Famous 19th Century Architects

Find out more about the greatest 19th Century Architects, including Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier, Buckminster Fuller, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Gustave Eiffel.

This ranking is based on an algorithm that combines various factors, including the votes of our users and search trends on the internet.

Vote for Your Favourite 19th Century Architects

 1 

Frank Lloyd Wright
8
Birthdate: June 8, 1867
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Richland Center, Wisconsin, United States
Died: April 9, 1959

Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect who designed over 1,000 structures in a career spanning 70 years. A pioneer of organic architecture, Wright influenced three generations of architects by playing a critical role in the 20th century's architectural movements. His structure Fallingwater is called America's best architectural work and Wright is considered the greatest architect America has ever produced.

 2 
Antoni Gaudí
(Architect)

Antoni Gaudí
5
Birthdate: June 25, 1852
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Reus
Died: June 10, 1926
Spanish architect Antoni Gaudí is remembered as a prominent figure of Catalan Modernism. Most of his works, including the incomplete church of the Sagrada Família, are in Barcelona. His innovative methods included the use of trencadís. By 2005, seven of his creations had been named UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

 3 
Alvar Aalto
(Architect)

Alvar Aalto
4
Birthdate: February 3, 1898
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Kuortane
Died: May 11, 1976

Finnish architect Alvar Aalto initially had his studies interrupted by the Finnish Civil War, which saw him fighting for the White Army. His first architectural design was for his parents’ house. He had experimented with furniture and glassware, too. His works showcase a move from classicism to functionalism.

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 4 
Louis Sullivan
(Pioneering Architect)

Louis Sullivan
4
Birthdate: September 3, 1856
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Boston
Died: April 14, 1924

Louis Sullivan was an architect who became only the second person to be honored with a posthumous AIA Gold Medal. Dubbed the father of modernism and the father of skyscrapers, Sullivan contributed immensely to the Chicago School of architecture. He is also credited with mentoring Frank Lloyd Wright who went on to become a respected architect in his own right.

 5 
Daniel Burnham
(Architect, Urban Designer)

Daniel Burnham
5
Birthdate: September 4, 1846
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Henderson
Died: June 1, 1912

American architect Daniel Burnham was one of the pioneering designers of the skyscrapers that populate cities such as Chicago. Part of the Beaux-Arts movement, he had been the director of the World’s Columbian Exposition. He also formed his own firm, Burnham & Root with John Wellborn Root.

 6 
Gustave Eiffel
(Designer of Eiffel Tower and contributed to Statue of Liberty)

Gustave Eiffel
4
Birthdate: December 15, 1832
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Dijon, France
Died: December 27, 1923
The man behind the jewel that adorns Paris, the Eiffel Tower, French civil engineer Gustave Eiffel later earned the nickname “the magician of iron.” He revolutionized bridge-building by using compressed-air caissons, designed the Statue of Liberty, and built the first aerodynamic laboratory. He died while listening to Beethoven's 5th symphony.

 7 
Frederick Law Olmsted
(Landscape Architect)

Frederick Law Olmsted
4
Birthdate: April 26, 1822
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Hartford
Died: August 28, 1903

Frederick Law Olmsted was an American journalist, landscape architect, public administrator, and social critic. Dubbed the father of American landscape architecture, Frederick was responsible for co-designing several well-known urban parks including Walnut Hill Park, Prospect Park, Cadwalader Park, and Central Park. He is also remembered for his work on the landscape encircling the US Capitol building.

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 8 
Adolf Loos
(Architect)

Adolf Loos
5
Birthdate: December 10, 1870
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Brno
Died: August 23, 1933

Austrian architect Adolf Loos is often compared to American architect Frank Lloyd Wright in terms of his contribution. Loos believed architecture shouldn’t contain the extra elements and ornaments promoted by Art Nouveau. Mostly known for his residential projects, he built modern buildings such as the Goldman and Salatsch Building.

 9 
Thomas Andrews
(Businessperson, Naval Architect)

Thomas Andrews
4
Birthdate: February 7, 1873
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Comber, County Down, Ireland
Died: April 15, 1912

 10 

Charles Rennie Mackintosh
4
Birthdate: June 7, 1868
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Townhead, Glasgow, United Kingdom
Died: December 10, 1928

Charles Rennie Mackintosh was a Scottish architect, designer, and artist. He was married to fellow artist Margaret Macdonald, and they both were influential on the European design movements Art Nouveau and Secessionism. Mackintosh is considered one of the most important figures of Modern Style (British Art Nouveau style). In his later years, he worked largely as a watercolorist. 

 11 
Stanford White
(Architect, Painter)

Stanford White
4
Birthdate: November 9, 1853
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: New York City
Died: June 25, 1906

Stanford White was an American architect who designed several important monuments including the Washington Square Arch. He also helped construct Nikola Tesla's Wardenclyffe Tower, which happens to be his last design. Although White was an influential and prominent designer of his time, he is best remembered for his illicit relationship with Evelyn Nesbit which has inspired several works of art.

 12 
Joseph Bazalgette
(Civil engineer)

Joseph Bazalgette
5
Birthdate: March 28, 1819
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Enfield, London, England
Died: March 15, 1891

British civil engineer Joseph Bazalgette was the man behind the development of the sewage system of London. He was later knighted for his achievements and had also served as the president of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Another notable work of his was the Hammersmith Bridge.

 13 
Gertrude Jekyll
(Horticulturist, Painter, Gardener, Non-fiction writer, Botanist, Architect)

Gertrude Jekyll
5
Birthdate: November 29, 1843
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: London
Died: December 8, 1932

Landscape architect Gertrude Jekyll was born into an affluent family and grew up in a refined environment, learning music and traveling. Initially interested in painting, she gave it up to focus on gardening when she developed eyesight problems. She built around 400 gardens and also collaborated with Sir Edwin Lutyens.

 14 
Julia Morgan
(Architect)

Julia Morgan
3
Birthdate: January 20, 1872
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: San Francisco
Died: February 2, 1957

Julia Morgan was an American engineer and architect who is credited with designing over 700 buildings in California. She was the first woman to study at the Beaux-Arts de Paris and the first woman to be honored with the AIA Gold Medal, which was conferred upon her posthumously. She also received a posthumous induction into the California Hall of Fame.

 15 
Lewis Mumford
(Architect, Historian of technology, Historian, Sociologist, Screenwriter, Literary critic, Philosopher, Journalist)

Lewis Mumford
4
Birthdate: October 19, 1895
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: New York City
Died: January 26, 1990

Lewis Mumford was an American sociologist, historian, literary critic, and philosopher of technology. He made significant contributions to American literary and cultural history, social philosophy, and the history of technology. His works also influenced a number of thinkers and authors like Jacques Ellul and Amory Lovins. Lewis Mumford also had a strong influence on American cellular biologist Barry Commoner.

 16 
Augustus Pugin
(Architect)

Augustus Pugin
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Birthdate: March 1, 1812
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Bloomsbury, London, England
Died: September 14, 1852

Augustus Pugin was an English designer, architect, artist, and critic. He is best remembered for his contribution to the Gothic Revival style of architecture. He is credited with designing the interior of the popular Palace of Westminster in London as well as the palace's iconic clock tower. Augustus Pugin also designed the Alton Castle in Staffordshire.

 17 
Richard Neutra
(Architect)

Richard Neutra
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Birthdate: April 8, 1892
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Vienna, Austria
Died: April 16, 1970

Born into an affluent Austro-Hungarian family, Richard Neutra later moved to the U.S. Best known for imparting the International Style in American architecture, he had previously worked on an award-winning project in Palestine. He created iconic buildings such as the Lovell House and also penned books such as Survival Through Design.

 18 
Herbert Baker
(Architect, Screenwriter)

Herbert Baker
3
Birthdate: June 9, 1862
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Owletts
Died: February 4, 1946

Herbert Baker was a British architect best remembered for shaping South African architecture during the 1890s and 1900s. He is also credited with designing some of the most notable government buildings in New Delhi. His work in Delhi, which includes the Parliament House and Viceroy's House, played a major role in establishing the city as the capital of British India.

 19 

Pierre Charles L'Enfant
4
Birthdate: August 2, 1754
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: June 14, 1825
Born to a famous French painter in Paris, Pierre Charles L'Enfant later joined the rebels in American Revolutionary War. While working as a military engineer in the U.S., he changed his name from Pierre to Peter. He was hired by George Washington to design the L'Enfant Plan for establishing Washington D.C.

 20 
James Hoban
(Architect, best known for designing the White House in Washington, D.C)

James Hoban
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Birthdate: 1755 AD
Birthplace: Callan, County Kilkenny, Ireland
Died: December 8, 1831

 21 
Herbert Macaulay
(Politician who is considered the founder of Nigerian nationalism)

Herbert Macaulay
3
Birthdate: November 14, 1864
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Lagos Colony, Nigeria
Died: May 7, 1946

 22 

Eugène Viollet-le-Duc
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Birthdate: January 27, 1814
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: September 17, 1879

Eugène Viollet-le-Duc was a French architect and author. He is credited with restoring prominent medieval landmarks in France, including iconic buildings which had been damaged during the French Revolution. He restored Notre-Dame de Paris and the Basilica of Saint-Denis, among others. He is regarded as the first theorist of modern architecture and wrote extensively on the subject. 

 23 
Fritz Todt
(Engineer, Politician, Civil engineer, Architect)

Fritz Todt
4
Birthdate: September 4, 1891
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Pforzheim
Died: February 8, 1942

Fritz Todt was a German civil engineer and architect. A senior Nazi, Todt oversaw the construction of Reichsautobahnen, a controlled-access highway, and also served as the Reich Minister for Armaments and Ammunition. Before the start of the Second World War, Todt initiated a military-engineering company called Organisation Todt that oversaw the construction of many Nazi concentration camps. 

 24 
Edwin Lutyens
(Architect)

Edwin Lutyens
4
Birthdate: March 29, 1869
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Kensington, London, England, United Kingdom
Died: January 1, 1944

Known for his planning of the city of New Delhi, the capital of India, English architect Edwin Lutyens had also built many English buildings, including war memorials and country houses. An area in Delhi has been named after him. Among his notable works was the Viceroy's House, which is now the Rashtrapati Bhavan.

 25 

Giles Gilbert Scott
3
Birthdate: November 9, 1880
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Hampstead, Middlesex, England
Died: February 8, 1960

Giles Gilbert Scott was a British architect best remembered for his work on popular edifices like the New Bodleian Library, Liverpool Cathedral, Battersea Power Station, and Cambridge University Library. He is also credited with designing the archetypical red telephone box.

 26 
Joseph Paxton
(Gardener & Architect)

Joseph Paxton
3
Birthdate: August 3, 1803
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Bedfordshire
Died: June 8, 1865

Landscape gardener Joseph Paxton initially worked for the duke of Devonshire, serving as a head gardener at the duke’s Chatsworth estate. However, his greatest contribution perhaps remains the Crystal Palace for the 1851 Great Exhibition in London. He also represented Coventry as a member of parliament.

 27 
Peter Behrens
(Poster artist, Architect, Typographer, Painter, Designer, Graphic designer, University teacher)

Peter Behrens
3
Birthdate: April 14, 1868
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Hamburg
Died: February 27, 1940

Considered one of the pioneers of industrial design, German architect Peter Behrens had built his own house and all his furniture at the Darmstadt artists’ colony. The AEG Turbine Factory was one of his best-known works, and he had also designed their electric fans, lamps, and retail shops.

 28 
Eliel Saarinen
(architect)

Eliel Saarinen
3
Birthdate: August 20, 1873
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Rantasalmi
Died: July 1, 1950

 29 
Lloyd Wright
(Architect)

Lloyd Wright
3
Birthdate: March 31, 1890
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Oak Park, Illinois, United States
Died: May 31, 1978

American architect Lloyd Wright is best remembered for his Prairie style of architecture predominant in the 20th-century American residential buildings. A proponent of organic architecture, he also delivered talks on architecture. He made headlines when a staff set fire to his Taliesin studio and murdered seven people.

 30 

Richard Morris Hunt
3
Birthdate: October 31, 1827
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Brattleboro, Vermont, United States
Died: July 31, 1895

Architect Richard Morris Hunt is largely credited with bringing in the French Beaux-Arts style to the U.S. He was also a major force behind the formation of the American Institute of Architects. His creations include the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s façade and the Statue of Liberty’s pedestal.

 31 

Albert Kahn (Architect)
3
Birthdate: March 21, 1869
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Rhaunen, Germany
Died: December 8, 1942

Foremost industrial architect and planner of his time, Albert Kahn began his career as an apprentice under a leading Michigan architect. Having little schooling, he mostly learned on the job, eventually establishing his own company, designing most of the large automobile companies in USA, including the Ford River Rouge automobile complex.  Working abroad, he also designed 521 factories in  U.S.S.R.

 32 
Ebenezer Howard
(Urban planner)

Ebenezer Howard
4
Birthdate: January 29, 1850
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: London, England
Died: May 1, 1928

Ebenezer Howard was a British urban planner best remembered for his book Garden Cities of To-morrow. The book gave rise to the establishment of the garden city movement, which in turn influenced the development of several garden cities like Letchworth Garden City and Welwyn Garden City.

 33 
Charles Barry
(Architect)

Charles Barry
3
Birthdate: May 23, 1795
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: London, England
Died: May 12, 1860

Architect Sir Charles Barry was one of the significant figures of the Gothic Revival in England and is best known for his work on the rebuilding of the Palace of Westminster, or the Houses of Parliament. He also built King Edward’s School, the Athenaeum, and several gardens, among other major structures.

 34 

George Gilbert Scott
3
Birthdate: July 13, 1811
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Gawcott, England
Died: March 27, 1878

George Gilbert Scott was a British architect best remembered for his contribution to the Gothic Revival style of architecture. Scott is credited with designing and altering over 800 buildings, including several churches and cathedrals. He served as the architect of several iconic edifices like The St. Pancras Renaissance London Hotel, The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, and St Mary's Cathedral, Glasgow.

 35 
Otto Wagner
(Architect, University teacher)

Otto Wagner
3
Birthdate: July 13, 1841
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Vienna
Died: April 12, 1918

Austrian urban architect and furniture designer Otto Wagner started his career in line with the Neo-Renaissance style but later made pioneering contributions to the modern architectural movement in Europe. A major figure of both the Vienna Secession and the Art Nouveau, he built iconic buildings such as the Postal Savings Bank.

 36 

John Wellborn Root
2
Birthdate: January 10, 1850
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Lumpkin, Georgia, United States
Died: January 15, 1891

One of the founders of Chicago school of commercial architecture, John Wellborn Root is remembered for his innovative techniques and aesthetic designs. As chief designing partner of Burnham and Root, he paved the way for modern day skyscrapers. He developed floating raft system to support tall buildings on Chicago's marshy soil. He designed National Historic Landmarks like Rookery Building and Monadnock Building.

 37 
Lilia Skala
(Architect)

Lilia Skala
3
Birthdate: November 28, 1896
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Vienna, Austria
Died: December 18, 1994

One of the first female architects from Austria, Lilia Skala later also became a reputed actor, winning an Academy Award nomination for her film Lilies of the Field. She had also worked in Broadway plays such as Letters to Lucerne and in soaps such as Claudia: The Story of a Marriage.

 38 
Elsie de Wolfe
(Actor, Architect, Socialite)

Elsie de Wolfe
3
Birthdate: December 20, 1865
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: New York City
Died: July 12, 1950

One of the first female interior designers of her time, Elsie de Wolfe was largely known for her anti-Victorian elements in her designs. She was also a professional stage actor and had also launched her own theater company. Her works include the Colony Club, New York’s first women’s club.

 39 
Addison Mizner
(Architect)

Addison Mizner
3
Birthdate: December 12, 1872
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Benicia
Died: February 5, 1933

Society Architect Addison Mizner is remembered for designing resorts and Palm Beach mansions for the rich. He developed much of Boca Raton and also designed structures such as the Everglades Club and John F. Kennedy's Winter White House. His designs remain archived at the Society of the Four Arts Library.

 40 

Ivan Meštrović
3
Birthdate: August 15, 1883
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Vrpolje
Died: January 15, 1962

Ivan Meštrović was a Croatian architect, sculptor, and writer. Counted among the most important Croatian sculptors of the modern era, Ivan Meštrović is sometimes credited with taking Croatian arts to the world stage. He also had a strong artistic influence on Serbia where many streets are named in his honor.

 41 
Josef Hoffmann
(Architect, Designer)

Josef Hoffmann
3
Birthdate: December 15, 1870
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Brtnice
Died: May 7, 1956

Architect Josef Hoffmann was one of the pioneering figures of the Vienna Sezession. He also supported the British Arts and Crafts Movement and helped in setting up the Vienna Workshop, serving as its director for 30 years. He was later made the city architect of Vienna.

 42 

Henry Hobson Richardson
3
Birthdate: September 29, 1838
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: St. James Parish, Louisiana, United States
Died: April 27, 1886

Architect Henry Hobson Richardson is best remembered for introducing what later came to be known as Richardsonian Romanesque. The great-grandson of scientist Joseph Priestley, he was educated at Harvard. Initially an aspiring civil engineer, he later drifted to architecture. His works included libraries, commercial buildings, and the Trinity Church.

 43 
Pietro Belluschi
(Architect)

Pietro Belluschi
2
Birthdate: August 18, 1899
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Ancona
Died: February 14, 1994

Pietro Belluschi was an architect credited with designing more than 1,000 buildings in an illustrious career spanning more than six decades. Belluschi went on to receive several prestigious awards including the AIA Gold Medal and the National Medal of Arts. As a jury member, Belluschi played a crucial role in selecting Maya Lin's competition-winning design for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

Gustav Stickley
3
Birthdate: March 9, 1858
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Osceola
Died: April 21, 1942

Furniture designer Gustav Stickley, best known for the Mission style of design, grew up on a farm and worked at his father’s stonemasonry. He was then apprenticed at his uncle’s Pennsylvania chair factory. He later launched the Craftsman Workshops and The Craftsman magazine and led the Arts and Crafts movement.

 45 
Walter Burley Griffin
(Architect, Landscape architect, Urban planner)

Walter Burley Griffin
3
Birthdate: November 24, 1876
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Maywood
Died: February 11, 1937

American architect Walter Burley Griffin is best known for designing cities such as Canberra, Griffith, and Leeton. His early projects were inspired by the Prairie house style. He is also believed to have developed the concept of the L-shaped floor plan. He died in India, while working on his commissions.

 46 

Benjamin Henry Latrobe
3
Birthdate: May 1, 1764
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Fulneck Moravian Settlement, England
Died: September 3, 1820
Benjamin Henry Latrobe was a British-American neoclassical architect and civil engineer who established architecture as a profession in the United States. He was the most original proponent of the Greek Revival style in American buildings. His most famous works include Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic cathedral of Baltimore, Exchange and others. 

 47 
Hector Guimard
(Architect)

Hector Guimard
3
Birthdate: March 10, 1867
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Lyon
Died: May 20, 1942

Hector Guimard was a French designer and architect. A popular exponent of the Art Nouveau style, Guimard is credited with designing several important landmarks, including Paris' first Art Nouveau apartment building, The Castel Béranger. Although Art Nouveau went out of style during the 1910s, Hector Guimard's works attracted critical acclaim in the 1960s, with art historians praising his architectural works.

 48 
Cass Gilbert
(architect, painter)

Cass Gilbert
3
Birthdate: November 29, 1859
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Zanesville
Died: May 17, 1934
Prominent American architect, Cass Gilbert was an early proponent of skyscrapers and designed public buildings in the Beaux-Arts style. Some of his works include the United States Supreme Court building, the Woolworth Building, and the Saint Louis Art Museum and Public Library. He also planned the campuses of the Universities of Texas (Austin) and Minnesota (Minneapolis).

 49 
William Burges
(Architect)

William Burges
3
Birthdate: December 2, 1827
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: London
Died: April 20, 1881

William Burges was a British architect and designer best remembered for building castles like Cardiff Castle and Castell Coch. Apart from designing castles, churches, and houses, William Burges also designed sculptures, metalwork, furniture, jewelry, and stained glass.

 50 
Norman Bel Geddes
(Architect, Designer, Scenographer)

Norman Bel Geddes
3
Birthdate: April 27, 1893
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Michigan
Died: May 8, 1958

American theatrical and industrial designer, Norman Bel Geddes helped popularize “streamlining” as a distinct modern style. He influenced the design of major furniture, railroads, automobiles, and hotels. His revolutionary vision led to a collaboration with Max Reinhardt in the theatrical production of The Miracle. Among his most notable designs was Futurama exhibit at the New York World's Fair of 1939.