Throughout history, there have been many American women scientists who have made significant contribution to the field. The list includes many familiar and great American female scientists such as Sally Ride, Grace Hopper, Rachel Carson, Lynn Margulis, Barbara McClintock.
Katherine JohnsonKatherine Johnson
26 August 1918, American
Mathematician
Sally RideSally Ride
26 May 1951, American
Physicist, Astronaut

Grace HopperGrace Hopper
09 December 1906, American
Computer Scientist

Dian FosseyDian Fossey
16 January 1932, Rwandan, American
Zoologist, Conservationist

Rachel CarsonRachel Carson
27 May 1907, American
Marine biologist

Lynn MargulisLynn Margulis
05 March 1938, American
Author
Barbara McClintockBarbara McClintock
16 June 1902, American
Scientist

Peggy WhitsonPeggy Whitson
09 February 1960, American
Astronaut, Biochemist

Henrietta Swan LeavittHenrietta Swan Leavitt
04 July 1868, American
Astronomer

Elizabeth BlackburnElizabeth Blackburn
26 November 1948, Australian, American
American-Australian researcher
Stephanie KwolekStephanie Kwolek
31 July 1923, American
Chemist

Gerty CoriGerty Cori
15 August 1896, American
Biochemist
Gertrude B. ElionGertrude B. Elion
23 January 1918, American
Biochemist, Pharmacologist

Maria MitchellMaria Mitchell
01 August 1818, American
Astronomer

Annie Jump CannonAnnie Jump Cannon
11 December 1863, American
Astronomer
Rosalyn Sussman YalowRosalyn Sussman Yalow
19 July 1921, American
Medical Physicist

Maria Goeppert MayerMaria Goeppert-Mayer
28 June 1906, American
Physicist
Katharine Burr BlodgettKatharine Burr Blodgett
10 January 1898, American
Scientist

Marguerite VogtMarguerite Vogt
13 February 1913, American
Biologist & Virologist

Nina GrayNina Gray
23 August 1974, American
Entrepreneur
Vanessa NadalVanessa Nadal
18 August 1982, American
Lin-Manuel Miranda's Wife

Lisa RandallLisa Randall
18 June 1962, American
Physicist, Writer, University teacher, Theoretical
Cecilia Payne-GaposchkinCecilia Payne-Gaposchkin
10 May 1900, British, American
Astronomer, University teacher

Roberta WilliamsRoberta Williams
16 February 1953, American
Writer, Computer scientist

Barbara LiskovBarbara Liskov
07 November 1939, American
Computer scientist, University teacher

Daphne KollerDaphne Koller
27 August 1968, American
computer scientist, engineer
Michelle ThallerMichelle Thaller
American
 
Lynn ConwayLynn Conway
10 January 1938, American
computer scientist, engineer, inventor

Amy MainzerAmy Mainzer
02 January 1974, American
astronomer

Shannon LucidShannon Lucid
14 January 1943, American
Astronaut, Chemist

Catherine ColemanCatherine Coleman
14 December 1960, American
Chemist, Air force officer, Astronaut, Engineer
Ingrid DaubechiesIngrid Daubechies
17 August 1954, Belgian, American
Mathematician, Physicist, University teacher

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Betty HolbertonBetty Holberton
07 March 1917, American
Computer scientist, Programmer

Alice HamiltonAlice Hamilton
27 February 1869, American
Toxicologist, Pathologist, University teacher,

Ellen Swallow RichardsEllen Swallow Richards
03 December 1842, American
Chemist, University teacher, Economist

Carol W. GreiderCarol W. Greider
15 April 1961, American
Biologist, Molecular biologist, Geneticist,
Julia RobinsonJulia Robinson
08 December 1919, American
Mathematician, Philosopher, University teacher,

Linda B. BuckLinda B. Buck
29 January 1947, American
American biologist
Dina KatabiDina Katabi
American
 

Anita BorgAnita Borg
17 January 1949, American
Computer scientist

Susan SolomonSusan Solomon
19 January 1956, American
chemist
Valerie ThomasValerie Thomas
1943 AD, American
scientist and inventor

Kathleen RubinsKathleen Rubins
14 October 1978, American
Astronaut, Biologist
Christine Ladd-FranklinChristine Ladd-Franklin
American
 

Evelyn Boyd GranvilleEvelyn Boyd Granville
01 May 1924, American
American mathematician

Ruth PatrickRuth Patrick
26 November 1907, American
Limnologist, Botanist

Clelia Duel MosherClelia Duel Mosher
16 December 1863, American
Women

Mary Styles HarrisMary Styles Harris
26 June 1949, American
Scientist
Frances AllenFrances Allen
04 August 1932, American
Computer scientist, teacher, computational