Intellectuals are the thinking lot who use their intelligence to demonstrate the different capacities of the human mind. They usually are involved in learning, critical analysis, researching and reasoning. They use their skills in different fields including literature, medicine, law and scientific research. Since times immemorial, the world has been home to several intellectuals and academicians who have utilized their thinking power to articulate a stream of belief which led to the development of theories. When Karl Marx suggested his theories, a school of thought was started and the era began to be known as a Marxist period of thinking. Marxism became a line of belief which is practiced till date. Much like the earlier days, every century has had its share of intellectuals and academicians who have contributed to the world knowledge through their wisdom, thinking and philosophies. In the 19th century, there were several intellectuals and academicians who changed the world with their philosophies. Great intellectuals like Alexander Bain, Alfred Adler, Alfred Russell, Wallace, Arthur Keith, Bernard Berenson and others introduced new theories, philosophies and thinking in various fields to enrich the era’s intellectual and academic history. Their endeavour towards reaching new models and theories assisted in establishing new foundations of belief. Check this section to know about some of the most famous intellectuals and academics of the 19th century.
Vladimir LeninVladimir Lenin
22 April 1870, Russian
Russian Revolutionary & Head of Communist Party
Karl MarxKarl Marx
05 May 1818, Prussian
Economist, Philosopher

Friedrich NietzscheFriedrich Nietzsche
15 October 1844, German
Philosopher and Philologist

Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud
06 May 1856, Austrian
Neurologist, Psychiatrist

Leon TrotskyLeon Trotsky
07 November 1879, Russian, Ukrainian, Russian
Founder and first leader of the Red Army

Carl JungCarl Jung
26 July 1875, Swiss
Psychiatrist
C. S. LewisC. S. Lewis
29 November 1898, Irish, British
Novelist

Sarvepalli RadhakrishnanSarvepalli Radhakrishnan
05 September 1888, Indian
Confident, Ambitious

Leo TolstoyLeo Tolstoy
09 September 1828, Russian
 

T. E. LawrenceT. E. Lawrence
16 August 1888, British
Archaeologist
Florence NightingaleFlorence Nightingale
12 May 1820, British
Statistician

Bertrand RussellBertrand Russell
18 May 1872, British, Welsh
Philosopher
Fyodor DostoevskyFyodor Dostoevsky
11 November 1821, Russian
Russian novelist

Henry David ThoreauHenry David Thoreau
12 July 1817, American
Writer and Philosopher

W. E. B. Du BoisW. E. B. Du Bois
23 February 1868, Ghanaian
Civil Rights Activists
Muhammad IqbalMuhammad Iqbal
09 November 1877, Pakistani
Poet & Philosopher

John Maynard KeynesJohn Maynard Keynes
05 June 1883, British
Economist
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
27 August 1770, German
Philosopher, Philosophy Historian

Jiddu KrishnamurtiJiddu Krishnamurti
12 May 1895, Indian
Public Speaker & Philosopher

Maximilian Carl Emil WeberMax Weber
21 April 1864, German
Sociologist
John Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill
20 May 1806, British
British Philosopher and Civil Servant.

Ludwig WittgensteinLudwig Wittgenstein
26 April 1889, Austrian
Philosopher
Martin HeideggerMartin Heidegger
26 September 1889, German
German Philosopher

John DeweyJohn Dewey
20 October 1859, American
Philosopher

Jean PiagetJean Piaget
09 August 1896, Swiss
 

William JamesWilliam James
11 January 1842, American
Philosopher, Psychologist
Friedrich EngelsFriedrich Engels
28 November 1820, German
Philosopher
Ishwar Chandra VidyasagarIshwar Chandra Vidyasagar
26 September 1820, Indian
Social Reformer, Philosopher

Rosa LuxemburgRosa Luxemburg
05 March 1871, German, Polish
Marxist Theorist

Herbert SpencerHerbert Spencer
27 April 1820, British
Philosopher

Rudolf SteinerRudolf Steiner
25 February 1861, Croatian
Philosopher, social reformer, architect and
Auguste ComteAuguste Comte
19 January 1798, French
 

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Thomas Robert MalthusThomas Robert Malthus
13 February 1766, British
Political Economist

Zora Neale HurstonZora Neale Hurston
07 January 1891, American
Folklorist, Anthropologist

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lev_Vygotsky.jpgLev Vygotsky
17 November 1896, Russian
Psychologist

Khalil GibranKhalil Gibran
06 January 1883, Lebanese
Artist
Mikhail BakuninMikhail Bakunin
30 May 1814, Swiss, Russian
Philosopher

Alfred AdlerAlfred Adler
07 February 1870, Austrian
 
Alexis de TocquevilleAlexis de Tocqueville
29 July 1805, French
 

 Peter KropotkinPeter Kropotkin
09 December 1842, Russian
Philosopher & Activist

Walter BenjaminWalter Benjamin
15 July 1892, German
 
Edith SteinEdith Stein
12 October 1891, German
Philosopher

Alfred Russel WallaceAlfred Russel Wallace
08 January 1823, British
Naturalist, Explorer, Geographer, Anthropologist
George SantayanaGeorge Santayana
16 December 1863, Spanish, Italian
Philosopher, Essayist, Poet, & Novelist

Rudolf VirchowRudolf Virchow
13 October 1821, German
Doctor, Anthropologist

Ludwig von MisesLudwig von Mises
29 September 1881, Austrian
Economist, Philosopher, Sociologist

Richard Francis BurtonRichard Francis Burton
19 March 1821, British
Translator

Alfred North WhiteheadAlfred North Whitehead
15 February 1861, British, American
Mathematician, Philosopher
Henry GeorgeHenry George
02 September 1839, American
Economist, Politician, Writer

Adam WeishauptAdam Weishaupt
06 February 1748, German
Philosopher

George BooleGeorge Boole
02 November 1815, British
Mathematician, Philosopher and Logician

Franz BoasFranz Boas
09 July 1858, American
Anthropologist
Reinhold NiebuhrReinhold Niebuhr
21 June 1892, American
Theologian

Henri BergsonHenri Bergson
18 October 1859, French
Philosopher and Writer
Alfred Marshall Alfred Marshall
26 July 1842, British
Economist

Pierre Teilhard de ChardinPierre Teilhard de Chardin
01 May 1881, French
Philosopher & Jesuit Priest

Paul TillichPaul Tillich
20 August 1886, German, American
 
Will DurantWill Durant
05 November 1885, American
Writer, Historian, Philosopher

Karl BarthKarl Barth
10 May 1886, Swiss
Theologian
Anna FreudAnna Freud
03 December 1895, Austrian
Founder of psychoanalytic child psychology

vNikos Kazantzakis
18 February 1883, Greek
Philosopher and Writer

Martin BuberMartin Buber
08 February 1878, Austrian, Israeli
Philosopher
Charlotte Perkins GilmanCharlotte Perkins Gilman
03 July 1860, American
Writer

Max MüllerMax Müller
06 December 1823, German, British
Scholar, Philologist
William Desmond TaylorWilliam Desmond Taylor
26 April 1872, Irish, American
Actor, Director

Mahadev Govind RanadeMahadev Govind Ranade
18 January 1842, Indian
Judge, Social Reformer

John Wesely PowellJohn Wesley Powell
24 March 1834, American
Explorer, Geologist

Marie StopesMarie Stopes
15 October 1880, British
Paleobotanist & Women’s Rights Activists
Miguel de UnamunoMiguel de Unamuno
29 September 1864, Spanish
Writer
Henry AdamsHenry Adams
16 February 1838, American
Historian

Debendranath TagoreDebendranath Tagore
15 May 1817, Indian
Philosopher

V. Gordon ChildeV. Gordon Childe
14 April 1892, Australian
Archaeologist and Philologist

Immanuel VelikovskyImmanuel Velikovsky
10 June 1895, Israeli
Author
Douglas MawsonDouglas Mawson
05 May 1882, Australian
Explorer, Geologist

Alfred KorzybskiAlfred Korzybski
03 July 1879, Polish
Scholar who developed the field of General

Lillian Moller GilbrethLillian Moller Gilbreth
24 May 1878, American
Mother of Modern Management

Gunnar MyrdalGunnar Myrdal
06 December 1898, Swedish
Economist

William BeveridgeWilliam Beveridge
05 March 1879, British
Economist
Emil KraepelinEmil Kraepelin
15 February 1856, German
Psychiatrist

Alexander HerzenAlexander Herzen
06 April 1812, Russian
Father of Russian socialism
Sir Syed Ahmad KhanSir Syed Ahmad Khan
17 October 1817, Indian
Founder of Aligarh Muslim University

Sven HedinSven Hedin
19 February 1865, Swedish
Geographer, Explorer

Ragnar FrischRagnar Frisch
03 March 1895, Norwegian
Economist
Piero SraffaPiero Sraffa
05 August 1898, Italian
Founder of the Neo-Ricardian School of Economics

Inge LehmannInge Lehmann
13 May 1888, Danish
Seismologist, Geophysicist
Milan Rastislav ŠtefánikMilan Rastislav Štefánik
21 July 1880, Slovak
Politician

Nicholas Murray ButlerNicholas Murray Butler
02 April 1862, American
Philosopher, Educator

Bernard BerensonBernard Berenson
26 June 1865, American
Art Historian

Emile DurkheimEmile Durkheim
15 April 1858, French
Sociologist & Philosopher
William Morris DavisWilliam Morris Davis
12 February 1850, American
Geographer, Geologist, Meteorologist

Friedrich von HayekFriedrich von Hayek
08 May 1899, Austrian, German, British
Economist
Emily Greene BalchEmily Greene Balch
08 January 1867, American
Social Activist

Mirza Fatali AkhundovMirza Fatali Akhundov
12 July 1812, Azerbaijani
Writer and Philisopher
Carl Ortwin Sauer Carl O. Sauer
24 December 1889, American
Geographer

Albert ClaudeAlbert Claude
24 August 1899, Belgian
Cell Biologist
Frederic PassyFrédéric Passy
20 May 1822, French
Economist & Nobel Peace Prize Winner