Julius Caesar Biography

Julius Caesar, one of Ancient Rome's most famous individuals, was a statesman who changed the face of Rome. This biography of Julius Caesar provides detailed information about his childhood, life, achievements, works and timeline.

Julius Caesar
Quick Facts

Birthday: July 13, 100 BC

Nationality: Ancient Roman

Famous: Quotes By Julius Caesar Bisexual

Died At Age: 56

Sun Sign: Cancer

Also Known As: Gaius Julius Caesar

Born in: Rome

political ideology: Roman general, statesman, Consul


Spouse/Ex-: Calpurnia Pisonis, Cornelia Cinnilla, Pompeia

father: Gaius Julius Caesar

mother: Aurelia Cotta

siblings: Julia Caesaris

children: Caesarion, Julia, Marcus Junius Brutus

Died on: March 15, 44 BC

place of death: Theatre of Pompey

Cause of Death: Assassination

Personality: ENTJ

City: Rome, Italy

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Regarded as ‘the greatest man of all ages’ by many, Julius Caesar is one of the most eternally fascinating figures in history. He was a politician and a diplomat who was passionate about whatever he did. He was a very talented general and statesman known for his exceptional skills at writing Latin prose. Above all this, he was a military genius. He was one of the key factors responsible for the fall of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. One of the most famous personalities in the human history, he was a courageous warrior and an expert swordsman. He was born into a turbulent era when different factions were trying to take control over the Roman state and the government. He was not only a very successful commander, but he also brought about a lot of social, economic and political reforms to make the country a better place to live in. The most important contribution he ever made was the reformation of the calendar with a leap year every four years - the one which we follow till date. The month July is named after him in his honor. Due to his unconditional love and respect for Rome and the development and organization he delivered to the country, he was given the title Pater Patriae (‘Father of the Fatherland’).

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Julius Caesar
Childhood & Early Life
  • He was born in 100 BC into a patrician family. His father, Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the region of Asia and his aunt, Julia married one of the most important figures in the Republic. His mother, Aurelia, too came from a very influential family.
  • After the sudden death of his father in 85 BC, all the responsibilities fell on the 16 year old Julius. At that time there was a civil war going between his uncle, Gaius Marius and Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
  • He was nominated to be the new high priest and got married to Cornelia, daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna’s, Marius’s biggest ally.
  • Sulla was victorious in the war and his new target was Caesar. In a bid to save himself from Sulla, Caesar decided to go to Asia for military service. He came back only after Sulla’s death.
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  • He started his career as a prosecuting advocate and studied Philosophy temporarily in Rhodes.
  • In 69 BC he was elected the quaestor by the Assembly of people and later as curule aedile in 65 BC. He was also elected as Pontifex Maximus (high priest) in 63 BC.
  • In 59 BC, he was elected Senior Consul of the Roman Republic by the Centuriate Assembly. He needed allies, therefore, he made friends with Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great), former Lieutenant under Sulla’s rule and Marcus Licinius Crassus, a former consul and allegedly the richest man in Rome. He was in desperate need of the consul’s money and Pompey’s influence. Thus an informal union, called the First Triumvirate, was formed.
  • His discontentment led to the start of the Gallic Wars (58 BC- 49 BC) in which the remaining parts of France and Germania was annexed to Rome. He then waged wars against many other nations. Altogether, Caesar conquered 800 cities, subdued 300 tribes, sold a million slaves and had another 3 million killed in action.
  • Despite these conquests, he was always unpopular with his peers. After the death of Julia Caesaris (Caesar’s daughter and Pompey’s wife) and Crassus’s murder in 53 BC in Parthia, Pompey started drifting apart; he started getting closer to the Optimates. Caesar tried to bring him back but instead Pompey married Cornelia Metella, the daughter of Caesar’s greatest enemy Metellus Scipio.
  • In 50 BC, Caesar was asked by the Senate and Pompey to resign, he refused and in order to avoid prosecution, he fled to Italy by crossing the Rubicon River and civil war broke out.
  • He marched his troops to Rome and conquered it in 49 BC and then spent the next 18 months fighting Pompey. Pompey fled to Egypt after being defeated by Caesar. Frightened that Caesar would invade Egypt, the young Pharaoh, Ptolemy VIII, had Pompey killed and presented his head as a gift to Caesar.
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  • After Caesar was declared dictator, he established police forces, introduced land reforms, abolished taxes and re-established the tribune system. Militarily, he wanted to conquer Parthians, Dacians and Carrhae. The most important change was the reformation of the calendar. The Roman calendar was according to the movements of the moon so Caesar changed it according to the sun’s movement just like the Egyptians.
  • Even though Rome had its senate, the real power was with Caesar and they were scared of Rome being governed by a King. Caesar did not wish to become the king but the fear of the republicans led the senate to conspire against Caesar.
  • On the Ides of March (15th of March), Caesar was assassinated by the senators. After his death, a civil war broke out between the murderers (Liberators) and the Second Triumvirate i.e. Mark Anthony, Octavian (Caesar’s grandnephew) and Lepidus (Caesar’s loyal cavalry commander).
Major Works
  • Militarily, Caesar’s tactical brilliance was compared to that of Alexander’s stature. Battle of Alesia took place in September, 52 BC. It was the last major engagement between the Gauls and the Romans. It was the turning point of the Gallic Wars in favour of Rome.
  • The Battle of Pharsalus was the decisive battle of Caesar’s civil war. He defeated his long time friend-turned-enemy Pompey. Though Pompey had the greater number of warriors, Caesar’s army was more experienced and better trained.
  • He was one of the finest and brilliant orators and authors of prose in Rome. Among the most famous was his funeral oration for his aunt. ‘Anticato’ is a document that was written to respond to the Cato’s memorial.
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  • Most of his works have been lost but some of his best preserved works are - the Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War); and the Commentarii de Bello Civilo (Commentaries on the Civil War).
Personal Life & Legacy
  • He was first married to Cornelia Cinnilla, daughter of Gaius Marius, from 83 BC until 63 BC - they had a daughter called Julia.
  • His second marriage was with Pompeia from 67 BC to 61 BC. He got married for the third time to Calpurnia Pisonis in 59 BC. The marriage lasted until his death.
  • Caesar had a love affair with Cleopatra VII, who was the Queen of Egypt. They were madly in love and even had a child together called Caesarion, who was killed.
  • It is believed that he suffered from epilepsy.
  • He was the first historical Roman to be deified. He was given the title “Divus Juliusor Divus” (the divine Julius). The comet that appeared during the games confirmed his godliness.
  • In 46 BC, Caesar gave himself the title ‘Prefect of the Morals’ which was a new office that basically censored offensive matters.
  • He was the only Roman to have his picture on a coin while still alive.
  • A group of senators, led by Brutus, stabbed him to death in March 44 BC.
  • William Shakespeare had written a very famous play based on this person’s life story.
  • He refused to make his own son the heir to the throne and instead gave it to his great grandnephew Octavian.

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How To Cite

Article Title
- Julius Caesar Biography
- Editors, TheFamousPeople.com
- TheFamousPeople.com
Last Updated
- July 20, 2017

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