Intellectuals are the thinking lot who use their intelligence to demonstrate the different capacities of the human mind. They usually are involved in learning, critical analysis, researching and reasoning. They use their skills in different fields including literature, medicine, law and scientific research. Since times immemorial, the world has been home to several intellectuals and academicians who have utilized their thinking power to articulate a stream of belief which led to the development of theories. When Karl Marx suggested his theories, a school of thought was started and the era began to be known as a Marxist period of thinking. Marxism became a line of belief which is practiced till date. Much like the earlier days, every century has had its share of intellectuals and academicians who have contributed to the world knowledge through their wisdom, thinking and philosophies. In the 19th century, there were several intellectuals and academicians who changed the world with their philosophies. Great intellectuals like Alexander Bain, Alfred Adler, Alfred Russell, Wallace, Arthur Keith, Bernard Berenson and others introduced new theories, philosophies and thinking in various fields to enrich the era’s intellectual and academic history. Their endeavour towards reaching new models and theories assisted in establishing new foundations of belief. Check this section to know about some of the most famous intellectuals and academics of the 19th century.
Mahatma GandhiMahatma Gandhi
02 October 1869, Indian
Leader of Indian Independence Movement
Karl MarxKarl Marx
05 May 1818, German

Vladimir LeninVladimir Lenin
22 April 1870, Russian
Former Premier of the Soviet Union

Friedrich NietzscheFriedrich Nietzsche
15 October 1844, German

Carl JungCarl Jung
26 July 1875, Swiss

Leo TolstoyLeo Tolstoy
09 September 1828, Russian
C. S. LewisC. S. Lewis
29 November 1898, Irish, British

Florence NightingaleFlorence Nightingale
12 May 1820, British
Founder of Modern Nursing

Fyodor DostoevskyFyodor Dostoevsky
11 November 1821, Russian
Novelist & Philosopher
T. E. LawrenceT. E. Lawrence
16 August 1888, British

W. E. B. Du BoisW. E. B. Du Bois
23 February 1868, Ghanaian
Civil Rights Activists
Henry David ThoreauHenry David Thoreau
12 July 1817, American
Writer and Philosopher

Bertrand RussellBertrand Russell
18 May 1872, British, Welsh

Ralph Waldo EmersionRalph Waldo Emerson
25 May 1803, American
American Lecturer, Philosopher, Essayist & Poet

Vinayak Damodar SavarkarVinayak Damodar Savarkar
28 May 1883, Indian
Independence Activist, Reformer

John Maynard KeynesJohn Maynard Keynes
05 June 1883, British
Soren KierkegaardSoren Kierkegaard
05 May 1813, Danish
Philosopher, Theologian & Religious Author

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
27 August 1770, German
Philosopher, Philosophy Historian

Jiddu KrishnamurtiJiddu Krishnamurti
12 May 1895, Indian
Public Speaker & Philosopher

Ludwig WittgensteinLudwig Wittgenstein
26 April 1889, Austrian, British
Muhammad IqbalMuhammad Iqbal
09 November 1877, Pakistani
Poet & Philosopher

Maximilian Carl Emil WeberMax Weber
21 April 1864, German
Rosa LuxemburgRosa Luxemburg
05 March 1871, German, Polish
Marxist Theorist

John Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill
20 May 1806, British
British Philosopher and Civil Servant.

Martin HeideggerMartin Heidegger
26 September 1889, German
German Philosopher
Friedrich EngelsFriedrich Engels
28 November 1820, German

Khalil GibranKhalil Gibran
06 January 1883, Lebanese
Sarvepalli RadhakrishnanSarvepalli Radhakrishnan
05 September 1888, Indian
Confident, Ambitious

Friedrich von HayekFriedrich von Hayek
08 May 1899, Austrian, German, British

John DeweyJohn Dewey
20 October 1859, American
Jean PiagetJean Piaget
09 August 1896, Swiss

Continue Reading Below
Samuel ColeridgeSamuel Coleridge
21 October 1772, British
Sir Syed Ahmad KhanSir Syed Ahmad Khan
17 October 1817, Indian
Founder of Aligarh Muslim University

William JamesWilliam James
11 January 1842, American
Philosopher, Psychologist

Rudolf SteinerRudolf Steiner
25 February 1861, Croatian
Philosopher, social reformer, architect and

Zora Neale HurstonZora Neale Hurston
07 January 1891, American
Folklorist, Anthropologist
Emile DurkheimEmile Durkheim
15 April 1858, French
Sociologist & Philosopher
Helena BlavatskyHelena Blavatsky
12 August 1831, American, Russian

 Peter KropotkinPeter Kropotkin
09 December 1842, Russian
Philosopher & Activist

Auguste ComteAuguste Comte
19 January 1798, French

Mikhail BakuninMikhail Bakunin
30 May 1814, Swiss, Russian
Walter BenjaminWalter Benjamin
15 July 1892, German

Howard CarterHoward Carter
09 May 1874, British

Thomas Robert MalthusThomas Robert Malthus
13 February 1766, British
Political Economist

Ahmed Raza Khan BarelviAhmed Raza Khan Barelvi
14 June 1856, Indian
Islamic Scholar, Reformer

Herbert SpencerHerbert Spencer
27 April 1820, British
Max StirnerMax Stirner
25 October 1806, German

Ludwig von MisesLudwig von Mises
29 September 1881, Austrian
Economist, Philosopher, Sociologist
Alexis de TocquevilleAlexis de Tocqueville
29 July 1805, French

Ferdinand de SaussureFerdinand de Saussure
26 November 1857, Swiss

Ishwar Chandra VidyasagarIshwar Chandra Vidyasagar
26 September 1820, Indian
Social Reformer, Philosopher
David RicardoDavid Ricardo
18 April 1772, British
Economist Vygotsky
17 November 1896, Russian
Carl SchmittCarl Schmitt
11 July 1888, German
Jurist, Geopolitician, Political Scientist

Alfred AdlerAlfred Adler
07 February 1870, Austrian

John Henry NewmanJohn Henry Newman
21 February 1801, British

Richard Francis BurtonRichard Francis Burton
19 March 1821, British

Oswald SpenglerOswald Spengler
29 May 1880, German
Adam WeishauptAdam Weishaupt
06 February 1748, German

George SantayanaGeorge Santayana
16 December 1863, Spanish, Italian
Philosopher, Essayist, Poet, & Novelist

Pierre-Joseph ProudhonPierre-Joseph Proudhon
15 January 1809, French

Henri FayolHenri Fayol
29 July 1841, French
Industrialist, Management Thinker
Marie StopesMarie Stopes
15 October 1880, British
Paleobotanist & Women’s Rights Activists

George BooleGeorge Boole
02 November 1815, British
Mathematician, Philosopher and Logician
John B. WatsonJohn B. Watson
09 January 1878, American

Alfred Russel WallaceAlfred Russel Wallace
08 January 1823, British
Naturalist, Explorer, Geographer, Anthropologist

Ronald FisherRonald Fisher
17 February 1890, British
Lord ActonLord Acton
10 January 1834, German, Italian, British

Hjalmar SchachtHjalmar Schacht
22 January 1877, German, Danish
Henri BergsonHenri Bergson
18 October 1859, French
Philosopher and Writer

Reinhold NiebuhrReinhold Niebuhr
21 June 1892, American

Jean-Baptiste LamarckJean-Baptiste Lamarck
01 August 1744, French
Will DurantWill Durant
05 November 1885, American
Writer, Historian, Philosopher

Helmuth von Moltke the ElderHelmuth von Moltke the Elder
26 October 1800, German
General, Historian
Rudolf VirchowRudolf Virchow
13 October 1821, German
Doctor, Anthropologist

Anna FreudAnna Freud
03 December 1895, Austrian
Founder of psychoanalytic child psychology

Charles Sanders PeirceCharles Sanders Peirce
10 September 1839, American
Scientist, Philosopher

Edith SteinEdith Stein
12 October 1891, German
Henry GeorgeHenry George
02 September 1839, American
Economist, Politician, Writer
Karl BarthKarl Barth
10 May 1886, Swiss

Alfred North WhiteheadAlfred North Whitehead
15 February 1861, British, American
Mathematician, Philosopher

Charlotte Perkins GilmanCharlotte Perkins Gilman
03 July 1860, American

Franz BoasFranz Boas
09 July 1858, American
Cesare LombrosoCesare Lombroso
06 November 1835, Italian

Stamford RafflesStamford Raffles
06 July 1781, Jamaican, British
Former Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies

Heinrich SchliemannHeinrich Schliemann
06 January 1822, German

vNikos Kazantzakis
18 February 1883, Greek
Philosopher and Writer

Miguel de UnamunoMiguel de Unamuno
29 September 1864, Spanish
Paul TillichPaul Tillich
20 August 1886, German, American

Allan Octavian HumeAllan Octavian Hume
04 June 1829, Indian, British, Scottish
Founder of Indian National Congress
Martin BuberMartin Buber
08 February 1878, Austrian, Israeli

Norbert WienerNorbert Wiener
26 November 1894, American
Father of Cybernetics
Thorstein VeblenThorstein Veblen
30 July 1857, American
Mahadev Govind RanadeMahadev Govind Ranade
18 January 1842, Indian
Judge, Social Reformer