Throughout history, there have been many American women scientists who have made significant contribution to the field. The list includes many familiar and great American female scientists such as Sally Ride, Grace Hopper, Rachel Carson, Lynn Margulis, Barbara McClintock.
Katherine JohnsonKatherine Johnson
26 August 1918, American
Mathematician
Sally RideSally Ride
26 May 1951, American
Physicist, Astronaut

Grace HopperGrace Hopper
09 December 1906, American
Computer Scientist

Dian FosseyDian Fossey
16 January 1932, Rwandan, American
Zoologist, Conservationist

Rachel CarsonRachel Carson
27 May 1907, American
Marine biologist

Lynn MargulisLynn Margulis
05 March 1938, American
Author
Barbara McClintockBarbara McClintock
16 June 1902, American
Scientist

Peggy WhitsonPeggy Whitson
09 February 1960, American
Astronaut, Biochemist

Stephanie KwolekStephanie Kwolek
31 July 1923, American
Chemist
Henrietta Swan LeavittHenrietta Swan Leavitt
04 July 1868, American
Astronomer

Radia PerlmanRadia Perlman
18 December 1951, American
Computer Network Engineer
Elizabeth BlackburnElizabeth Blackburn
26 November 1948, Australian, American
American-Australian researcher

Gertrude B. ElionGertrude B. Elion
23 January 1918, American
Biochemist, Pharmacologist

Annie Jump CannonAnnie Jump Cannon
11 December 1863, American
Astronomer

Gerty CoriGerty Cori
15 August 1896, American
Biochemist

Maria MitchellMaria Mitchell
01 August 1818, American
Astronomer
Rosalyn Sussman YalowRosalyn Sussman Yalow
19 July 1921, American
Medical Physicist

Vanessa NadalVanessa Nadal
18 August 1982, American
Lin-Manuel Miranda's Wife

Maria Goeppert MayerMaria Goeppert-Mayer
28 June 1906, American
Physicist

Katharine Burr BlodgettKatharine Burr Blodgett
10 January 1898, American
Scientist
Nina GrayNina Gray
23 August 1974, American
Entrepreneur

Marguerite VogtMarguerite Vogt
13 February 1913, American
Biologist & Virologist
RettaRetta
12 April 1970, American
Stand-up Comedian

Dorothy VaughanDorothy Vaughan
20 September 1910, American
Mathematician

Ginni RomettyGinni Rometty
29 July 1957, American
Businesswomen
Alicia NashAlicia Nash
01 January 1933, Salvadoran, American
Physicist

Nell NewmanNell Newman
08 April 1959, American
Actress
Sylvia EarleSylvia Earle
30 August 1935, American
Marine biologist

Jennifer DoudnaJennifer Doudna
19 February 1964, American
Biochemist

Vera RubinVera Rubin
23 July 1928, American
Astronomer
Lynn ConwayLynn Conway
10 January 1938, American
computer scientist, engineer, inventor

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Fei-Fei LiFei-Fei Li
1976 AD, American
Computer scientist
Lisa RandallLisa Randall
18 June 1962, American
Physicist, Writer, University teacher, Theoretical

Barbara LiskovBarbara Liskov
07 November 1939, American
Computer scientist, University teacher

Roberta WilliamsRoberta Williams
16 February 1953, American
Writer, Computer scientist

Cecilia Payne-GaposchkinCecilia Payne-Gaposchkin
10 May 1900, British, American
Astronomer, University teacher
Daphne KollerDaphne Koller
27 August 1968, American
computer scientist, engineer
Carol W. GreiderCarol W. Greider
15 April 1961, American
Biologist, Molecular biologist, Geneticist,

Frances Oldham KelseyFrances Oldham Kelsey
24 July 1914, Canadian, American
Pharmacologist

Kathryn D. SullivanKathryn D. Sullivan
03 October 1951, American
Geologist

Williamina FlemingWilliamina Fleming
15 May 1857, British, American, Scottish
Astronomer
Shannon LucidShannon Lucid
14 January 1943, American
Astronaut, Chemist

Nettie StevensNettie Stevens
07 July 1861, American
Geneticist

Ellen Swallow RichardsEllen Swallow Richards
03 December 1842, American
Chemist, University teacher, Economist

Eugenie ClarkEugenie Clark
04 May 1922, Japanese, American
Ichthyologist

Michelle ThallerMichelle Thaller
American
 
Carolyn S. ShoemakerCarolyn S. Shoemaker
24 June 1929, American
Astronomer

Alice HamiltonAlice Hamilton
27 February 1869, American
Toxicologist, Pathologist, University teacher,
Ingrid DaubechiesIngrid Daubechies
17 August 1954, Belgian, American
Mathematician, Physicist, University teacher

Susan SolomonSusan Solomon
19 January 1956, American
chemist

Jean BartikJean Bartik
27 December 1924, American
Computer software pioneer
Amy MainzerAmy Mainzer
02 January 1974, American
astronomer

Eliza LucasEliza Lucas
28 December 1722, Antiguan, American
Business person
Marie TharpMarie Tharp
30 July 1920, American
Geologist

Catherine ColemanCatherine Coleman
14 December 1960, American
Chemist, Air force officer, Astronaut, Engineer

Marcia McNuttMarcia McNutt
19 February 1952, American
Geophysicist

Janet RowleyJanet Rowley
05 April 1925, American
Geneticist

Betty HolbertonBetty Holberton
07 March 1917, American
Computer scientist, Programmer
Katherine EsauKatherine Esau
03 April 1898, German, American
Botanist

Margaret BurbidgeMargaret Burbidge
12 August 1919, British, American
Astrophysicist

Julia RobinsonJulia Robinson
08 December 1919, American
Mathematician, Philosopher, University teacher,

Anita BorgAnita Borg
17 January 1949, American
Computer scientist
Linda B. BuckLinda B. Buck
29 January 1947, American
American biologist

Ruth PatrickRuth Patrick
26 November 1907, American
Limnologist, Botanist
Mildred CohnMildred Cohn
12 July 1913, American
Biochemist

Kathleen RubinsKathleen Rubins
14 October 1978, American
Astronaut, Biologist

Dina KatabiDina Katabi
American
 
Ellen Churchill SempleEllen Churchill Semple
08 January 1863, American
Geographer

Valerie ThomasValerie Thomas
1943 AD, American
scientist and inventor
Florence BascomFlorence Bascom
14 July 1862, American
Geologist

Margaret HamiltonMargaret Hamilton
17 August 1936, American
Computer Scientist

Jane LubchencoJane Lubchenco
04 December 1947, American
Environmental scientist
Agnes Meyer DriscollAgnes Meyer Driscoll
24 July 1889, American
Cryptologist

Rebecca LancefieldRebecca Lancefield
05 January 1895, American
Microbiologist
Marina OswaldMarina Oswald
17 July 1941, American, Russian
Pharmacist

Susan LindquistSusan Lindquist
05 June 1949, American
Professor

Christine Ladd-FranklinChristine Ladd-Franklin
American
 

Evelyn Boyd GranvilleEvelyn Boyd Granville
01 May 1924, American
American mathematician
Sandra LernerSandra Lerner
1955 AD, American
Businessperson
Emma Lucy BraunEmma Lucy Braun
19 April 1889, American
Botanist and ecologist

Clelia Duel MosherClelia Duel Mosher
16 December 1863, American
Women

Mary Styles HarrisMary Styles Harris
26 June 1949, American
Scientist

Frances AllenFrances Allen
04 August 1932, American
Computer scientist, teacher, computational