As part of the FDA, Frances Oldham Kelsey prevented thalidomide from being allowed in the US drug market as a painkiller, as she was unsure of its impact. Her concerns were proved right when the drug caused birth defects in European children. She was subsequently awarded by the US president.
David Herold was an American pharmacist's assistant. He is best remembered as the accomplice of John Wilkes Booth, the man who killed Abraham Lincoln in 1865. David Herold was arrested and sentenced to death. He was hanged alongside three other conspirators on 7 July 1865 at the age of 23.
The daughter of Jewish immigrants in New York, Gertrude B. Elion excelled in chemistry at Hunter College, where she studied for free, but was initially unable to find a job due to gender bias. The renowned biochemist and pharmacologist later won a Nobel and became a pioneer in medical research.
Ferid Murad is an American pharmacologist and physician. He achieved popularity in 1998, when he received the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Ferid Murad is the recipient of several other prominent awards, including the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research.
Louis J. Ignarro is an American pharmacologist best known for winning the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1998. He won the awards along with Ferid Murad and Robert F. Furchgott. Louis J. Ignarro is also the recipient of many other prestigious awards, such as the Merck Research Award, Edward G Schlieder Foundation Award, and Arthritis Foundation Research Award.
Alice Ball was an American chemist best remembered for developing the Ball Method, which became the most effective treatment for leprosy in the early 20th century. She was the first African American and first woman to work as a chemistry professor at the University of Hawaii. Alice Ball's contributions to science were recognized several years after her death.
Otto Loewi was a German-born American psycho-biologist and pharmacologist, whose research on neurology proved that chemicals were involved in the transmission of nerve impulses. Working with Sir Henry Dale, he established the role of acetylcholine as an endogenous neurotransmitter, co-winning the Nobel Prize for it. Later, he worked on diabetes and devised Loewi’s test for the detection of pancreatic disease.
Julius Axelrod was an American biochemist best remembered for winning the 1970 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Ulf von Euler and Bernard Katz. He is also remembered for making important contributions to the understanding of the functions of the pineal gland. Julius Axelrod was also the recipient of several other awards, including the Gairdner Foundation International Award.
Czech-American biochemist Carl Ferdinand Cori’s interest in science was not surprising, with him being a zoologist’s son. Along with his wife, Gerty Cori, and Argentine physiologist Bernardo Houssay, Cori won the Nobel Prize for finding out that glycogen is an energy storehouse of the body.
American pharmacologist and Nobel laureate Alfred G. Gilman is best remembered for his research on G proteins. Born to a Yale pharmacology professor and author father, he was destined to make it big in science. He also taught at the University of Virginia and other institutes and co-established a biotechnology company.
John Jacob Abel was a biochemist and pharmacologist who established the pharmacology department at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. While at Hopkins, he made several important medical advancements. He made significant contributions in the field of hormone extraction and founded the Journal of Biological Chemistry. He was a recipient of the Conne Medal and the Kober Medal.
Earl W. Sutherland Jr. was a pharmacologist and biochemist known for his work in the field of hormones. He was honored with a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1971. As a young man, he worked in the laboratory of Nobel laureate Carl Ferdinand Cori. Under Cori’s guidance, he began his research on the effects of hormones.
Louis S. Goodman was an American pharmacologist best remembered for his collaboration with Alfred Gilman, Sr. The two authored The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics and pioneered the chemotherapy trials using nitrogen mustard. In 1965, Louis S. Goodman was made a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
William Prusoff was an American pharmacologist best remembered as an early innovator in antiviral drugs. He is credited with developing idoxuridine, the first antiviral drug approved by the FDA. He also co-developed one of the earliest AIDS drugs called stavudine. William Prusoff was the recipient of several prestigious awards, including the ASPET Award.