Historical Personalities

Historical Figures are the famous people in history who have played a significant role in shaping human progress. Philosophers over the past several centuries have debated upon the roles played by historical figures in influencing the history of human civilization and progress. While Scottish philosopher Thomas Carlyle felt that the study of legendary figures is a key to understanding history, English philosopher Herbert Spencer was of the belief that historical individuals were of little importance. Irrespective of the philosophical debates on the subject, it cannot be denied that studying about the famous men and women in world history is truly an enriching experience. Jesus of Nazareth, the founder of Christianity, is often regarded as the most important historical figure. While most modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed historically, several facts about his life are shrouded in mystery. Another important religious historical figure is Muhammad who unified Arabia into a single religious polity under Islam. Many historical figures are believed to have greatly influenced world politics and the major ones among these are Napoleon, Alexander the Great, Abraham Lincoln and Adolf Hitler. Read on to discover about the life and works of various famous historical figures from all over the world.

This ranking is based on an algorithm that combines various factors, including the votes of our users and search trends on the internet.

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 1 Queen Elizabeth II

Queen Elizabeth II.
24
Famous As: Queen of the United Kingdom
Birthdate: April 21, 1926
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Mayfair, London, England

The Queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms, Queen Elizabeth II is the world's oldest living monarch and longest-reigning current monarch. The first child of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother , she ascended to the throne in 1952. Despite the press criticism of the royal family, she continues to be a popular figure in UK.

 2 Cleopatra

Cleopatra .
26
Famous As: Queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Birthdate: 0069 BC
Birthplace: Alexandria
Died: August 12, 0030

The last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and the last true pharaoh of Egypt, Cleopatra is described as an extremely beautiful woman who was also intelligent and educated with command over numerous languages. Her romance and military alliances with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony have inspired numerous art works.

 3 Queen Victoria

Queen Victoria .
23
Famous As: Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Birthdate: May 24, 1819
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: London, England
Died: January 22, 1901

The Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland for over six decades, Queen Victoria reigned for longer than any of her predecessors. Her rule witnessed the vast expansion of the British Empire and ushered in a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military changes. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were celebrated with great pomp and show.

 4 Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great.
56
Famous As: Emperor of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon
Birthdate: July 20, 0356
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Pella, Greece
Died: June 10, 0324

Counted amongst the greatest military commanders of all times, Alexander the Great successfully created one of the largest empires—from Macedonia to Persia and India—of the ancient world. The son of King of Macedonia, Philip II, he ascended the throne at the age of 20 and achieved unprecedented success before he died at the age of 33.  

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 5 Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar.
41
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: Former Roman dictator
Birthdate: July 13, 0100
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Rome, Italy
Died: March 15, 0044

Julius Caesar is considered one of the greatest military commanders in history and played an important role in the events that led to the downfall of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. He assumed control of the government after a civil war. He was assassinated by rebel senators on the Ides of March, 44 BC.

 6 Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan.
50
Famous As: Khagan of the Mongol Empire
Birthdate: 1162 AD
Birthplace: Delüün Boldog
Died: August 18, 1227

The founder and first Great Khan and Emperor of the Mongol Empire, Genghis Khan is often considered to be the greatest conqueror of all time. A brutal ruler, he enjoyed exceptional military successes and occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and China. Besides his military accomplishments, he is also credited with revitalizing the Mongol Empire's writing system.

 7 Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon Bonaparte.
39
Famous As: Emperor of the French
Birthdate: August 15, 1769
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Ajaccio
Died: May 5, 1821
French military leader Napoleon Bonaparte ruled as the French emperor from 1804 to 1814 and again in 1815. He strengthened France’s position in Europe through the Napoleonic Wars and extended his kingdom. However, he was eventually defeated by the Seventh Coalition at the Battle of Waterloo and sent to exile. 
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 8 Mary, Queen of Scots

Mary, Queen of Scots.
15
Famous As: Queen of Scotland
Birthdate: December 8, 1542
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Linlithgow Palace, Scotland
Died: February 8, 1587

Mary, Queen of Scots was the ruler of Scotland till 24 July 1567. After an uprising against her, Mary sought protection from her first cousin, Queen Elizabeth I of England. However, the Queen perceived her as a threat and kept Mary in confinement for eighteen and a half years. Ultimately Mary was beheaded for plotting to assassinate the Queen.

 9 Catherine the Great

Catherine the Great.
17
Famous As: Empress of Russia
Birthdate: May 2, 1729
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Szczecin, Poland
Died: November 17, 1796

The Empress of Russia for almost 35 years, Catherine the Great was the country's longest-ruling female leader. An ambitious ruler, she rapidly expanded the Russian Empire and is credited with modernizing the country along Western European lines. She supported the ideals of the Enlightenment and the period of her rule—the Catherinian Era—is considered the Golden Age of Russia.

 10 Anne Boleyn

Anne Boleyn.
13
Famous As: Marquess of Pembroke
Birthdate: 1501 AD
Birthplace: Hever
Died: May 19, 1536

The queen of England from 1533 to 1536, Anne Boleyn played an important role in the political and religious upheaval that led to the beginning of the English Reformation. She is widely regarded as the most important and influential queen consort of England. She was charged with adultery, incest, and treason and was executed by beheading in 1536.

 11 Augustus

Augustus.
30
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: Roman roman emperor
Birthdate: September 23, 0063
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Ancient Rome
Died: August 19, 0014

Augustus, the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, ruled from 27 BC to 14 AD. He transformed Rome from a republic to an empire after Julius Caesar’s assassination. He annexed new territories, brought about peace and prosperity and laid the foundation of an empire that lasted for nearly 1500 years. Historians regard him as an effective but controversial leader.

 12 Alfred the Great

Alfred the Great.
10
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: King of Wessex
Birthdate: 0849 AD
Birthplace: Wantage, United Kingdom
Died: October 26, 0899

Alfred the Great, king of Wessex, cemented his place in history as a legendary ruler who led his kingdom to victory in wars that seemed hopeless. He is known for his brilliant strategies and defensive measures. He prevented England from falling to the Danes during his rule from circa 871 to 886. He’s also credited with promoting learning and literacy and curbing corruption.

 13 Charlemagne

Charlemagne.
11
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: King of the Frank
Birthdate: April 2, 0742
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Herstal
Died: January 28, 0814

Also known as Charles the Great, Charlemagne ruled as the king of the Franks, king of the Lombards, and emperor of the Romans at different time periods. Not surprisingly, he had a major impact during the Early Middle Ages as he went about uniting the majority of central and western Europe, for which he is called the Father of Europe.

 14 William the Conqueror

William the Conqueror.
11
Famous As: King of England
Birthdate: 1028 AD
Birthplace: Falaise, France
Died: September 9, 1087

William the Conqueror was the first Norman King of England who ruled from 1066 to 1087. William's conquest had a profound impact on England; his government merged elements of the Norman and English systems that laid the foundations of the medieval English kingdom. He is credited with building castles, mottes, and keeps, including the White Tower and Tower of London.

 15 Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius.
13
Famous As: Philosopher
Birthdate: April 26, 0121
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Rome, Italy
Died: March 17, 0180

Marcus Aurelius played an important role in the Roman Empire. A Stoic philosopher, Marcus was part of the Five Good Emperors and the last emperor of the Pax Romana—a 200-year-long period of relative peace in the Roman Empire. Also a writer, his work Meditations is regarded by many as one of the greatest works of philosophy.

 16 Wilhelm II

Wilhelm II.
16
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: Emperor of Germany
Birthdate: January 27, 1859
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Kronprinzenpalais
Died: June 4, 1941

Wilhelm II reigned as the King of Prussia and German emperor from 1888 to 1918. He is credited with promoting scientific innovation and building a blue-water navy, which strengthened Germany’s position as a great power. However, he was also responsible for getting his country involved in World War I, which eventually brought an end to the Hohenzollern dynasty’s rule.

 17 Suleiman The Magnificent

Suleiman the Magnificent.
10
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: 10th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Birthdate: November 6, 1494
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Trabzon, Ottoman Empire
Died: September 6, 1566
Suleiman The Magnificent ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and was instrumental in the empire’s expansion, leading the conquests of Belgrade, Rhodes, and Hungary. He was a patron of art and culture, and a talented poet and goldsmith himself. He married Roxelana, a Christian-turned-Muslim from his harem.

 18 Catherine de' Medici

Catherine de' Medici.
6
Famous As: Queen of France
Birthdate: April 13, 1519
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Florence
Died: January 5, 1589

Catherine de' Medici was an Italian noblewoman who played a key role in the political affairs of France during the rule of her sons, a period which came to be known as the age of Catherine de' Medici. Catherine is credited with saving the monarchy from deposition during the French Wars of Religion

 19 Cyrus the Great

Cyrus the Great.
17
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: Founder of First Persian Empire
Birthdate: 0590 BC
Birthplace: Anshan
Died: 0530 BC

Cyrus II, or Cyrus the Great, founded the first Persian empire, the Achaemenid Empire. His kingdom extended from Western Asia to Central Asia. He advocated centralized administration, with the help of local governors. The biblical Edict of Cyrus, named after him, talks about the return of the Jews to Israel.

 20 Constantine the Great

Constantine the Great.
8
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: Roman Emperor
Birthdate: February 27, 0272
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Niš
Died: May 22, 0337

Constantine the Great served as the Roman emperor between 306 and 337. During his reign, he enacted financial, administrative, military, and social reforms to strengthen the empire. Constantine the Great is also credited with introducing the solidus, a gold coin which became the standard for European and Byzantine currencies for over a thousand years.

 21 Marie Antoinette

Marie Antoinette.
21
Famous As: Queen of France
Birthdate: November 2, 1755
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: The Hofburg, Vienna, Austria
Died: October 16, 1793
The last queen of France before the French Revolution started, Marie Antoinette was married to Louis XVI of France and came to be linked with everything that was wrong with the French monarchy including ignorance and extravagance. Her policies aggravated unrest that eventually led to the abolishment of the monarchy and finally the execution of both king and queen.

 22 Ashoka

Ashoka.
40
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty
Birthdate: 0304 BC
Birthplace: Pataliputra
Died: 0232 BC
Ashoka the Great of the Maurya Dynasty was the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya and ruled the Indian subcontinent from c. 268 to 232 BCE. Following the death and destruction caused by the Kalinga War, which was part of his expansion plan, he converted to Buddhism and propagated the faith.

 23 Henry VII of England

Henry VII.
15
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: King of England
Birthdate: January 28, 1457
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire, Wales, United Kingdom
Died: April 21, 1509

Henry VII of England played an important role in popularizing the House of Tudor by becoming the first monarch of the house; he ruled as the king of England from 1485 until his death in 1509. He is credited with several economic, diplomatic, and administrative initiatives.

 24 Benito Mussolini

Benito Mussolini.
8
Famous As: Former Duce
Birthdate: July 29, 1883
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Predappio, Italy
Died: April 28, 1945

The dictator of Italy from 1925 to 1945, Benito Mussolini founded the Fascist Party in 1919. It opposed class discrimination and supported nationalism. But when in power, Mussolini crushed rival political parties, trade unions, free press and free speech. He was overthrown by his former colleagues in the Fascist government in July 1943 and ultimately shot dead in April 1945.

 25 Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Lenin.
12
Famous As: Former Premier of the Soviet Union
Birthdate: April 22, 1870
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Ulyanovsk, Russia
Died: January 21, 1924

Vladimir Lenin played a key role in the history of Russian politics by developing a political ideology called Leninism. During and after his lifetime, Lenin had a massive influence over international communist movement. He is widely regarded as one of the most influential and significant personalities of the 20th century.

 26 Qin Shi Huang

Qin Shi Huang.
5
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: King
Birthdate: 0259 BC
Birthplace: Handan
Died: 0210 BC

Qin Shi Huang is credited with founding the Qin dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China. He reigned as the first emperor of a unified China from 221 BC to 210 BC. Under his rule, the Chinese state expanded greatly and he also enacted major political and economic reforms. His life and work inspired several films like The Emperor's Shadow.

 27 Attila

Attila
15
Famous As: Ruler
Birthdate: 0406 AD
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: February 29, 0453

 28 Henry VIII of England

Henry VIII of England.
7
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: King of England
Birthdate: June 28, 1491
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Palace of Placentia
Died: January 28, 1547

Henry VIII, the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, ruled England from 1509 to 1547. He married six times, leading to differences with the Roman Catholic Church, which prohibited divorce, thus forming the Anglican Church. The "father of the Royal Navy," he was known for his tyranny and extravagance.

 29 Ivar the Boneless

Ivar the Boneless.
0
Listed In: Military Leaders
Famous As: Viking Warrior
Birthdate: 0794 AD
Birthplace: Hord, Jutland
Died: 0873 AD
Viking leader Ivar the Boneless is known for his invasion of Anglo-Saxon England. Icelandic legends state that he was born with weak bones, as his father had broken a vow. He is also identified as Ímar, who founded the Uí Ímair Dynasty and ruled Northumbria and the Kingdom of Dublin.

 30 Nefertiti

Neferneferuaten Nefertiti.
2
Famous As: Ancient Egyptian Queen
Birthdate: 1370 BC
Died: 1330 BC

A queen of the 18th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, Nefertiti was the Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Akhenaten. She and her husband reigned during a period marked by great prosperity in Ancient Egyptian history. Some scholars even claim that she reigned independently for some time following her husband’s death though this claim is a matter of debate.

 31 Mary I of England

Mary I of England.
13
Famous As: Queen of England and Ireland
Birthdate: February 18, 1516
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Palace of Placentia
Died: November 17, 1558

Mary I, the queen of England from 1553-1558, is remembered as the ruler who sought to return England to the Catholic Church. She persecuted many Protestants and got nearly 300 of them burned at the stake. Most of them were common citizens. Many also died in prison and hundreds fled the country. This earned her the ignominious nickname ‘Bloody Mary’.

 32 Catherine of Aragon

Catherine of Aragon.
7
Famous As: Ambassador
Birthdate: December 16, 1485
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Archbishop's Palace of Alcalá de Henares, Alcala de Henares, Spain
Died: January 7, 1536

Catherine of Aragon was one of the most popular English royal consorts of all time. A patron of Renaissance humanism, she gained widespread admiration for starting a program for the relief of the poor. A woman who was ahead of her time, Catherine commissioned The Education of a Christian Woman, a controversial book promoting women's right to education.

 33 Boudica

Boudica.
5
Famous As: Queen of the Iceni Tribe
Birthdate: 0030 AD
Birthplace: Britannia
Died: 0061 AD

Boudica served as a queen of the Iceni tribe. She is regarded as a British folk hero for leading an uprising against the Roman Empire, which wanted to conquer her land. She has remained a prominent cultural symbol in the UK. A bronze statue named Boadicea and Her Daughters is located in London, facing the Palace of Westminster.

 34 Rani Lakshmibai

Rani Lakshmibai.
8
Famous As: Queen of Jhansi State
Birthdate: November 19, 1828
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Varanasi
Died: June 18, 1858

 35 Anne, Queen of Great Britain

Anne, Queen of Great Britain.
0
Famous As: Queen of Britan
Birthdate: February 6, 1665
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: St James's Palace, Westminster, England
Died: August 1, 1714

Many biographers consider Anne, the Queen of Great Britain, a weak and irresolute woman. It is said that she lacked political astuteness and was easily influenced by others. Though she was troubled by poor health throughout her life, she became increasingly obese and ill during her 30s and eventually died at the age of 49.

 36 Kublai Khan

Kublai Khan.
8
Famous As: Founder of the Yuan dynasty in Mongolia and China,
Birthdate: September 23, 1215
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Mongolia
Died: February 18, 1294

Also known as the Emperor Shizu of Yuan, Kublai Khan served as the fifth khagan of the famous Mongol Empire. After the division of the empire, Kublai Khan founded the Yuan dynasty in China and ruled as the first Yuan emperor from 1271 until his death in 1294. Hence, he played an important role in re-creating a militarily powerful China.

 37 Claudius

Claudius.
2
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: Roman emperor
Birthdate: August 1, 0010
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Lyon
Died: October 13, 0054

Claudius was made the Roman emperor by the Praetorian Guard after the assassination of Caligula, his nephew and predecessor, and ruled from 41 to 54 A.D. He was slightly limp and deaf since childhood, but his reign was marked by financial stability. He was succeeded by his grand-nephew, tyrant Nero.

 38 Saladin

Saladin.
11
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: Sultan of Egypt
Birthdate: 1137 AD
Birthplace: Tikrit, Iraq
Died: March 4, 1193
Named the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, Saladin founded the Ayyubid Dynasty. He abolished the Fatimid Caliphate and later defeated the Crusaders at the Battle of Hattin, thus taking control of Palestine. As the de facto Caliph of Islam, he controlled a vast area, including Egypt, Syria, and Yemen.

 39 Timur

Timur.
12
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: Monarch of the Timurid Empire
Birthdate: April 9, 1336
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Kesh, Chagatai Khanate, Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan
Died: February 19, 1405

Widely considered one of the greatest tacticians and military leaders in history, Timur is credited with founding the Timurid Empire, which attained its greatest extent under the leadership of Timur. His empire laid the foundation for the rise of the more prominent Islamic gunpowder empires, such as the Mughal Empire, which then ruled the Indian subcontinent for almost 330 years.

 40 Hannibal

Hannibal
0
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: Military General
Birthdate: 0247 BC
Birthplace: Carthage, Tunisia
Died: 0184 BC

 41 Chandragupta Maurya

Chandragupta Maurya.
15
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: Founder of the Maurya Empire
Birthdate: 0340 BC
Birthplace: Pataliputra
Died: 0298 BC

Chandragupta Maurya established the Maurya Empire in India. He was mostly advised by philosopher Chanakya. He conquered the Nanda Empire and fought the Seleucid-Mauryan War, too. His reign was marked by religious tolerance, and cultural and economic prosperity. He later relinquished his throne and became a Jain monk.

 42 Lady Jane Grey

Lady Jane Grey.
2
Famous As: Monarch
Birthdate: 1537 AD
Birthplace: Leicestershire
Died: February 12, 1554
Lady Jane Grey, the Nine Days' Queen, was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 10 to 19, 1553. Jane, a Protestant, was nominated to the Crown, owing to Roman Catholic Mary’s opposition to the Reformed Church of England. However, Jane was deposed, convicted of high treason, and executed.

 43 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.
3
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: Former Holy Roman Emperor
Birthdate: February 24, 1500
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Ghent
Died: September 21, 1558

Charles V served as the Holy Roman Emperor, King of Italy, and King of Germany from 1519 to 1556. From 1516 to 1556, he ruled as the King of Spain. His personal union of the American and European territories was the first collection of kingdoms that were described the empire on which the Sun never sets.

 44 Shivaji

Shivaji.
46
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: King
Birthdate: February 19, 1630
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Shivneri
Died: April 3, 1680

Shivaji was an Indian warrior-king. He is credited with founding the Maratha Empire, which became a force to reckon with during the 18th century. He is also credited with creating his own navy. Considered one of the most important Indian kings and a hero of the Hindus, Shivaji's life and work have inspired several works of art, including films.

 45 Eleanor of Aquitaine

Eleanor of Aquitaine.
0
Famous As: Queen of France & England
Birthdate: 1122 AD
Birthplace: Bordeaux
Died: March 31, 1204
Eleanor, the duchess of Aquitaine, became the queen of France after marrying King Louis VII. Their marriage was annulled later. She then married the Duke of Normandy, who became King Henry II of England. Eleanor was imprisoned for supporting a revolt against Henry, and was freed after his death.

 46 Babur

Babur.
12
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: Founder of Mughal Dyanasty
Birthdate: February 14, 1483
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Andijan
Died: December 26, 1530
Babur, the first emperor of the Mughal Dynasty of India, was a descendant of Genghis Khan and Timur. He defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 CE and then defeated Rajput ruler Rana Sanga in the Battle of Khanwa in 1527. His memoir is titled Baburnama.

 47 Isabella I of Castile

Isabella I of Castile.
0
Famous As: Queen of Castile
Birthdate: April 22, 1451
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Spain
Died: November 26, 1504
Isabella I, the 15th-century queen of Castile and Leon and the wife of Ferdinand II, was the first Queen of Spain de facto. She was named a Servant of God by the Catholic Church and reformed the government, thus reducing crimes. She also funded Christopher Columbus's voyages to the Americas.

 48 Catherine Howard

Catherine Howard.
4
Famous As: Queen of England from (1540-1541)
Birthdate: 1523 AD
Birthplace: Lambeth, London
Died: February 13, 1542
Catherine Howard, England’s queen consort from 1540 until 1541, was Henry VIII’s fifth wife. She was a cousin of Henry VIII’s second wife, Anne Boleyn. In November 1541, Catherine was stripped of the queen’s title and imprisoned. She was later beheaded on charges of adultery with her cousin Thomas Culpeper.

 49 Anne of Cleves

Anne of Cleves.
0
Famous As: Former Queen of England
Birthdate: September 22, 1515
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Düsseldorf, Duchy of Berg, Holy Roman Empire
Died: July 16, 1557

Anne of Cleves was the Queen of England for 6 months in 1540, as the fourth wife of King Henry VIII. Their unconsummated marriage deprived led to the annulment of the marriage, following which she received a settlement and came to be known as the King's Beloved Sister.

 50 Xerxes I

Xerxes I.
9
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Famous As: Persian King
Birthdate: 0519 BC
Birthplace: Iran
Died: 0466 AD

Xerxes I ruled the Achaemenid Empire from 486 to 465 BC as the fourth King of Kings. During his reign, Xerxes I supervised the completion of several construction projects at Persepolis and Susa. A popular ruler, his life has been adapted into several plays and films; in the 1960 movie Esther and the King, Xerxes is played by Richard Egan.

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