Intellectuals are the thinking lot who use their intelligence to demonstrate the different capacities of the human mind. They usually are involved in learning, critical analysis, researching and reasoning. They use their skills in different fields including literature, medicine, law and scientific research. Since times immemorial, the world has been home to several intellectuals and academicians who have utilized their thinking power to articulate a stream of belief which led to the development of theories. When Karl Marx suggested his theories, a school of thought was started and the era began to be known as a Marxist period of thinking. Marxism became a line of belief which is practiced till date. Much like the earlier days, every century has had its share of intellectuals and academicians who have contributed to the world knowledge through their wisdom, thinking and philosophies. In the 19th century, there were several intellectuals and academicians who changed the world with their philosophies. Great intellectuals like Alexander Bain, Alfred Adler, Alfred Russell, Wallace, Arthur Keith, Bernard Berenson and others introduced new theories, philosophies and thinking in various fields to enrich the era’s intellectual and academic history. Their endeavour towards reaching new models and theories assisted in establishing new foundations of belief. Check this section to know about some of the most famous intellectuals and academics of the 19th century.
Karl MarxKarl Marx

05 May 1818

German,French,British,Prussian

Friedrich NietzscheFriedrich Nietzsche

15 October 1844

German

Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud

06 May 1856

Austrian

Vladimir LeninVladimir Lenin

22 April 1870

Russian

Leon TrotskyLeon Trotsky

07 November 1879

Russian,Ukrainian,Russian

Carl JungCarl Jung

26 July 1875

Swiss

C. S. LewisC. S. Lewis

29 November 1898

Irish,British

Leo TolstoyLeo Tolstoy

09 September 1828

Russian

William JamesWilliam James

11 January 1842

American

Bertrand RussellBertrand Russell

18 May 1872

British,Welsh

Fyodor DostoevskyFyodor Dostoevsky

11 November 1821

Russian

Muhammad IqbalMuhammad Iqbal

09 November 1877

Pakistani

T. E. LawrenceT. E. Lawrence

16 August 1888

British

W. E. B. Du BoisW. E. B. Du Bois

23 February 1868

Ghanaian

Henry David ThoreauHenry David Thoreau

12 July 1817

American

Sarvepalli RadhakrishnanSarvepalli Radhakrishnan

05 September 1888

Indian

John Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill

20 May 1806

British

John Maynard KeynesJohn Maynard Keynes

05 June 1883

British

Jean PiagetJean Piaget

09 August 1896

Swiss

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

27 August 1770

German

Ludwig WittgensteinLudwig Wittgenstein

26 April 1889

Austrian

Martin HeideggerMartin Heidegger

26 September 1889

German

John DeweyJohn Dewey

20 October 1859

American

Friedrich EngelsFriedrich Engels

28 November 1820

German

Rudolf VirchowRudolf Virchow

13 October 1821

German

Jiddu KrishnamurtiJiddu Krishnamurti

12 May 1895

Indian

Rosa LuxemburgRosa Luxemburg

05 March 1871

German,Polish

Thomas Robert MalthusThomas Robert Malthus

13 February 1766

British

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lev_Vygotsky.jpgLev Vygotsky

17 November 1896

Russian

Ishwar Chandra VidyasagarIshwar Chandra Vidyasagar

26 September 1820

Indian

Herbert SpencerHerbert Spencer

27 April 1820

British

Zora Neale HurstonZora Neale Hurston

07 January 1891

American

Rudolf SteinerRudolf Steiner

25 February 1861

Croatian

Auguste ComteAuguste Comte

19 January 1798

French

Alexis de TocquevilleAlexis de Tocqueville

29 July 1805

French

Walter BenjaminWalter Benjamin

15 July 1892

German

Alfred AdlerAlfred Adler

07 February 1870

Austrian

Alfred Russel WallaceAlfred Russel Wallace

08 January 1823

British

Richard Francis BurtonRichard Francis Burton

19 March 1821

British

 Peter KropotkinPeter Kropotkin

09 December 1842

Russian

Mikhail BakuninMikhail Bakunin

30 May 1814

Swiss,Russian

George BooleGeorge Boole

02 November 1815

British

Ludwig von MisesLudwig von Mises

29 September 1881

Austrian

George SantayanaGeorge Santayana

16 December 1863

Spanish,Italian

Reinhold NiebuhrReinhold Niebuhr

21 June 1892

American

Alfred North WhiteheadAlfred North Whitehead

15 February 1861

British,American

Henri BergsonHenri Bergson

18 October 1859

French

Charlotte Perkins GilmanCharlotte Perkins Gilman

03 July 1860

American

Franz BoasFranz Boas

09 July 1858

American

Alfred Marshall Alfred Marshall

26 July 1842

British

Karl BarthKarl Barth

10 May 1886

Swiss

Pierre Teilhard de ChardinPierre Teilhard de Chardin

01 May 1881

French

Anna FreudAnna Freud

03 December 1895

Austrian

Edith SteinEdith Stein

12 October 1891

German

Martin BuberMartin Buber

08 February 1878

Austrian,Israeli

Will DurantWill Durant

05 November 1885

American

Henry GeorgeHenry George

02 September 1839

American

Mahadev Govind RanadeMahadev Govind Ranade

18 January 1842

Indian

Paul TillichPaul Tillich

20 August 1886

German,American

vNikos Kazantzakis

18 February 1883

Greek

Miguel de UnamunoMiguel de Unamuno

29 September 1864

Spanish

William Desmond TaylorWilliam Desmond Taylor

26 April 1872

Irish,American

Marie StopesMarie Stopes

15 October 1880

British

John Wesely PowellJohn Wesley Powell

24 March 1834

American

Henry AdamsHenry Adams

16 February 1838

American

Debendranath TagoreDebendranath Tagore

15 May 1817

Indian

Immanuel VelikovskyImmanuel Velikovsky

10 June 1895

Israeli

Lillian Moller GilbrethLillian Moller Gilbreth

24 May 1878

American

Gunnar MyrdalGunnar Myrdal

06 December 1898

Swedish

William BeveridgeWilliam Beveridge

05 March 1879

British

Douglas MawsonDouglas Mawson

05 May 1882

Australian

Emil KraepelinEmil Kraepelin

15 February 1856

German

Khalil GibranKhalil Gibran

06 January 1883

Lebanese

V. Gordon ChildeV. Gordon Childe

14 April 1892

Australian

Milan Rastislav ŠtefánikMilan Rastislav Štefánik

21 July 1880

Slovak

Sir Syed Ahmad KhanSir Syed Ahmad Khan

17 October 1817

Indian

Alexander HerzenAlexander Herzen

06 April 1812

Russian

Alfred KorzybskiAlfred Korzybski

03 July 1879

Polish

Alfred KroeberAlfred L. Kroeber

11 June 1876

American

Ragnar FrischRagnar Frisch

03 March 1895

Norwegian

Sven HedinSven Hedin

19 February 1865

Swedish