The 19th century was a period marked by major political upheavals in several parts of the world. The era also witnessed increased industrialization and fast development of science and technology. The century is however best remembered as the era which witnessed the birth of some of the greatest—and most notorious—political figures to have ever emerged in human history. On one hand, the much revered pacifist Mahatma Gandhi was born in India during this century, while continents away, the would-be dictator and Nazi leader Adolf Hitler took birth in Europe. The 19th century also saw rampant war, widespread violence, and systematic abuse of certain sections of the society. This in turn gave birth to social rights activists, civil rights activists, and feminists like Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Margaret Fuller who fought for the betterment of the society. Great scientists like Albert Einstein, Marie Curie, Thomas Edison, and Louis Pasteur were also born in this century as were the famous writers Charles Dickens, Walt Whitman, Oscar Wilde, and Emily Bronte. Read on to learn more about the life and works of famous people of the 19th century.
Mahatma GandhiMahatma Gandhi
02 October 1869, Indian
Leader of Indian Independence Movement
Queen Victoria Queen Victoria
24 May 1819, British
Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and

Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein
14 March 1879, German, American
Physicist

George VGeorge V
03 June 1865, British
Former King of the United Kingdom

Abraham LincolnAbraham Lincoln
12 February 1809, American
American President.

Nikola TeslaNikola Tesla
10 July 1856, Austrian, American
Inventor, Father of Radio
Joseph StalinJoseph Stalin
18 December 1878, Georgian, Russian
Communist Revolutionary & Ruler of former USSR

Grigori RasputinGrigori Rasputin
21 January 1869, Russian
Peasant, Mystical Faith healer

Edward VIIEdward VII
09 November 1841, British
Former King of the United Kingdom

Theodore RooseveltTheodore Roosevelt
27 October 1858, American
26th U.S. President
J. R. R. TolkienJ. R. R. Tolkien
03 January 1892, British, South African
Writer

Charlie ChaplinCharlie Chaplin
16 April 1889, British
 
Jawaharlal NehruJawaharlal Nehru
14 November 1889, Indian
First PM of India & Freedom Fighter

Thomas EdisonThomas Edison
11 February 1847, American
Inventor, Businessman

Vincent van GoghVincent van Gogh
30 March 1853, French, Dutch
Painter
Sarvepalli RadhakrishnanSarvepalli Radhakrishnan
05 September 1888, Indian
Confident, Ambitious

Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso
25 October 1881, Spanish
Painter
B. R. AmbedkarB. R. Ambedkar
14 April 1891, Indian
Indian jurist

Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud
06 May 1856, Austrian
Neurologist, Psychiatrist

Harriet TubmanHarriet Tubman
1820 AD, American
 
Karl MarxKarl Marx
05 May 1818, Prussian
Economist, Philosopher

Mao ZedongMao Zedong
26 December 1893, Chinese
Communist Leader of China
Ernest HemingwayErnest Hemingway
21 July 1899, American
Journalist

Marie CurieMarie Curie
07 November 1867, French, Polish
First woman to win a Nobel Prize

Colonel SandersColonel Sanders
09 September 1890, American
Founder of KFC

Edgar Allan PoeEdgar Allan Poe
19 January 1809, American
Author, Poet, Editor and Literary Critic
Benito MussoliniBenito Mussolini
29 July 1883, Italian
Former Duce
Helen KellerHelen Keller
27 June 1880, American
Writer, Member of Socialist Party of America,

Ludwig van BeethovenLudwig van Beethoven
16 December 1770, German
Composer

Subhas Chandra BoseSubhas Chandra Bose
23 January 1897, Indian
 

Srinivasa RamanujanSrinivasa Ramanujan
22 December 1887, Indian
Mathematician
Vladimir LeninVladimir Lenin
22 April 1870, Russian
Russian Revolutionary & Head of Communist Party

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Rabindranath TagoreRabindranath Tagore
07 May 1861, Indian
Poet and Author

Friedrich NietzscheFriedrich Nietzsche
15 October 1844, German
Philosopher and Philologist

John D. RockefellerJohn D. Rockefeller
08 July 1839, American
Businessman

Swami VivekanandaSwami Vivekananda
12 January 1863, Indian
Leader
Harry S. TrumanHarry S. Truman
08 May 1884, American
33rd President of the United States

Oscar WildeOscar Wilde
16 October 1854, Irish
Playwright
Andrew Johnson - 17 President of the United States of America From April 15, 1865 to March 4, 1869Andrew Johnson
29 December 1808, American
 

Charles DarwinCharles Darwin
12 February 1809, British
Naturalist, Geologist

Charles DickensCharles Dickens
07 February 1812, British
Writer
Humphrey BogartHumphrey Bogart
25 December 1899, American
Actor

Francisco FrancoFrancisco Franco
04 December 1892, Spanish
Dictator of Spain
Duke EllingtonDuke Ellington
29 April 1899, American
Composer, Pianist and Bandleader

Ulysses S. GrantUlysses S. Grant
27 April 1822, American
President of the U.S.A

Muhammad Ali JinnahMuhammad Ali Jinnah
25 December 1876, Pakistani
Founder of Pakistan

Babe RuthBabe Ruth
06 February 1895, American
 

Alfred HitchcockAlfred Hitchcock
13 August 1899, British
Film Director and Producer
Agatha ChristieAgatha Christie
15 September 1890, British
 

Wyatt EarpWyatt Earp
19 March 1848, American
 

Lizzie BordenLizzie Borden
19 July 1860, American
 

Woodrow WilsonWoodrow Wilson
28 December 1856, American
Father of the League of Nations
Henry FordHenry Ford
30 July 1863, American
Businessman

Joseph GoebbelsJoseph Goebbels
29 October 1897, German
German Nazi politician
Coco ChanelCoco Chanel
19 August 1883, French
Fashion Designer

Mark TwainMark Twain
30 November 1835, American
Author and Humorist

Emily DickinsonEmily Dickinson
10 December 1830, American
Poet
Aleister CrowleyAleister Crowley
12 October 1875, British
 

Leon TrotskyLeon Trotsky
07 November 1879, Russian, Ukrainian, Russian
Founder and first leader of the Red Army
Doc HollidayDoc Holliday
14 August 1851, American
Gambler, Gunfighter

Mary of TeckMary of Teck
26 May 1867, British
Former Queen of the United Kingdom

Albert, Prince ConsortAlbert, Prince Consort
26 August 1819, German, British
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Husband of Queen
Carl JungCarl Jung
26 July 1875, Swiss
Psychiatrist

Harry HoudiniHarry Houdini
24 March 1874, Hungarian
Illusionist
Herbert HooverHerbert Hoover
10 August 1874, American
31st U.S. President

Sai Baba of ShirdiSai Baba of Shirdi
28 September 1835, Indian
Spiritual Guru

William McKinleyWilliam McKinley
29 January 1843, American
President of the U.S.A

Andrew CarnegieAndrew Carnegie
25 November 1835, American, Scottish
Industrialist, Businessman, Entrepreneur and a
Lucky LucianoLucky Luciano
11 November 1897, American
Gangster
J. Edgar HooverJ. Edgar Hoover
01 January 1895, American
First Director of FBI

Franz KafkaFranz Kafka
03 July 1883, Austrian
Novelist

Alexander Graham BellAlexander Graham Bell
03 March 1847, Canadian, Scottish
Inventor of Telephone

Virginia WoolfVirginia Woolf
25 January 1882, British
Novelist
C. S. LewisC. S. Lewis
29 November 1898, Irish, British
Novelist

H.H. Holmes H. H. Holmes
16 May 1861, American
Serial Killer

Billy the KidBilly the Kid
17 November 1859, American
Gunman

Nikita KhrushchevNikita Khrushchev
15 April 1894, Russian, Russian
Prime Minister of Soviet Union

Ada LovelaceAda Lovelace
10 December 1815, British
Countess of Lovelace
Anthony EdenAnthony Eden
12 June 1897, British
Prime Minister of UK

Ishwar Chandra VidyasagarIshwar Chandra Vidyasagar
26 September 1820, Indian
Social Reformer, Philosopher
Florence NightingaleFlorence Nightingale
12 May 1820, British
Statistician

Douglas MacArthurDouglas MacArthur
26 January 1880, American
 

Leo TolstoyLeo Tolstoy
09 September 1828, Russian
 
Otto von BismarckOtto von Bismarck
01 April 1815, German
German Statesman

Robert E. LeeRobert E. Lee
19 January 1807, American
Confederate General in the American Civil War
Frank Lloyd WrightFrank Lloyd Wright
08 June 1867, American
Architect

J. Paul GettyJ. Paul Getty
15 December 1892, British, American
Businessman

James MadisonJames Madison
16 March 1751, American
4th President of the United States

Louis VuittonLouis Vuitton
04 August 1821, French
Businessman
T. E. LawrenceT. E. Lawrence
16 August 1888, British
Archaeologist

Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek
31 October 1887, Chinese
President of the Republic of China
Grover ClevelandGrover Cleveland
18 March 1837, American
President of the U.S.A

Gertrude BellGertrude Bell
14 July 1868, British
Writer, Diplomat
J. P. MorganJ. P. Morgan
17 April 1837, American
Financier and Banker

F. Scott FitzgeraldF. Scott Fitzgerald
24 September 1896, American
Novelist
Buster KeatonBuster Keaton
04 October 1895, American