The 19th century was a period marked by major political upheavals in several parts of the world. The era also witnessed increased industrialization and fast development of science and technology. The century is however best remembered as the era which witnessed the birth of some of the greatest—and most notorious—political figures to have ever emerged in human history. On one hand, the much revered pacifist Mahatma Gandhi was born in India during this century, while continents away, the would-be dictator and Nazi leader Adolf Hitler took birth in Europe. The 19th century also saw rampant war, widespread violence, and systematic abuse of certain sections of the society. This in turn gave birth to social rights activists, civil rights activists, and feminists like Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Margaret Fuller who fought for the betterment of the society. Great scientists like Albert Einstein, Marie Curie, Thomas Edison, and Louis Pasteur were also born in this century as were the famous writers Charles Dickens, Walt Whitman, Oscar Wilde, and Emily Bronte. Read on to learn more about the life and works of famous people of the 19th century.
Queen Victoria Queen Victoria
(Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland)

24 May 1819

British

Mahatma GandhiMahatma Gandhi
(Leader of Indian Independence Movement)

02 October 1869

Indian

Abraham LincolnAbraham Lincoln
(American President.)

12 February 1809

American

Winston ChurchillWinston Churchill
(Prime Minister of the United Kingdom)

30 November 1874

British

Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein
(Father of Modern Physics)

14 March 1879

German,American

Edward VIIEdward VII
(King of United Kingdom)

09 November 1841

British

Joseph StalinJoseph Stalin
(Communist Revolutionary & Ruler of former USSR)

18 December 1878

Georgian,Russian

George VGeorge V
(Former King of the United Kingdom)

03 June 1865

British

Nikola TeslaNikola Tesla
(Father of Radio)

10 July 1856

American

Theodore RooseveltTheodore Roosevelt
(26th U.S. President)

27 October 1858

American

Vincent van GoghVincent van Gogh
(Painter)

30 March 1853

French,Dutch

Charles DickensCharles Dickens
(Writer)

07 February 1812

British

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Subhas Chandra BoseSubhas Chandra Bose

23 January 1897

Indian

Karl MarxKarl Marx
(Economist, Philosopher)

05 May 1818

German,French,British,Prussian

Ernest HemingwayErnest Hemingway
(Writer)

21 July 1899

American

Srinivasa RamanujanSrinivasa Ramanujan
(Mathematician)

22 December 1887

Indian

Charlie ChaplinCharlie Chaplin

16 April 1889

British

B. R. AmbedkarB. R. Ambedkar

14 April 1891

Indian

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Thomas EdisonThomas Edison
(Inventor, Businessman)

11 February 1847

American

Swami VivekanandaSwami Vivekananda
(Leader)

12 January 1863

Indian

Albert, Prince ConsortAlbert, Prince Consort
(Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha)

26 August 1819

German

Agatha ChristieAgatha Christie

15 September 1890

British

Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso
(Painter)

25 October 1881

Spanish

Jawaharlal NehruJawaharlal Nehru
(First PM of India & Freedom Fighter)

14 November 1889

Indian

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J. R. R. TolkienJ. R. R. Tolkien
(Writer, Poet)

03 January 1892

British

Ludwig van BeethovenLudwig van Beethoven
(Composer)

16 December 1770

German

Benito MussoliniBenito Mussolini
(Former Duce)

29 July 1883

Italian

Helen KellerHelen Keller
(Writer, Member of Socialist Party of America, Campaigner of socialism, women’s suffrage and several leftist social causes)

27 June 1880

American

Nellie BlyNellie Bly
(Journalist)

05 May 1864

American

Wyatt EarpWyatt Earp

19 March 1848

American

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Marie CurieMarie Curie
(First woman to win a Nobel Prize)

07 November 1867

Polish

Harry S. TrumanHarry S. Truman
(33rd President of the United States)

08 May 1884

American

Vladimir LeninVladimir Lenin
(Russian Revolutionary & Head of Communist Party)

22 April 1870

Russian

Grigori RasputinGrigori Rasputin
(Peasant, Mystical Faith healer)

21 January 1869

Russian

Mao ZedongMao Zedong
(Communist Leader of China)

26 December 1893

Chinese

Leon TrotskyLeon Trotsky
(Founder and first leader of the Red Army)

07 November 1879

Russian,Ukrainian,Russian

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Lizzie BordenLizzie Borden

19 July 1860

American

Frederick DouglassFrederick Douglass
(American orator)

01 February 1818

American

Friedrich NietzscheFriedrich Nietzsche
(Philosopher and Philologist)

15 October 1844

German

Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud
(Neurologist, Psychiatrist)

06 May 1856

Austrian

Charles DarwinCharles Darwin
(Naturalist, Geologist)

12 February 1809

British

Oscar WildeOscar Wilde
(Playwright)

16 October 1854

Irish

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Rabindranath TagoreRabindranath Tagore
(Poet and Author)

07 May 1861

Indian

Woodrow WilsonWoodrow Wilson
(Father of the League of Nations)

28 December 1856

American

Ulysses S. GrantUlysses S. Grant
(President of the U.S.A)

27 April 1822

American

John D. RockefellerJohn D. Rockefeller
(Businessman)

08 July 1839

American

Doc HollidayDoc Holliday
(Gambler, Gunfighter)

14 August 1851

American

Edgar Allan PoeEdgar Allan Poe
(Author, Poet, Editor and Literary Critic)

19 January 1809

American

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Coco ChanelCoco Chanel
(Fashion Designer)

19 August 1883

French

J. Paul GettyJ. Paul Getty
(Businessman)

15 December 1892

British,American

Mark TwainMark Twain
(Author and Humorist)

30 November 1835

American

Jenny LindJenny Lind
(Opera Singer)

06 October 1820

Swedish

Fred AstaireFred Astaire
(Dancer)

10 May 1899

American

Herbert HooverHerbert Hoover
(31st U.S. President)

10 August 1874

American

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Humphrey BogartHumphrey Bogart
(Actor)

25 December 1899

American

Harriet TubmanHarriet Tubman

1820 AD

American

Babe RuthBabe Ruth

06 February 1895

American

Grover ClevelandGrover Cleveland
(President of the U.S.A)

18 March 1837

American

Harry HoudiniHarry Houdini
(Illusionist)

24 March 1874

Hungarian

Henry FordHenry Ford
(Businessman)

30 July 1863

American

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Nikita KhrushchevNikita Khrushchev
(Prime Minister of Soviet Union)

15 April 1894

Russian,Russian

Joseph GoebbelsJoseph Goebbels
(German Nazi politician)

29 October 1897

German

H.H. Holmes H. H. Holmes
(Serial Killer)

16 May 1861

American

Mary of TeckMary of Teck
(Former Queen of the United Kingdom)

26 May 1867

British

Andrew Johnson - 17 President of the United States of America From April 15, 1865 to March 4, 1869Andrew Johnson

29 December 1808

American

C. S. LewisC. S. Lewis
(Novelist)

29 November 1898

Irish,British

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J. Edgar HooverJ. Edgar Hoover
(First Director of FBI)

01 January 1895

American

P L TraversP. L. Travers
(Writer & Journalist)

09 August 1899

Australian

Aleister CrowleyAleister Crowley

12 October 1875

British

Florence NightingaleFlorence Nightingale

12 May 1820

British

Robert E. LeeRobert E. Lee
(Confederate General in the American Civil War)

19 January 1807

American

William McKinleyWilliam McKinley
(President of the U.S.A)

29 January 1843

American

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Warren G. HardingWarren G. Harding
(President of the U.S)

02 November 1865

American

Alfred HitchcockAlfred Hitchcock
(Film Director and Producer)

13 August 1899

British

Muhammad Ali JinnahMuhammad Ali Jinnah

25 December 1876

Pakistani