse of certain sections of the society. This in turn gave birth to social rights activists, civil rights activists, and feminists like Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Margaret Fuller who fought for the betterment of the society. Great scientists like Albert Einstein, Marie Curie, Thomas Edison, and Louis Pasteur were also born in this century as were the famous writers Charles Dickens, Walt Whitman, Oscar Wilde, and Emily Bronte. Read on to learn more about the life and works of famous people of the 19th century.
Queen Victoria Queen Victoria
24 May 1819, British
Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Edward VIIIEdward VIII
23 June 1894, British
King of United Kingdom

George VGeorge V
03 June 1865, British
Former King of the United Kingdom

Ernest HemingwayErnest Hemingway
21 July 1899, American
Journalist

Edward VIIEdward VII
09 November 1841, British
Former King of the United Kingdom

Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein
14 March 1879, German, American
Physicist
F D RooseveltF D Roosevelt
30 January 1882, American
32nd President of the United States

Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
02 February 1882, Greek
Son of King of Greece and Denmark, King George I

Abraham LincolnAbraham Lincoln
12 February 1809, American
American President.
Mahatma GandhiMahatma Gandhi
02 October 1869, Indian
Leader of Indian Independence Movement

Joseph StalinJoseph Stalin
18 December 1878, Russian
Communist Revolutionary & Ruler of former USSR
B. R. AmbedkarB. R. Ambedkar
14 April 1891, Indian
Indian Jurist

Marie CurieMarie Curie
07 November 1867, French, Polish
Physicist

Grigori RasputinGrigori Rasputin
21 January 1869, Russian
Peasant

Mary of TeckMary of Teck
26 May 1867, British
Queen consort of the United Kingdom

Nikola TeslaNikola Tesla
10 July 1856, Austrian, American
Inventor
Charlie ChaplinCharlie Chaplin
16 April 1889, British
 

Vincent van GoghVincent van Gogh
30 March 1853, French, Dutch
Painter

Theodore RooseveltTheodore Roosevelt
27 October 1858, American
26th U.S. President

George III of the United KingdomGeorge III of the United Kingdom
04 June 1738, British
King
Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso
25 October 1881, Spanish
Painter

Benito MussoliniBenito Mussolini
29 July 1883, Italian
Former Duce
Karl MarxKarl Marx
05 May 1818, German
Philosopher

Mao ZedongMao Zedong
26 December 1893, Chinese
Communist Leader of China

Helen KellerHelen Keller
27 June 1880, American
Author
J. R. R. TolkienJ. R. R. Tolkien
03 January 1892, British, South African
Writer

Anthony EdenAnthony Eden
12 June 1897, British
Prime Minister of UK
Nicholas IINicholas II
18 May 1868, Russian
 

Vladimir LeninVladimir Lenin
22 April 1870, Russian
Former Premier of the Soviet Union

Babe RuthBabe Ruth
06 February 1895, American
 
Harriet TubmanHarriet Tubman
29 February 1822, American
Abolitionist

Continue Reading Below
Thomas JeffersonThomas Jefferson
13 April 1743, American
3rd U.S. President
Ludwig van BeethovenLudwig van Beethoven
16 December 1770, Austrian, German
Composer, Pianist

George IV of the United KingdomGeorge IV of the United Kingdom
12 August 1762, British
King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and

Thomas EdisonThomas Edison
11 February 1847, American
Inventor, Businessman

Albert, Prince ConsortAlbert, Prince Consort
26 August 1819, German, British
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Husband of Queen
Rabindranath TagoreRabindranath Tagore
07 May 1861, Indian
Poet
Jack the RipperJack the Ripper
1865 AD, British
Serial Killer

Oscar WildeOscar Wilde
16 October 1854, Irish
Playwright, Poet & Novelist

Friedrich NietzscheFriedrich Nietzsche
15 October 1844, German
Philosopher

Wilhelm IIWilhelm II
27 January 1859, German
Emperor of Germany
Jawaharlal NehruJawaharlal Nehru
14 November 1889, Indian
First PM of India & Freedom Fighter

Charlotte of Mecklenburg-StrelitzCharlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
19 May 1744, British
Queen Consort of Great Britain and Ireland

Ulysses S. GrantUlysses S. Grant
27 April 1822, American
18th U.S. President

Wyatt EarpWyatt Earp
19 March 1848, American
 

George I of GreeceGeorge I of Greece
24 December 1845, Greek
King of Greece
John D. RockefellerJohn D. Rockefeller
08 July 1839, American
Businessman

Andrew JacksonAndrew Jackson
15 March 1767, American
7th President of the United States
Nikita KhrushchevNikita Khrushchev
15 April 1894, Russian
Former Premier of the Soviet Union

John AdamsJohn Adams
30 October 1735, American
2nd U.S. President

Edgar Allan PoeEdgar Allan Poe
19 January 1809, American
Writer
Alfred HitchcockAlfred Hitchcock
13 August 1899, British, American
Film Director

Joseph GoebbelsJoseph Goebbels
29 October 1897, German
German Nazi politician
Hermann GoringHermann Goring
12 January 1893, German
German Military Leader

Woodrow WilsonWoodrow Wilson
28 December 1856, American
28th U.S. President

Princess Alice of the United KingdomPrincess Alice of the United Kingdom
25 April 1843, British
Princess of the United Kingdom

J. Edgar HooverJ. Edgar Hoover
01 January 1895, American
First Director of FBI

Charles DarwinCharles Darwin
12 February 1809, British
Naturalist
John BrownJohn Brown
09 May 1800, American
Abolitionist

Charles DickensCharles Dickens
07 February 1812, British
Writer

Mark Twain ImageMark Twain
30 November 1835, American
Writer

Eleanor RooseveltEleanor Roosevelt
11 October 1884, American
Former First Lady of the United States
Aleister CrowleyAleister Crowley
12 October 1875, British
Occultist

Carl JungCarl Jung
26 July 1875, Swiss
Psychiatrist
Warren G. HardingWarren G. Harding
02 November 1865, American
President of the U.S

Emily DickinsonEmily Dickinson
10 December 1830, American
Poet

Colonel SandersColonel Sanders
09 September 1890, American
Founder of KFC
George PattonGeorge Patton
11 November 1885, German, American
Military Officer

Doc HollidayDoc Holliday
14 August 1851, American
Gambler, Gunfighter
F. Scott FitzgeraldF. Scott Fitzgerald
24 September 1896, American
Novelist

Douglas MacArthurDouglas MacArthur
26 January 1880, American
 

Henry FordHenry Ford
30 July 1863, American
Industrialist
Virginia WoolfVirginia Woolf
25 January 1882, British
Novelist

Frederick DouglassFrederick Douglass
01 February 1818, American
American orator
Swami VivekanandaSwami Vivekananda
12 January 1863, Indian
Indian Monk

Herbert HooverHerbert Hoover
10 August 1874, American
31st U.S. President

Leo TolstoyLeo Tolstoy
09 September 1828, Russian
 

Francisco FrancoFrancisco Franco
04 December 1892, Spanish
Former Caudillo of Spain
Mustafa Kemal AtaturkMustafa Kemal Ataturk
19 May 1881, Turkish
Founder of the Republic of Turkey,
Robert E. LeeRobert E. Lee
19 January 1807, American
Confederate General in the American Civil War

Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek
31 October 1887, Chinese
President of the Republic of China

H.H. Holmes H. H. Holmes
16 May 1861, American
Serial Killer

William Randolph HearstWilliam Randolph Hearst
29 April 1863, American
Newspaper Baron
Joseph Smith Jr.Joseph Smith Jr.
23 December 1805, American
1st President of the Church of Christ (later the

Mata HariMata Hari
07 August 1876, Dutch
Dutch exotic dancer

C. S. LewisC. S. Lewis
29 November 1898, Irish, British
Writer

Haile SelassieHaile Selassie
23 July 1892, Ethiopian
Former Emperor of Ethiopia

Franz KafkaFranz Kafka
03 July 1883, Austrian
Novelist
P. T.  BarnumP. T. Barnum
05 July 1810, American
American politician

Orville WrightOrville Wright
19 August 1871, American
Co-inventor of First Successful Airplane
Coco ChanelCoco Chanel
19 August 1883, French
Fashion Designer

Subhas Chandra BoseSubhas Chandra Bose
23 January 1897, Indian
Political leader
Jeanne CalmentJeanne Calment
21 February 1875, French
Oldest Person Ever
Lucky LucianoLucky Luciano
11 November 1897, Italian, American
Gangster