Edward I was the king of England from 1272 to 1307. He was also known as ‘Edward Longshanks’ and the ‘Hammer of the Scots.’ He was a successful king, a skilled military leader, and fearsome warrior. He emerged as one of the greatest Plantagenet kings. Edward I was the eldest son of King Henry III; he inherited the fiery temper of his father. After getting married to Eleanor of Castile, as part of a political alliance, he acquired the lands of Gascony where he spent a year, studying its administration. Even though Edward initially sided with the rebels, he soon returned to his father, took charge of the kingdom, and became Simon de Montfort's greatest enemy. After defeating Simon, he relentlessly pursued the surviving members of the de Montfort family, who were his cousins. Later, upon ascending the throne after his father’s death, he fought Llywelyn ap Gruffyd and his brother, quickly defeating them. He strengthened the crown and the Parliament against the old feudal nobility. He subdued Wales, destroyed its autonomy, and also made an unsuccessful attempt to conquer Scotland. His reign is particularly remembered for administrative efficiency and legal reform. He was an intimidating man who often instilled fear in his contemporaries. Even though he earned respect as a soldier and an administrator, many historians criticize him for his uncompromising attitude towards his nobility.