Intellectuals are the thinking lot who use their intelligence to demonstrate the different capacities of the human mind. They usually are involved in learning, critical analysis, researching and reasoning. They use their skills in different fields including literature, medicine, law and scientific research. Since times immemorial, the world has been home to several intellectuals and academicians who have utilized their thinking power to articulate a stream of belief which led to the development of theories. When Karl Marx suggested his theories, a school of thought was started and the era began to be known as a Marxist period of thinking. Marxism became a line of belief which is practiced till date. Much like the earlier days, every century has had its share of intellectuals and academicians who have contributed to the world knowledge through their wisdom, thinking and philosophies. In the 19th century, there were several intellectuals and academicians who changed the world with their philosophies. Great intellectuals like Alexander Bain, Alfred Adler, Alfred Russell, Wallace, Arthur Keith, Bernard Berenson and others introduced new theories, philosophies and thinking in various fields to enrich the era’s intellectual and academic history. Their endeavour towards reaching new models and theories assisted in establishing new foundations of belief. Check this section to know about some of the most famous intellectuals and academics of the 19th century.
Sarvepalli RadhakrishnanSarvepalli Radhakrishnan
05 September 1888, Indian
Confident, Ambitious
Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud
06 May 1856, Austrian
Neurologist, Psychiatrist

Karl MarxKarl Marx
05 May 1818, Prussian
Economist, Philosopher

Vladimir LeninVladimir Lenin
22 April 1870, Russian
Russian Revolutionary & Head of Communist Party

Friedrich NietzscheFriedrich Nietzsche
15 October 1844, German
Philosopher and Philologist

Vinayak Damodar SavarkarVinayak Damodar Savarkar
28 May 1883, Indian
Independence Activist, Reformer
Leon TrotskyLeon Trotsky
07 November 1879, Russian, Ukrainian, Russian
Founder and first leader of the Red Army

Carl JungCarl Jung
26 July 1875, Swiss
Psychiatrist

C. S. LewisC. S. Lewis
29 November 1898, Irish, British
Novelist

Ishwar Chandra VidyasagarIshwar Chandra Vidyasagar
26 September 1820, Indian
Social Reformer, Philosopher
Florence NightingaleFlorence Nightingale
12 May 1820, British
Statistician

Leo TolstoyLeo Tolstoy
09 September 1828, Russian
 
T. E. LawrenceT. E. Lawrence
16 August 1888, British
Archaeologist

W. E. B. Du BoisW. E. B. Du Bois
23 February 1868, Ghanaian
Civil Rights Activists

Fyodor DostoevskyFyodor Dostoevsky
11 November 1821, Russian
Russian novelist
Bertrand RussellBertrand Russell
18 May 1872, British, Welsh
Philosopher

Henry David ThoreauHenry David Thoreau
12 July 1817, American
Writer and Philosopher
Muhammad IqbalMuhammad Iqbal
09 November 1877, Pakistani
Poet & Philosopher

Maximilian Carl Emil WeberMax Weber
21 April 1864, German
Sociologist

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
27 August 1770, German
Philosopher, Philosophy Historian
John Maynard KeynesJohn Maynard Keynes
05 June 1883, British
Economist

John Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill
20 May 1806, British
British Philosopher and Civil Servant.
William JamesWilliam James
11 January 1842, American
Philosopher, Psychologist

Ludwig WittgensteinLudwig Wittgenstein
26 April 1889, Austrian
Philosopher

Jean PiagetJean Piaget
09 August 1896, Swiss
 

John DeweyJohn Dewey
20 October 1859, American
Philosopher
Martin HeideggerMartin Heidegger
26 September 1889, German
German Philosopher
Jiddu KrishnamurtiJiddu Krishnamurti
12 May 1895, Indian
Public Speaker & Philosopher

Friedrich EngelsFriedrich Engels
28 November 1820, German
Philosopher

Rosa LuxemburgRosa Luxemburg
05 March 1871, German, Polish
Marxist Theorist

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lev_Vygotsky.jpgLev Vygotsky
17 November 1896, Russian
Psychologist
Herbert SpencerHerbert Spencer
27 April 1820, British
Philosopher

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Khalil GibranKhalil Gibran
06 January 1883, Lebanese
Artist

Thomas Robert MalthusThomas Robert Malthus
13 February 1766, British
Political Economist

Rudolf SteinerRudolf Steiner
25 February 1861, Croatian
Philosopher, social reformer, architect and

Auguste ComteAuguste Comte
19 January 1798, French
Philosopher
Zora Neale HurstonZora Neale Hurston
07 January 1891, American
Folklorist, Anthropologist

Alexis de TocquevilleAlexis de Tocqueville
29 July 1805, French
 
Alfred AdlerAlfred Adler
07 February 1870, Austrian
 

Rudolf VirchowRudolf Virchow
13 October 1821, German
Doctor, Anthropologist

Walter BenjaminWalter Benjamin
15 July 1892, German
 
Alfred Russel WallaceAlfred Russel Wallace
08 January 1823, British
Naturalist, Explorer, Geographer, Anthropologist

Edith SteinEdith Stein
12 October 1891, German
Philosopher
 Peter KropotkinPeter Kropotkin
09 December 1842, Russian
Philosopher & Activist

Mikhail BakuninMikhail Bakunin
30 May 1814, Swiss, Russian
Philosopher

George BooleGeorge Boole
02 November 1815, British
Mathematician, Philosopher and Logician

George SantayanaGeorge Santayana
16 December 1863, Spanish, Italian
Philosopher, Essayist, Poet, & Novelist

Ludwig von MisesLudwig von Mises
29 September 1881, Austrian
Economist, Philosopher, Sociologist
Franz BoasFranz Boas
09 July 1858, American
Anthropologist

Adam WeishauptAdam Weishaupt
06 February 1748, German
Philosopher

Henry GeorgeHenry George
02 September 1839, American
Economist, Politician, Writer

Alfred North WhiteheadAlfred North Whitehead
15 February 1861, British, American
Mathematician, Philosopher
Henri BergsonHenri Bergson
18 October 1859, French
Philosopher and Writer

Richard Francis BurtonRichard Francis Burton
19 March 1821, British
Translator
Reinhold NiebuhrReinhold Niebuhr
21 June 1892, American
Theologian

Charlotte Perkins GilmanCharlotte Perkins Gilman
03 July 1860, American
Writer

Mahadev Govind RanadeMahadev Govind Ranade
18 January 1842, Indian
Judge, Social Reformer
Alfred Marshall Alfred Marshall
26 July 1842, British
Economist

Pierre Teilhard de ChardinPierre Teilhard de Chardin
01 May 1881, French
Philosopher & Jesuit Priest
Anna FreudAnna Freud
03 December 1895, Austrian
Founder of psychoanalytic child psychology

Martin BuberMartin Buber
08 February 1878, Austrian, Israeli
Philosopher

Paul TillichPaul Tillich
20 August 1886, German, American
 
Karl BarthKarl Barth
10 May 1886, Swiss
Theologian

Will DurantWill Durant
05 November 1885, American
Writer, Historian, Philosopher
vNikos Kazantzakis
18 February 1883, Greek
Philosopher and Writer

Miguel de UnamunoMiguel de Unamuno
29 September 1864, Spanish
Writer

Max MüllerMax Müller
06 December 1823, German, British
Scholar, Philologist

V. Gordon ChildeV. Gordon Childe
14 April 1892, Australian
Archaeologist and Philologist
Marie StopesMarie Stopes
15 October 1880, British
Paleobotanist & Women’s Rights Activists
William Desmond TaylorWilliam Desmond Taylor
26 April 1872, Irish, American
Actor, Director

John Wesely PowellJohn Wesley Powell
24 March 1834, American
Explorer, Geologist

Lillian Moller GilbrethLillian Moller Gilbreth
24 May 1878, American
Mother of Modern Management

Henry AdamsHenry Adams
16 February 1838, American
Historian
Debendranath TagoreDebendranath Tagore
15 May 1817, Indian
Philosopher

Gunnar MyrdalGunnar Myrdal
06 December 1898, Swedish
Economist

Emil KraepelinEmil Kraepelin
15 February 1856, German
Psychiatrist

Douglas MawsonDouglas Mawson
05 May 1882, Australian
Explorer, Geologist

William BeveridgeWilliam Beveridge
05 March 1879, British
Economist
Immanuel VelikovskyImmanuel Velikovsky
10 June 1895, Israeli
Author

Sir Syed Ahmad KhanSir Syed Ahmad Khan
17 October 1817, Indian
Founder of Aligarh Muslim University
Alfred KorzybskiAlfred Korzybski
03 July 1879, Polish
Scholar who developed the field of General

Ragnar FrischRagnar Frisch
03 March 1895, Norwegian
Economist

Alexander HerzenAlexander Herzen
06 April 1812, Russian
Father of Russian socialism
Nicholas Murray ButlerNicholas Murray Butler
02 April 1862, American
Philosopher, Educator

Piero SraffaPiero Sraffa
05 August 1898, Italian
Founder of the Neo-Ricardian School of Economics
Sven HedinSven Hedin
19 February 1865, Swedish
Geographer, Explorer

Milan Rastislav ŠtefánikMilan Rastislav Štefánik
21 July 1880, Slovak
Politician

Emily Greene BalchEmily Greene Balch
08 January 1867, American
Social Activist

Carl Ortwin Sauer Carl O. Sauer
24 December 1889, American
Geographer
Bernard BerensonBernard Berenson
26 June 1865, American
Art Historian

Friedrich von HayekFriedrich von Hayek
08 May 1899, Austrian, German, British
Economist
Emile DurkheimEmile Durkheim
15 April 1858, French
Sociologist & Philosopher

Inge LehmannInge Lehmann
13 May 1888, Danish
Seismologist, Geophysicist
Frederic PassyFrédéric Passy
20 May 1822, French
Economist & Nobel Peace Prize Winner

Carlos Saavedra LamasCarlos Saavedra Lamas
01 November 1878, Argentinian
First Latin American Nobel Peace Prize Recipient
Albert ClaudeAlbert Claude
24 August 1899, Belgian
Cell Biologist