The 19th century was a period marked by major political upheavals in several parts of the world. The era also witnessed increased industrialization and fast development of science and technology. The century is however best remembered as the era which witnessed the birth of some of the greatest—and most notorious—political figures to have ever emerged in human history. On one hand, the much revered pacifist Mahatma Gandhi was born in India during this century, while continents away, the would-be dictator and Nazi leader Adolf Hitler took birth in Europe. The 19th century also saw rampant war, widespread violence, and systematic abuse of certain sections of the society. This in turn gave birth to social rights activists, civil rights activists, and feminists like Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Margaret Fuller who fought for the betterment of the society. Great scientists like Albert Einstein, Marie Curie, Thomas Edison, and Louis Pasteur were also born in this century as were the famous writers Charles Dickens, Walt Whitman, Oscar Wilde, and Emily Bronte. Read on to learn more about the life and works of famous people of the 19th century.
Abraham LincolnAbraham Lincoln
12 February 1809, American
American President.
Queen Victoria Queen Victoria
24 May 1819, British
Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and

Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein
14 March 1879, German, American
Physicist

Joseph StalinJoseph Stalin
18 December 1878, Georgian, Russian
Communist Revolutionary & Ruler of former USSR

Ulysses S. GrantUlysses S. Grant
27 April 1822, American
18th U.S. President

Theodore RooseveltTheodore Roosevelt
27 October 1858, American
26th U.S. President
Madam C. J. WalkerMadam C. J. Walker
23 December 1867, American
Entrepreneur

Mahatma GandhiMahatma Gandhi
02 October 1869, Indian
Leader of Indian Independence Movement

George VGeorge V
03 June 1865, British
Former King of the United Kingdom
Robert E. LeeRobert E. Lee
19 January 1807, American
Confederate General in the American Civil War

Ludwig van BeethovenLudwig van Beethoven
16 December 1770, Austrian, German
Composer
Nikola TeslaNikola Tesla
10 July 1856, Austrian, American
Inventor, Father of Radio

Andrew JacksonAndrew Jackson
15 March 1767, American
7th President of the United States

Vincent van GoghVincent van Gogh
30 March 1853, French, Dutch
Painter

Edward VIIEdward VII
09 November 1841, British
Former King of the United Kingdom

B. R. AmbedkarB. R. Ambedkar
14 April 1891, Indian
Indian Jurist
J. R. R. TolkienJ. R. R. Tolkien
03 January 1892, British, South African
Writer

Charlie ChaplinCharlie Chaplin
16 April 1889, British
 

Woodrow WilsonWoodrow Wilson
28 December 1856, American
28th U.S. President

Karl MarxKarl Marx
05 May 1818, Prussian
Economist, Philosopher
Thomas JeffersonThomas Jefferson
13 April 1743, American
3rd U.S. President

Mao ZedongMao Zedong
26 December 1893, Chinese
Communist Leader of China
Benito MussoliniBenito Mussolini
29 July 1883, Italian
Former Duce

Vladimir LeninVladimir Lenin
22 April 1870, Russian
Former Premier of the Soviet Union

Helen KellerHelen Keller
27 June 1880, American
Author
Marie CurieMarie Curie
07 November 1867, French, Polish
First woman to win a Nobel Prize

Ernest HemingwayErnest Hemingway
21 July 1899, American
Journalist
George III of the United KingdomGeorge III of the United Kingdom
04 June 1738, British
King

Hattie McDanielHattie McDaniel
10 June 1895, American
Actress

Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso
25 October 1881, Spanish
Painter
Florence NightingaleFlorence Nightingale
12 May 1820, British
Founder of Modern Nursing

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Harriet TubmanHarriet Tubman
29 February 1822, American
Abolitionist
Thomas EdisonThomas Edison
11 February 1847, American
Inventor, Businessman

Grigori RasputinGrigori Rasputin
21 January 1869, Russian
Peasant

Leopold II of BelgiumLeopold II of Belgium
09 April 1835, Belgian
Founder of Congo Free State

Babe RuthBabe Ruth
06 February 1895, American
 
Man RayMan Ray
27 August 1890, American
Modernist Artist
Oscar WildeOscar Wilde
16 October 1854, Irish
Playwright

Nikita KhrushchevNikita Khrushchev
15 April 1894, Russian
Former Premier of the Soviet Union

Jefferson DavisJefferson Davis
03 June 1808, American
Former President of the Confederate States of

Eleanor RooseveltEleanor Roosevelt
11 October 1884, American
Former First Lady of the United States
Friedrich NietzscheFriedrich Nietzsche
15 October 1844, German
Philosopher

Herbert HooverHerbert Hoover
10 August 1874, American
31st U.S. President

John D. RockefellerJohn D. Rockefeller
08 July 1839, American
Businessman

John AdamsJohn Adams
30 October 1735, American
2nd U.S. President

J. Edgar HooverJ. Edgar Hoover
01 January 1895, American
First Director of FBI
Humphrey BogartHumphrey Bogart
25 December 1899, American
Actor

Jack the RipperJack the Ripper
1865 AD, British
Serial Killer
Jawaharlal NehruJawaharlal Nehru
14 November 1889, Indian
First PM of India & Freedom Fighter

Wyatt EarpWyatt Earp
19 March 1848, American
 

Alfred HitchcockAlfred Hitchcock
13 August 1899, British
Film Director and Producer
Charles DarwinCharles Darwin
12 February 1809, British
Naturalist

Henry FordHenry Ford
30 July 1863, American
Businessman
Joseph GoebbelsJoseph Goebbels
29 October 1897, German
German Nazi politician

Mary of TeckMary of Teck
26 May 1867, British
Former Queen of the United Kingdom

Edgar Allan PoeEdgar Allan Poe
19 January 1809, American
Writer

Rabindranath TagoreRabindranath Tagore
07 May 1861, Indian
Poet

Charles DickensCharles Dickens
07 February 1812, British
Writer
Mark Twain ImageMark Twain
30 November 1835, American
Writer

Leo TolstoyLeo Tolstoy
09 September 1828, Russian
 

Warren G. HardingWarren G. Harding
02 November 1865, American
President of the U.S

Andrew Johnson - 17 President of the United States of America From April 15, 1865 to March 4, 1869Andrew Johnson
29 December 1808, American
 
Anthony EdenAnthony Eden
12 June 1897, British
Prime Minister of UK

Leon TrotskyLeon Trotsky
07 November 1879, Russian, Ukrainian, Russian
Founder and first leader of the Red Army
Grover ClevelandGrover Cleveland
18 March 1837, American
President of the U.S.A

Aleister CrowleyAleister Crowley
12 October 1875, British
Occultist

Virginia WoolfVirginia Woolf
25 January 1882, British
Novelist
Douglas MacArthurDouglas MacArthur
26 January 1880, American
 

Carl JungCarl Jung
26 July 1875, Swiss
Psychiatrist
Frederick DouglassFrederick Douglass
01 February 1818, American
American orator

Doc HollidayDoc Holliday
14 August 1851, American
Gambler, Gunfighter

Calvin CoolidgeCalvin Coolidge
04 July 1872, American
President of the U.S.A
John Wilkes BoothJohn Wilkes Booth
10 May 1838, American
Assassinated Abraham Lincoln

Louisa May AlcottLouisa May Alcott
29 November 1832, American
Writer
C. S. LewisC. S. Lewis
29 November 1898, Irish, British
Novelist

Lucky LucianoLucky Luciano
11 November 1897, American
Gangster

William McKinleyWilliam McKinley
29 January 1843, American
President of the U.S.A

Nathan Bedford ForrestNathan Bedford Forrest
13 July 1821, American
Military commander
Colonel SandersColonel Sanders
09 September 1890, American
Founder of KFC
Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek
31 October 1887, Chinese
President of the Republic of China

F. Scott FitzgeraldF. Scott Fitzgerald
24 September 1896, American
Novelist

T. E. LawrenceT. E. Lawrence
16 August 1888, British
Archaeologist

Fred AstaireFred Astaire
10 May 1899, American
Dancer
Franz KafkaFranz Kafka
03 July 1883, Austrian
Novelist

Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-PowellRobert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell
22 February 1857, British
Founder of the Scout Movement

William Howard TaftWilliam Howard Taft
15 September 1857, American
President of the U.S.A

W. E. B. Du BoisW. E. B. Du Bois
23 February 1868, Ghanaian
Civil Rights Activists

Albert, Prince ConsortAlbert, Prince Consort
26 August 1819, German, British
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Husband of Queen
Francisco FrancoFrancisco Franco
04 December 1892, Spanish
Dictator of Spain

Booker T. WashingtonBooker T. Washington
05 April 1856, American
 
William Tecumseh ShermanWilliam Tecumseh Sherman
08 February 1820, American
General in the Union Army During the American

J. Paul GettyJ. Paul Getty
15 December 1892, British, American
Businessman
Jesse JamesJesse James
05 September 1847, American
American Outlaw & Gang Leader
Haile SelassieHaile Selassie
23 July 1892, Ethiopian
Former Emperor of Ethiopia