Famous 19th Century Artists & Painters

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Find out more about the greatest 19th Century Painters, including Pablo Picasso, Vincent van Gogh, Rabindranath Tagore, Claude Monet and Gustav Klimt.
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 1 
Vincent van Gogh
(One of the Most Famous and Influential Artists of All Time)
Vincent van Gogh
49
Birthdate: March 30, 1853
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Zundert, Netherlands
Died: July 29, 1890

Vincent van Gogh was a Dutch post-impressionist painter and is said to be one of the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art. However, he was not commercially successful in his lifetime and died by suicide at 37 after years of mental health issues and poverty. He gained recognition and respect in the 20th century.

 2 
Pablo Picasso
(One of the Most Influential Artists of the 20th Century and Co-Founder of the 'Cubist Movement')
Pablo Picasso
26
Birthdate: October 25, 1881
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Málaga, Spain
Died: April 8, 1973

Pablo Picasso was a renowned artist whose paintings sell by millions of dollars at auctions even today, many years after his death. With masterful strokes, attractive shades and rich textures, Picasso created some of the most visually impressive arts of the 20th century. While exploring new styles and experimenting with different techniques, Picasso co-founded Cubist art style and co-invented collage.

 3 
Claude Monet
(French Painter and Founder of 'Impressionism')
Claude Monet
13
Birthdate: November 14, 1840
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: December 5, 1926

Claude Monet was a French painter. The founder of French Impressionist painting, Monet's painting Impression, soleil levant gave rise to the term Impressionism. Often dubbed the driving force behind Impressionism, Monet mastered the art of painting the same scene several times so as to capture the changing of the light. Since his death, his paintings have sold for record prices.

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 4 
Henri Matisse
(French Visual Artist Known for His Paintings: ‘Woman with a Hat’, 'The Dance', and 'Red Room’)
Henri Matisse
9
Birthdate: December 31, 1869
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Le Cateau-Cambrésis, France
Died: November 3, 1954

Henri Matisse was a French artist. Although he was known for his skills as a painter, Matisse was also a renowned sculptor, printmaker, and draughtsman. Along with Picasso, Matisse is regarded as one of the artists who contributed immensely to the revolutionary developments in visual arts. His works also influenced other painters who would adopt a technique called intense colorism.

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 5 
Gustav Klimt
(Austrian Symbolist Painter and One of the Most Prominent Members of the ‘Vienna Secession’ Movement)
Gustav Klimt
8
Birthdate: July 14, 1862
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Baumgarten, Vienna, Austria
Died: February 6, 1918

Austrian symbolist painter, Gustav Klimt, was one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. His primary subject was the female body, and he produced numerous paintings, murals, sketches, and other art objects. He was known for his deliberate painting style. He successfully avoided personal scandal despite having an active sex life.

 6 
Edvard Munch
(Norwegian Painter Best Known for His Works: ‘The Scream’, ‘Madonna’ and ‘The Sick Child’)
Edvard Munch
9
Birthdate: December 12, 1863
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Ådalsbruk, Norway
Died: 1944 AD

Norwegian painter Edvard Munch is remembered for his iconic works The Scream and The Frieze of Life - A Poem about Life, Love, and Death. His paintings exhibited themes that reflected his own psychological states. He was a significant member of the Symbolism movement but was banned by the Nazi.

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 7 
Paul Gauguin
(French Post-Impressionist Artist)
Paul Gauguin
13
Birthdate: June 7, 1848
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: May 8, 1903
French Post-Impressionist artist, sculptor, and writer Paul Gauguin was a major figure in the Symbolist movement. He had worked as a stockbroker and businessman before gaining fame as an artist. He influenced the French avant-garde and modern artists such as Pablo Picasso and also led the way for Primitivism.
 8 
William Blake
(Poet and Visual Artist of the Romantic Age)
William Blake
13
Birthdate: November 28, 1757
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Soho, London, England
Died: August 12, 1827
William Blake, author of The Songs of Innocence and of Experience, was a prominent figure of the early phase of the Romantic Age, known as the pre-Romantic era. Known for his visual artistry and poetry, he was also a staunch abolitionist and a forerunner of the "free love" movement.
 9 
Paul Cezanne
(French Artist and Post-Impressionist Painter)
Paul Cezanne
6
Birthdate: January 9, 1839
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Aix-en-Provence, France
Died: October 22, 1906

French artist Paul Cézanne was a prominent Post-Impressionist painter and influenced much of the early-20th-century movement known as Cubism. Some of his notable works include The Card Players, The Bathers, and Pyramid of Skulls. He experimented with water colors and had created a host of still-life paintings.

 10 
J. M. W. Turner
(Romantic painter)
J. M. W. Turner
13
Birthdate: April 23, 1775
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: London, England
Died: December 19, 1851

J. M. W. Turner was an English printmaker, painter, and watercolorist best remembered for his imaginative landscapes and expressive colorizations. Intensely reclusive and eccentric throughout his life, Turner lived in poor health and squalor for the last few years of his life. He was portrayed by actor Timothy Spall in the 2014 biographical film, Mr. Turner.

Rene Magritte
5
Birthdate: November 21, 1898
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Lessines, Belgium
Died: August 15, 1967
Belgian surrealist artist René Magritte is remembered for his art that displayed alternate perceptions of reality. His creations were influenced by elements of pop art and minimalist art. Some of his most notable works were The Empire of Light and Les Amants. The Magritte Museum is dedicated to his work.
 12 
Piet Mondrian
(One of the Greatest Artists of the 20th Century)
Piet Mondrian
8
Birthdate: 1872
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Amersfoort, Netherlands
Died: January 31, 1944

Dutch painter Piet Mondrian is remembered for pioneering what is known as 20th-century abstract art. He co-founded the De Stijl art movement with Theo van Doesburg and gave rise to Neoplasticism. His art was influenced by Cubism. Many of his paintings consist of geometric shapes in particular sets of colors.

 13 
Edgar Degas
(French Impressionist Artist Best Known for His Pastel Drawings and Oil Paintings)
Edgar Degas
7
Birthdate: July 19, 1834
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: September 27, 1917

French Impressionist artist Edgar Degas is best remembered for his oil paintings and pastel drawings and for his signature use of dancers and bathing women as themes in his works such as Fin d'Arabesque and Woman in a Tub. He had also experimented with bronze sculptures and called himself a realist.

 14 
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
(French Impressionist Painter)
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
5
Birthdate: February 25, 1841
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Limoges, France
Died: December 3, 1919

French artist Pierre-Auguste Renoir, father of actor Pierre Renoir and director Jean Renoir, was a key Impressionist painter. His best-known works include The Swing, Diana, and Seated Girl. He was known for his use of vibrant colors and feminine sensuality in his works. He also painted landscapes and portraits.

 15 
Wassily Kandinsky
(Russian Painter, Art Theorist and a Pioneer in Abstract Art)
Wassily Kandinsky
14
Birthdate: December 16, 1866
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: December 13, 1944
Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky is considered the pioneer of abstract art. Known for notable works such as On White II and Study for Improvisation, he was a prominent artist of the Blue Rider Period and experimented with expressionism. He also earned a professorship at the University of Dorpat
 16 
Édouard Manet
(French Modernist Painter Known for His Work ‘The Luncheon on the Grass’ and ‘Olympia’)
Édouard Manet
6
Birthdate: January 23, 1832
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Paris, Francece
Died: April 30, 1883

Édouard Manet was a French painter who played a key role in the transition to Impressionism from Realism in the 19th-century. Manet was one of the first artists from his generation to paint modern life. His early masterworks, such as Olympia, served as rallying points for young and aspiring impressionist painters. His works continue to influence painters around the world.

 17 
Marc Chagall
(Artist)
Marc Chagall
5
Birthdate: July 6, 1887
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Lizona, Belarus
Died: March 28, 1985

Russian-French artist Marc Chagall, a key figure of modernism, had explored a wide range of media as an artist, from paintings and drawings to stained glass and ceramics. His major projects included the ceiling of the Paris Opéra, the Art Institute of Chicago, and the Jerusalem Windows of Israel.

 18 
Edward Hopper
(Realist painter)
Edward Hopper
7
Birthdate: July 22, 1882
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Upper Nyack, New York, United States
Died: May 15, 1967
 19 
Paul Klee
(Swiss-born German Artist Whose Work Exhibited Shades of 'Expressionism', 'Cubism', and 'Surrealism')
Paul Klee
7
Birthdate: December 18, 1879
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Münchenbuchsee, Switzerland
Died: May 29, 1940
The father of abstract art, Paul Klee’s works contained elements of surrealism, cubism, and expressionism, but they were not part of any specific school. He was also a skilled violinist and an avid reader. He also taught at the Bauhaus and experimented with various media, such as oil, watercolor, and ink.
 20 
Georges Seurat
(French Post-Impressionist Artist Who Devised the Painting Techniques Known as 'Chromoluminarism' and 'Pointillism')
Georges Seurat
7
Birthdate: December 2, 1859
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: March 29, 1891

A significant figure of the Post-Impressionist era, Georges Seurat depicted structured art, far removed from the free-flowing Impressionist art. Best known for techniques such as pointillism, he created masterpieces such as Bathers at Asnières. He died before his last exhibition ended, and eerily displayed an unfinished painting, Cirque.

 21 
Eugène Delacroix
4
Birthdate: April 26, 1798
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Saint-Maurice, France
Died: August 13, 1863

Eugène Delacroix was a French Romantic artist who is widely regarded as the patriarch of the French Romantic school. As a muralist and painter, Delacroix's study of the optical effects of color inspired the work of the Impressionists. In fact, his work inspired a generation of impressionists.

Dante Gabriel Rossetti
4
Birthdate: May 12, 1828
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: London, United Kingdom
Died: April 9, 1882

Known for founding the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Dante Gabriel Rossetti was a legendary poet and painter of the 19th century. His illustrations also adorned the books of his poet sister Christina Rossetti. Known for volumes such as The House of Life, he also influenced the Aesthetic movement.

 23 
Camille Pissarro
(Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist Painter)
Camille Pissarro
4
Birthdate: July 10, 1830
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Charlotte Amalie, U.S. Virgin Islands
Died: November 13, 1903

Camille Pissarro was a Danish-French painter best remembered for his contributions to Impressionism, Neo-Impressionism, and Post-Impressionism. He is credited with establishing a group of 15 aspiring artists, for which he served as a pivotal figure. He was regarded as a father figure to several important painters, including Vincent Willem van Gogh.

 24 
Jacques-Louis David
5
Birthdate: August 30, 1748
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: December 29, 1825

Jacques-Louis David was a French painter. Widely regarded as the greatest painter of the Neoclassical era, David's works had a strong influence in France in the early-19th century. His works are often linked to the birth of Romanticism. Many of his pupils, such as Antoine-Jean Gros and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, went on to become successful and popular painters.

 25 
Gustave Courbet
(French Painter and Leader of the 19th Century Realist Movement)
Gustave Courbet
4
Birthdate: June 10, 1819
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Ornans, France
Died: December 31, 1877
Born to a farmer in eastern France, Gustave Courbet was initially gearing up to study law but later deviated to art. He started by copying Spanish painters and later rebelled against Romanticism, focusing on real-life subjects around him instead and thus developing 19th-century Realism.
 26 
Alexander Calder
(Sculptor, Painter)
Alexander Calder
6
Birthdate: July 22, 1898
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Lawnton
Died: November 11, 1976

Alexander Calder was an American sculptor best remembered for his innovative kinetic sculptures designed to use either motor, air currents, or other forces of nature. A multi-talented personality, Calder was also known for his paintings, miniatures, prints, jewelry design, theater set design, political posters, and tapestries and rugs. In 1977, he was honored with the prestigious Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Rabindranath Tagore
14
Birthdate: May 7, 1861
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Died: August 7, 1941

Rabindranath Tagore was an Indian polymath who contributed greatly to the fields of literature, art, and philosophy. Referred to as the Bard of Bengal, Tagore is credited with reshaping Bengali literature and music. The first non-European to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature, Tagore is also credited with composing the national anthems of India and Bangladesh.

 28 
Edmonia Lewis
(First African-American and Native American Sculptor to Achieve International Prominence)
Edmonia Lewis
4
Birthdate: July 4, 1844
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Rensselaer County, New York, United States
Died: September 17, 1907

Edmonia Lewis was an American sculptor who worked in Rome for most of her career. The first African-American sculptor to gain international prominence, Lewis was also the only Black female artist to have participated and recognized by the American artistic mainstream until the end of the 19th century. Molefi Kete Asante included Lewis in his 100 Greatest African Americans list.

 29 
Winslow Homer
(Painter)
Winslow Homer
5
Birthdate: February 24, 1836
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Died: September 29, 1910
 30 
Constantin Brâncuși
(One of the Most Influential Sculptors of the 20th-Century)
Constantin Brâncuși
5
Birthdate: February 19, 1876
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Hobita, Romania
Died: March 16, 1957

Constantin Brâncuși was a Romanian sculptor, painter, and photographer. A pioneer of modernism, he is considered one of the most influential sculptors of the 20th-century. The son of poor parents, he worked hard to fund his training at the Bucharest School of Fine Arts and became a skilled sculptor. He left behind 1200 photographs and 215 sculptures at his death. 

 31 
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
(French Painter, Printmaker, and Illustrator, Known for His Work ‘At the Moulin Rouge’ and ‘La Toilette’)
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
5
Birthdate: November 24, 1864
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Albi, France
Died: September 9, 1901
French painter Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec was one of the most significant figures of the Post-Impressionist period. He was also an illustrator and poster painter, who was known for his colorful depictions of cabaret from Paris's Moulin Rouge. His painting The Laundress sold for US$22.4 million at a 2005 Christie’s auction.
 32 
Khalil Gibran
5
Birthdate: January 6, 1883
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Bsharri, Lebanon
Died: April 10, 1931

Lebanese author and poet Khalil Gibran is best remembered for his bestselling works The Prophet and Broken Wings. One of the leaders of the Mahjar movement of Arabic literature, he specialized in incorporating mythological and mystical symbols in his works and was inspired by Friedrich Nietzsche and William Blake.

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
4
Birthdate: August 29, 1780
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Montauban, France
Died: January 14, 1867
 34 
John Ruskin
(Art Critic and Painter)
John Ruskin
4
Birthdate: February 8, 1819
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: England
Died: January 20, 1900

The leading English art critic of the Victorian era, John Ruskin was a hugely influential figure in the latter half of the 19th century. Also a philosopher and prominent social thinker, he wrote on varied subjects like geology, architecture, education, botany, myth, ornithology, literature, and political economy. He founded the charitable trust Guild of St George.

 35 
Caspar David Friedrich
(Romantic landscape painter)
Caspar David Friedrich
4
Birthdate: September 5, 1774
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Greifswald, Germany
Died: May 7, 1840

Caspar David Friedrich was a German painter best remembered for painting mid-period allegorical landscapes. Widely regarded as the most important German painter of his era, Friedrich is celebrated as an important figure of the German Romantic movement. His works have influenced several painters, including Johan Christian Dahl, Arnold Böcklin, and Christiane Pooley.

 36 
Gerda Wegener
(Illustrator)
Gerda Wegener
4
Birthdate: March 15, 1886
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Hammelev, Denmark
Died: July 28, 1940

Gerda Wegener was a Danish painter and illustrator. She began painting as a young girl and received her training at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. As a painter, she often depicted confident and elegant women performing a variety of activities in her works. She also painted fashion illustrations and what was labeled “lesbian erotica.” 

 37 
Katsushika Hokusai
6
Birthdate: October 31, 1760
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Edo, Tokyo, Japan
Died: May 10, 1849

Katsushika Hokusai was a Japanese printmaker, ukiyo-e painter, and artist of the Edo period. He is best known as the creator of the monumental Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji, a series of landscape prints, which includes the iconic print, The Great Wave off Kanagawa. He is credited with transforming the ukiyo-e art form to include a much broader style of art.

 38 
Auguste Rodin
(French Sculptor Best Regarded as the Founder of 'Modern Sculpture')
Auguste Rodin
5
Birthdate: November 13, 1840
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: November 17, 1917
Initially aspiring to be a monk, Auguste Rodin found his true calling when he visited Italy and was awestruck by Michelangelo’s creations. His iconic sculptures such as The Thinker and The Age of Bronze are astoundingly life-like. He breathed magic into nudes and ballerinas made of stone and bronze.
 39 
Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi
(French Sculptor and Painter Best Known for Designing the 'Statue of Liberty')
Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi
4
Birthdate: August 2, 1834
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Colmar, France
Died: October 4, 1904

Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi was a French painter and sculptor remembered for designing the Statue of Liberty. He is also credited with designing other iconic statues like The Lion of Belfort and Marquis de Lafayette. In addition to being a sculptor, Bartholdi also played an important role in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, serving as a liaison officer to Giuseppe Garibaldi.

 40 
Franz Marc
(German Painter, Printmaker and One of the Key Figures of German Expressionism)
Franz Marc
4
Birthdate: February 8, 1880
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Munich, Germany
Died: March 4, 1916

Best known as one of the founders of the German Expressionist group The Blue Rider, German painter Franz Marc mostly depicted animals through his works. The Tower of Blue Horses and Yellow Cow are two of his notable works. Children and the mentally disabled also appeared as his subjects.

 41 
Samuel Morse
(Inventor of Morse Code, Painter)
Samuel Morse
4
Birthdate: April 27, 1791
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States
Died: April 2, 1872
 42 
William Turner of Oxford
(Painter who specialised in watercolour landscapes)
William Turner of Oxford
4
Birthdate: November 29, 1789
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Oxfordshire, England, United Kingdom
Died: August 7, 1862

British landscape painter William Turner of Oxford is often mistaken for the famous painter J. M. W. Turner, who was also from England. Turner was a lifelong member of the Watercolor Society, founded by his mentor John Varley. Oxford from Hinksey Hill remains one of his best-known works.

 43 
Jean-François Millet
5
Birthdate: October 4, 1814
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Gréville-Hague, La Hague, France
Died: January 20, 1875
 44 
John Singer Sargent
(American Expatriate Artist and One of the Leading Portrait Painters of His Generation)
John Singer Sargent
4
Birthdate: January 12, 1856
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: April 14, 1925

John Singer Sargent, an artist active in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, was considered the "leading portrait painter of his generation." Prolific in his output, he created more than 2,000 watercolors and around 900 oil paintings. He also made numerous sketches and charcoal drawings. He painted with remarkable technical acumen and was internationally known for his expertise.   

 45 
Camille Corot
(French Landscape and Portrait Painter)
Camille Corot
3
Birthdate: July 16, 1796
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: February 28, 1875

French painter Camille Corot is remembered for his landscape paintings that paved the path for the Impressionist movement. Born into a milliner’s family, Corot was a poor student and shunned his family business to learn painting at 25. His works, however, were easy to replicate and led to many forgeries.

 46 
Édouard-Henri Avril
(French Painter, Commercial Artist and Illustrator of Erotic Literature)
Édouard-Henri Avril
4
Birthdate: May 21, 1849
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Algiers, French Algeria
Died: July 28, 1928

Before he revolutionized 19th-century erotica as Paul Avril, Édouard-Henri Avril was a soldier. An injury sustained in the Franco-Prussian War cut short his military life, and he was pushed into Paris sex salons to study art. His most notable works, such as the illustrations for Fanny Hill, were largely banned.

 47 
Effie Gray
(Artist)
Effie Gray
5
Birthdate: May 7, 1828
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Perth, United Kingdom
Died: December 23, 1897

Effie Gray was a Scottish painter. She was married to draughtsman and watercolorist, John Ruskin, before leaving him to marry John Everett Millais. This popular love triangle has been depicted in several plays and films, including the 1912 silent movie, The Love of John Ruskin. After marrying Millais, Effie Gray had a major influence on his works.

 48 
Antonio Canova
(Italian Neoclassical Sculptor Famous for His Marble Sculptures)
Antonio Canova
4
Birthdate: November 1, 1757
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Possagno, Italy
Died: October 13, 1822

Antonio Canova was an Italian Neoclassical sculptor widely regarded as the greatest of the Neoclassical artists. He was famous for his marble sculptures. His work was inspired by the Baroque and the classical revival. His most notable works include Psyche Revived by Cupid's Kiss and Perseus Triumphant. Unlike many of his contemporaries, he refused to take in pupils. 

 49 
Mary Cassatt
(Painter)
Mary Cassatt
4
Birthdate: May 22, 1844
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Allegheny
Died: June 14, 1926
 50 
Henri Rousseau
4
Birthdate: May 21, 1844
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Laval, France
Died: September 2, 1910