Famous American Biochemists

When it comes to science and technology, the United States is undoubtedly one of the hubs of scientific research and discoveries. Biochemistry, the study of the structure, composition, and chemical reactions of substances in living systems, emerged as a specific scientific discipline around the early 19th century. John Jacob Abel, an influential American biochemist and pharmacologist, is credited to have founded and chaired the first department of pharmacology in the United States at the University of Michigan in the late 19th century. Max Henius who co-founded the American Academy of Brewing in Chicago, was an expert in the fermentation processes. In a male-dominated field, biochemist Gerty Theresa Cori became the first American woman to win a Nobel Prize in science and the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Another prominent biochemist was Lafayette Benedict Mendel who studied nutrition and conducted vital research on Vitamin A, Vitamin B, lysine and tryptophan. Coming to contemporary times, T. Colin Campbell is well known for his studies on nutrition and was one of the lead scientists of the China–Oxford–Cornell study on diet and disease. This section provides you information about the life and works of famous American biochemists.

This ranking is based on an algorithm that combines various factors, including the votes of our users and search trends on the internet.

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 1 Isaac Asimov

Isaac Asimov.
6
Famous As: Novelist, Professor
Birthdate: January 2, 1920
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Petrovichi, Russia
Died: April 6, 1992

Isaac Asimov was an American writer. Best known for his science fiction works, Asimov was regarded as one of the Big Three writers along with Arthur C. Clarke and Robert A. Heinlein. Asimov is credited with influencing most sci-fi writers since the 1950s. Nobel Prize winner Paul Krugman stated that one of Asimov's works inspired him to take up Economics.

 2 Har Gobind Khorana

Har Gobind Khorana.
4
Birthdate: January 9, 1922
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Punjab, India
Died: November 9, 2011

Born into a poor family in British India, Har Gobind Khorana studied on scholarships and later bagged a seat at the University of Liverpool and thus moved to England. The renowned biochemist ended up winning the Nobel Prize for his research on how nucleotides in nucleic acids control protein synthesis.

 3 Linus Pauling

Linus Pauling.
4
Famous As: Chemist, Biochemist
Birthdate: February 28, 1901
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Portland, Oregon, United States
Died: August 19, 1994

Only person to win two unshared Nobel Prizes, Linus Carl Pauling was an American theoretical physical chemist, who received the 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on nature of chemical bond and 1962 Nobel Prize for Peace for his efforts to stop nuclear weapon testing. Also a prolific writer and educator, he has published 1,200 books and papers.  

 4 Kary B. Mullis

Kary B. Mullis.
4
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: December 28, 1944
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Lenoir, North Carolina, United States
Biochemist Kary Mullis won the 1993 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for inventing the polymerase chain reaction. He was also known for practicing clandestine chemistry and researching on hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD. He also wrote several books, including an autobiography named Dancing Naked in the Mind Field.

 5 Jennifer Doudna

Jennifer Doudna.
4
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: February 19, 1964
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Washington, D.C., United States

American biochemist Jennifer Doudna of the University of California, Berkeley, who has made fundamental contributions in biochemistry and genetics, is best-known for her pioneering work in CRISPR gene-editing. Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier received the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing a method for genome editing through CRISPR, marking them as the only two women to share science Nobel ever.

 6 Peggy Whitson

Peggy Whitson.
4
Famous As: Astronaut, Biochemist
Birthdate: February 9, 1960
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Mount Ayr, Iowa, United States

The first woman to command the International Space Station, NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson was born to farmers and decided to become an astronaut after watching the moon landing on TV. She also boasts of a PhD in biochemistry and has been a researcher and educator of biochemistry and genetic engineering.

 7 Alexander Shulgin

Alexander Shulgin
4
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: June 17, 1925
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Berkeley, California, United States
Died: June 2, 2014

A pioneer of psychedelic drug synthesis, Alexander Shulgin came to be known as The Godfather of Ecstasy, for reinventing the drug MDMA, or ecstasy, for medical use. The Harvard drop-out, who later studied psychiatry and pharmacology, would often experiment his newly invented drugs on himself, his wife, and his friends.

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 8 Gertrude B. Elion

Gertrude B. Elion.
3
Famous As: Biochemist, Pharmacologist
Birthdate: January 23, 1918
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: New York City, New York, United States
Died: February 21, 1999

The daughter of Jewish immigrants in New York, Gertrude B. Elion excelled in chemistry at Hunter College, where she studied for free, but was initially unable to find a job due to gender bias. The renowned biochemist and pharmacologist later won a Nobel and became a pioneer in medical research.

 9 Eric Kandel

Eric Kandel
4
Famous As: Neurologist, Psychiatrist, Neuroscientist, Psychologist, Biochemist
Birthdate: November 7, 1929
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Vienna

Nobel Prize-winning neurobiologist Eric Kandel is known for his research on the role of synapses in memory and learning. An Austrian Jew, he left his country with his family and moved to the U.S. in the wake of anti-Semitism. A doctor, specializing in psychiatry, he later taught at Columbia University.

 10 Gerty Cori

Gerty Cori.
3
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: August 15, 1896
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Prague
Died: October 26, 1957

Austro-Hungarian-American biochemist Gerty Cori is best-known for discovering the course of catalytic conversion of glycogen with her husband Carl Ferdinand Cori for which they jointly won the 1947 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. With this Gerty became the third woman to win a Nobel in science and the first to win it in this category.

 11 Rashad Khalifa

Rashad Khalifa
3
Famous As: Chemist, Translator, Biochemist, Computer scientist
Birthdate: November 19, 1935
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: January 31, 1990

Born in Egypt, Rashad Khalifa later moved to the U.S., where he earned a PhD in biochemistry. Part of the USI and a supporter of the Quranist movement, he was found stabbed multiple times in a mosque in Arizona. It was later revealed that Sunni extremists had killed him.

 12 Roger Y. Tsien

Roger Y. Tsien
3
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: February 1, 1952
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: New York City
Died: August 24, 2016

Co-recipient of the 2008 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, Roger Yonchien Tsien began working on the subject in collaboration with Osamu Shimomura and Martin Chalfie while serving as professor of chemistry and biochemistry at University of California. Also a pioneer of calcium imaging, he is known for developing various dyes including Fura-2.    

 13 Duane Gish

Duane Gish
3
Famous As: biochemist
Birthdate: February 17, 1921
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: White City
Died: March 5, 2013

Apart from being a renowned biochemist, Duane Gish was also a World War II veteran and a prominent Creationist. He taught at Cornell and penned iconic books such as Evolution: The Fossils Say No! He was also known for his fiery debates and had headed the Institute for Creation Research.

 14 Marie Maynard Daly

Marie Maynard Daly
3
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: April 16, 1921
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Corona, New York, United States
Died: October 28, 2003

Marie Maynard Daly was the first Black lady to earn a doctoral degree in chemistry in the U.S. She was inspired by her father, who had to drop out of Cornell due to lack of funds. A pioneer of biochemistry, Daly later introduced a scholarship for African-American students at Queens College.

 15 Melvin Calvin

Melvin Calvin.
3
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: April 8, 1911
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: St. Paul, Minnesota, USA
Died: January 8, 1997

The son of Russian Jewish immigrants, Melvin Calvin earned scholarships to fund his studies and eventually earned a PhD in chemistry from the University of Minnesota. The University of California, Berkeley professor later won a Nobel for co-discovering the Calvin cycle, which explained the chemical pathways of photosynthesis.

 16 Paul Berg

Paul Berg.
3
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: June 30, 1926
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Brooklyn, New York

Nobel Prize-winning biochemist Paul Berg is best known for his research on recombinant DNA techniques. The Stanford professor was born to Russian Jewish immigrants in New York and is a Penn State alumnus. He has also won the National Medal of Science, among other awards.

 17 Arthur Kornberg

Arthur Kornberg.
3
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: March 3, 1918
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: New York City, United States
Died: October 26, 2007

Nobel Prize-winning biochemist and doctor Arthur Kornberg is best remembered for his research on DNA synthesis. Born to Jewish immigrants in New York, Kornberg assisted his father at his hardware shop as a child. He had also been a ship doctor for the U.S. Coast Guard.

 18 Rosalyn Sussman Yalow

Rosalyn Sussman Yalow.
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Famous As: Medical Physicist
Birthdate: July 19, 1921
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: New York City, New York, U.S.
Died: May 30, 2011

Medical physicist Rosalyn Sussman Yalow was the second woman and the first American woman to earn the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Best known for her research on the radioimmunoassay, or RIA, technique, she studied science at a time when women weren’t hired for science jobs.

 19 Shannon Lucid

Shannon Lucid
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Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: January 14, 1943
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Shanghai, China

Shannon Lucid once held the record for the longest space stay by any woman and by any American. Born in China, to missionaries, she was imprisoned by the Japanese, along with her parents, as an infant. The family then moved to the U.S., where Lucid studied at the University of Oklahoma.

 20 Marshall W. Nirenberg

Marshall W. Nirenberg.
3
Famous As: Biochemist and Geneticist
Birthdate: April 10, 1927
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Brooklyn, New York City, New York, United States
Died: January 15, 2010

American biochemist and Nobel laureate Marshall W. Nirenberg is best known for his research on solving the genetic code. The son of a Jewish shirtmaker father, Nirenberg showed an early interest in biology. He led the National Heart Institute’s genetics department and was associated with the National Institutes of Health.

 21 Paul L. Modrich

Paul L. Modrich
3
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: June 13, 1946
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Raton, New Mexico, United States

Nobel Prize-winning biochemist and Duke University professor Paul L. Modrich was born to a biology teacher and sports coach father. He studied at both MIT and Stanford and did his postdoctoral research at Harvard. He is best known for his discovery of DNA mismatch repair.

 22 Walter Gilbert

Walter Gilbert.
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Famous As: Biochemist, Physicist, Molecular Biologist
Birthdate: March 21, 1932
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Boston, Massachusetts, United States

American molecular biologist and Nobel laureate Walter Gilbert pioneered research on the sequence of nucleotide links in DNA and RNA molecules. The Harvard and Cambridge alumnus later taught at Harvard. He also co-established firms dealing with genetic engineering and pharmaceutical research and was part of the Human Genome Project.

 23 Stanley B. Prusiner

Stanley B. Prusiner.
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Famous As: Neurologist and Biochemist
Birthdate: May 28, 1942
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Des Moines, Iowa, United States

The son of an architect, Stanley B. Prusiner earned the nickname "little Genius" for inventing a bug repellent in school. The Nobel Prize-winning biochemist and neurologist is best known for discovering prions, or proteins that cause diseases, and thus suggesting an explanation for the mad cow disease.

 24 Roger D. Kornberg

Roger D. Kornberg
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Famous As: biochemist, chemist, university teacher
Birthdate: April 24, 1947
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: St. Louis

American chemist Roger D. Kornberg studied at Harvard and Stanford and later taught at both these institutes. His research focuses on transcription, or the process of the conversion of DNA into RNA. Both he and his father have won the Nobel Prize, becoming the sixth father-son duo to achieve the feat.

 25 Robert Lefkowitz

Robert Lefkowitz
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Famous As: Physician
Birthdate: April 15, 1943
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: The Bronx, New York, United States

Born into a family of Polish immigrants, Robert Lefkowitz grew up to be a cardiologist and biochemist, and later taught at Duke University. He is best known for his research on the signal-receiving receptor molecules, such as the GPCRs, which eventually won him a Nobel Prize.

 26 Gregory Goodwin Pincus

Gregory Goodwin Pincus
3
Famous As: Biologist
Birthdate: April 9, 1903
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Woodbine, New Jersey, United States
Died: 1967 AD

Gregory Goodwin Pincus revolutionized medical science by co-inventing the first oral contraceptive or birth control pill. The Cornell and Harvard alumnus was born to Russian Jewish immigrants and had an IQ of 210. Though he initially studied agriculture, he later focused on the study of hormones, steroids, and fertility.

 27 Stanley Cohen

Stanley Cohen
3
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: November 17, 1922
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Brooklyn, New York, United States
Died: February 5, 2020

Nobel laureate Stanley Cohen was born to a Jewish immigrant tailor and initially worked as a bacteriologist. The American biochemist revolutionized science with his research on cellular growth factors, helping later scientists understand the development of cancer cells. He spent most of his career at the Washington and Vanderbilt universities.

 28 Joseph L. Goldstein

Joseph L. Goldstein.
2
Famous As: Molecular Geneticist
Birthdate: April 18, 1940
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Kingstree, South Carolina, United States

American molecular geneticist Joseph L. Goldstein was born to clothing store owner parents in South Carolina. He ended up winning a Nobel Prize for his research on cholesterol metabolism, which later helped researchers develop statin drugs. He currently chairs the molecular genetics department of the University of Texas.

 29 Bruce Ames

Bruce Ames
2
Famous As: Biochemist, University teacher, Chemist
Birthdate: December 16, 1928
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: New York City

University of California, Berkeley professor, biochemist, and geneticist Bruce Ames is largely known for his invention of the Ames test, used to test the ability of chemicals to cause mutations, and his studies on cancer and ageing. The Cornell and Caltech alumnus has been associated with the NIAMD, too.

 30 Bruce Alberts

Bruce Alberts
2
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: April 14, 1938
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Chicago, Illinois, United States

Bruce Alberts switched to biophysics at Harvard after getting bored with physical chemistry. He later led the NAS as its president and co-wrote iconic text books such as Molecular Biology of the Cell. Apart from teaching at Princeton and Harvard, he worked to improve science education in schools.

 31 Thomas A. Steitz

Thomas A. Steitz
2
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: August 23, 1940
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
Died: October 9, 2018

American biophysicist/biochemist and Yale University professor Thomas A. Steitz is best known for his Nobel Prize-winning work on the structure and function of ribosomes. The Harvard alumnus has also worked at molecular biology lab at Cambridge and has co-founded a pharma company that creates antibiotics based on ribosomes.

 32 Christian Anfinsen

Christian Anfinsen.
2
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: March 26, 1916
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Monessen, Pennsylvania
Died: May 14, 1995

Born to Norwegian immigrants in the U.S., Christian Anfinsen initially excelled in both chemistry and football. His research on the structure of complex proteins and their biological functions earned him a Nobel Prize. He was also associated with the NIH and taught at Johns Hopkins University.

 33 James Rothman

James Rothman
2
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: November 3, 1950
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Haverhill, Massachusetts, United States

American cell biologist and biochemist James Rothman is best known for his ground-breaking research on cellular vesicles and membrane fusion, which laid the path for further research on immunological and neurological ailments. The Nobel laureate is a Yale and Harvard alumnus and has also taught at many prestigious universities.

 34 Alfred G. Gilman

Alfred G. Gilman.
2
Famous As: Pharmacologist, Biochemist
Birthdate: July 1, 1941
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: New Haven, Connecticut
Died: December 23, 2015

American pharmacologist and Nobel laureate Alfred G. Gilman is best remembered for his research on G proteins. Born to a Yale pharmacology professor and author father, he was destined to make it big in science. He also taught at the University of Virginia and other institutes and co-established a biotechnology company.

 35 Paul D. Boyer

Paul D. Boyer.
2
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: July 31, 1918
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Provo, Utah, United States

American biochemist, analytical chemist, and professor Paul Delos Boyer was the first Utah-born Nobel laureate. His elucidation of enzymatic mechanism underlying synthesis of adenosine triphosphate with John E. Walker led the two to jointly win the 1997 Nobel Prize in Chemistry which they co-received with Jens C. Skou for a separate research of the latter.

 36 Robert W. Holley

Robert W. Holley.
2
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: January 28, 1922
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Urbana, Illinois
Died: February 11, 1993

Biochemist and Nobel laureate Robert W. Holley is best known for his research on the genetic code and its impact on protein synthesis. The Cornell alumnus focused on studying RNA after his year-long stint at Caltech in the mid-1950s. He has also worked at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies.

 37 Wendell Meredith Stanley

Wendell Meredith Stanley
2
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: August 16, 1904
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Ridgeville
Died: June 15, 1971

Nobel Prize-winning biochemist Wendell Meredith Stanley is remembered for his pathbreaking research on viruses. He revealed the molecular structure of viruses by purifying and crystallizing them. He also penned a Pulitzer-nominated book, Chemistry: A Beautiful Thing, and was associated with the Rockefeller Institute and the University of California, Berkeley.

 38 Edmond H. Fischer

Edmond H. Fischer.
2
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: April 6, 1920
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Shanghai, China

Born in China, to an Austrian-born lawyer, Edmond H. Fischer studied in a Swiss boarding school and also aspired to be a musician. The Nobel Prize-winning biochemist is now best known for his path-breaking research on reversible phosphorylation, which regulates cell protein activity. He also taught at the University of Washington.

 39 Robert F. Furchgott

Robert F. Furchgott.
2
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: June 4, 1916
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Charleston, South Carolina
Died: May 19, 2009

American pharmacologist and Nobel laureate Robert F. Furchgott revolutionized medical science by discovering that nitric oxide acts as a signal in the cardiovascular system of mammals. The Northwestern University alumnus had begun his career as a Cornell faculty member and was later associated with the SUNY-Brooklyn pharmacology department.

 40 Edwin G. Krebs

Edwin G. Krebs.
1
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: June 6, 1918
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Lansing, Iowa, United States
Died: December 21, 2009

American biochemist Edwin Gerhard Krebs is best-known for collaborating with Edmond H. Fischer in elucidating the way reversible phosphorylation works as a switch in activating proteins and regulating different cellular processes. This key discovery of reversible protein phosphorylation led the two to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1992.

 41 Martin Rodbell

Martin Rodbell.
2
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: December 1, 1925
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
Died: December 7, 1998

American biochemist and molecular endocrinologist Martin Rodbell is best remembered for his discovery of G-proteins while jointly investigating (with Alfred G. Gilman) stimulation of cells by adrenaline. The two jointly received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovery of this family of proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells.

 42 Robert Bruce Merrifield

Robert Bruce Merrifield.
2
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: July 15, 1921
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Fort Worth, Texas
Died: May 14, 2006

American biochemist Robert Bruce Merrifield is best known for pioneering the method for production of synthetic peptides in the lab called solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). This invention of SPPS led Merrifield to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1984. He also won the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Award in 1998 for his outstanding contributions to Biomolecular Technologies.

 43 Edward Calvin Kendall

Edward Calvin Kendall.
1
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: March 8, 1886
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: South Norwalk, Connecticut, USA
Died: May 4, 1972

Nobel Prize-winning chemist Edward Calvin Kendall is best known for his work on isolating thyroxine, or the thyroid hormone, and for crystallizing glutathione. He also revolutionized medical science by curing rheumatoid arthritis with cortisone, the steroid hormone he discovered. He was also associated with the Mayo Foundation and Princeton University.

 44 Daniel E. Koshland Jr.

Daniel E. Koshland Jr.
1
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: March 30, 1920
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: New York, New York, United States
Died: July 23, 2007

Daniel E. Koshland Jr. made his own fortune in science in spite of being the son of Levi Strauss CEO Daniel E. Koshland Sr. and one of the most affluent men in America. Apart from working on the Manhattan Project, he also created the induced fit model of enzyme catalysis.

 45 Vincent du Vigneaud

Vincent du Vigneaud.
1
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: May 18, 1901
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Chicago, Illinois, USA
Died: December 11, 1978

Vincent du Vigneaud was a biochemist who won the 1955 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He is remembered for his extensive work on the cyclic peptide oxytocin. He also conducted considerable research on insulin, biotin, transmethylation, and penicillin. He studied at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and the University of Rochester and proceeded to have a brilliant academic career.  

 46 Mildred Cohn

Mildred Cohn
1
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: July 12, 1913
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: New York City, New York, United States
Died: October 12, 2009

Apart from facing discrimination as a Russian Jew, Mildred Cohn also battled gender bias, being denied a promotion at NACA for being the only woman among the 70 staff members. Her pioneering use of NMR in the study of enzyme reactions later earned her a National Medal of Science.

 47 Lawrence Joseph Henderson

Lawrence Joseph Henderson
1
Famous As: Physiologist
Birthdate: June 3, 1878
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Lynn, Massachusetts, United States
Died: February 10, 1942

A Harvard alumnus, Lawrence Joseph Henderson was associated with the Harvard Medical School for almost four decades. His chief contribution as a biochemist was his proposal of the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation, which calculates the acid–base equilibria of substances. He also penned the iconic work The Fitness of the Environment.

 48 John Howard Northrop

John Howard Northrop
1
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: July 5, 1891
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Yonkers
Died: May 27, 1987

 John Howard Northrop became interested in enzymes while conducting research on fermentation processes of acetone and ethyl alcohol for U.S. Army Chemical Warfare Service during WWI and established that enzymes obey laws of chemical reactions. He later isolated and crystallized pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin and bacteriophage and also determined their chemical nature; he earned 1946 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for it.

 49 Edward Lawrie Tatum

Edward Lawrie Tatum.
1
Famous As: Biochemist
Birthdate: December 14, 1909
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Boulder, Colorado, United States
Died: November 5, 1975

American geneticist Edward Lawrie Tatum worked with George Beadle and demonstrated that genes control individual steps in metabolism. This led them to win half of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1958. Tatum and Beadle conducted key experiments and proposed the one gene, one enzyme hypothesis where they suggested a direct link between genes and enzymatic reactions.

 50 Edward Adelbert Doisy

Edward Adelbert Doisy
1
Famous As: American biochemist
Birthdate: November 13, 1893
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Hume, Illinois
Died: October 23, 1986

Biochemist Edward Adelbert Doisy revolutionized science with his discovery of vitamin K, which prevents blood clotting, along with Henrik Dam, a feat that eventually won the duo a Nobel Prize. The Harvard alumnus later taught at the Washington and St. Louis universities. He also isolated hormones such as estrone.