The United States is one of the most technologically advanced nations in the world; from the time it emerged as an independent nation, the United States has encouraged science and innovation. In fact, two of America’s founding fathers—Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson—were reputed scientists. Most scientists of the late 18th century, including Franklin and Jefferson were involved in the struggle to win American independence during the American Revolution and later engaged in nation building. The 19th century America saw the birth of great inventors like Robert Fulton, Samuel Morse, Eli Whitney, Cyrus McCormick, and Thomas Alva Edison, whose works in diverse fields contributed immensely to the nation’s growth and development. One of the biggest innovations by 19th century Americans was undoubtedly the designing and building of the world's first successful airplane by brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright. In the 20th century, Americans like Herman Hollerith and Robert Goddard made pioneering advances in telecommunications and space technology. American scientists have dominated the Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine since World War II. The nation is also home to some of the most prominent scientists alive today. Read on to discover about the life and works of various famous American scientists.
Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein
14 March 1879
Physicist
Nikola TeslaNikola Tesla
10 July 1856
Inventor, Father of Radio

Edward SnowdenEdward Snowden
21 June 1983
Computer Professional, Former CIA Employee

Benjamin FranklinBenjamin Franklin
17 January 1706
Founding Father of the United States

Larry PageLarry Page
26 March 1973
Co-founder of Google

Sergey BrinSergey Brin
21 August 1973
Computer scientist
John Forbes Nash Jr.John Forbes Nash Jr.
13 June 1928
Mathematician

Richard FeynmanRichard Feynman
11 May 1918
Physicist

Neil deGrasse TysonNeil deGrasse Tyson
05 October 1958
Astrophysicist

Carl SaganCarl Sagan
09 November 1934
Astronomer, Astrophysicist, Writer
J. Robert OppenheimerJ. Robert Oppenheimer
22 April 1904
 

Isaac AsimovIsaac Asimov
02 January 1920
Writer, Professor
Katherine JohnsonKatherine Johnson
26 August 1918
Mathematician

Sally RideSally Ride
26 May 1951
Physicist, Astronaut

John von NeumannJohn von Neumann
28 December 1903
Mathematician
Norman BorlaugNorman Borlaug
25 March 1914
Father of the Green Revolution

George Washington CarverGeorge Washington Carver
01 January 1864
Scientist & Inventor
Grace HopperGrace Hopper
09 December 1906
Computer Scientist

Jared DiamondJared Diamond
10 September 1937
Scientist & Author

Gabe NewellGabe Newell
03 November 1962
Entrepreneur
Dian FosseyDian Fossey
16 January 1932
Zoologist, Conservationist

Tom LehrerTom Lehrer
09 April 1928
American musician
Terence TaoTerence Tao
17 July 1975
Mathematician

Enrico FermiEnrico Fermi
29 September 1901
Nobel Laureate in Physics

Jonas SalkJonas Salk
28 October 1914
Medical researcher

James WatsonJames Watson
06 April 1928
Molecular Biologist
Rachel CarsonRachel Carson
27 May 1907
Marine biologist
Linus PaulingLinus Pauling
28 February 1901
Chemist, Biochemist

Zbigniew BrzezinskiZbigniew Brzezinski
28 March 1928
Former Diplomat, Political Scientist

Edward TellerEdward Teller
15 January 1908
 

Kurt GödelKurt Gödel
28 April 1906
Mathematician, Philosopher
Stephen Jay GouldStephen Jay Gould
10 September 1941
 

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Alfred KinseyAlfred Kinsey
23 June 1894
Sexologist

Kip ThorneKip Thorne
01 June 1940
Physicist

James Harris SimonsJames Harris Simons
1938 AD
Mathematicians & Hedge Fund Manager

Venkatraman RamakrishnanVenkatraman Ramakrishnan
1952 AD
Structural biologist
Robert BallardRobert Ballard
30 June 1942
Deep Sea Explorer

William ShockleyWilliam Shockley
13 February 1910
Physicist
Murray Gell-MannMurray Gell-Mann
15 September 1929
Physicist

Har Gobind KhoranaHar Gobind Khorana
09 January 1922
 

Alfred North WhiteheadAlfred North Whitehead
15 February 1861
Mathematician, Philosopher
E. O. WilsonE. O. Wilson
10 June 1929
Biologist

Tommy RettigTommy Rettig
10 December 1941
Child Actor
Josef Allen HynekJ. Allen Hynek
01 May 1910
Astronomer, Ufologist

John James AudubonJohn James Audubon
26 April 1785
Naturalist, Painter, Ornithologist

Thomas KuhnThomas Kuhn
18 July 1922
Physicist

Samuel ColtSamuel Colt
19 July 1814
Inventor

Benjamin BannekerBenjamin Banneker
09 November 1731
Compiler of Almanacs
Steven ChuSteven Chu
28 February 1948
Former United States Secretary of Energy

Luis Walter AlvarezLuis Walter Alvarez
13 June 1911
Physicist

Alan KayAlan Kay
17 May 1940
Computer Scientist

John BardeenJohn Bardeen
23 May 1908
Nobel Laureate in Physics
Lynn MargulisLynn Margulis
05 March 1938
Author

Judea PearlJudea Pearl
04 September 1936
Computer Scientist
John Archibald WheelerJohn Archibald Wheeler
09 July 1911
Physicist

Barbara McClintockBarbara McClintock
16 June 1902
Scientist

Peggy WhitsonPeggy Whitson
09 February 1960
Astronaut, Biochemist
Manjul BhargavaManjul Bhargava
08 August 1974
Mathematician

David BohmDavid Bohm
20 December 1917
Scientist
Eugene Paul Eugene Wigner
17 November 1902
Physicist & Mathematician

Steven WeinbergSteven Weinberg
03 May 1933
 

Aldo LeopoldAldo Leopold
11 January 1887
 
Hans BetheHans Bethe
02 July 1906
Physicist

Karl LandsteinerKarl Landsteiner
14 June 1868
Physician
Louis AgassizLouis Agassiz
28 May 1807
Geologist

John Wesely PowellJohn Wesley Powell
24 March 1834
Explorer, Geologist

Glen T. SeaborgGlenn T. Seaborg
19 April 1912
Chemist

Ernest LawrenceErnest Lawrence
08 August 1901
Physicist
Henrietta Swan LeavittHenrietta Swan Leavitt
04 July 1868
Astronomer
Robert Andrews MillikanRobert Andrews Millikan
22 March 1868
Physicist

Elizabeth BlackburnElizabeth Blackburn
26 November 1948
American-Australian researcher

Thomas Hunt MorganThomas Hunt Morgan
25 September 1866
Geneticist

Julian SchwingerJulian Schwinger
12 February 1918
Physicist
John Robert SchriefferJohn Robert Schrieffer
31 May 1931
Physicist

Isidor Isaac Rabi Isidor Isaac Rabi
29 July 1898
Physicist

Percy Lavon JulianPercy Lavon Julian
11 April 1899
Chemist

Leo BaekelandLeo Baekeland
14 November 1863
Chemist & Inventor

David BaltimoreDavid Baltimore
07 March 1938
Virologist
Stephanie KwolekStephanie Kwolek
31 July 1923
Chemist

Ernst MayrErnst Mayr
05 July 1904
Biologist
Albert Abraham MichelsonAlbert A. Michelson
19 December 1852
Physicist

Gerty CoriGerty Cori
15 August 1896
Biochemist

Irving LangmuirIrving Langmuir
31 January 1881
Chemist
Joseph HenryJoseph Henry
17 December 1797
Scientist

Gertrude B. ElionGertrude B. Elion
23 January 1918
Biochemist, Pharmacologist
Leó SzilárdLeó Szilárd
11 February 1898
Physicist

Ivar GiaeverIvar Giaever
05 April 1929
Physicist

Arthur ComptonArthur Compton
10 September 1892
Nobel Prize Laureate in Physics

Maria MitchellMaria Mitchell
01 August 1818
Astronomer
Tsung-Dao LeeTsung-Dao Lee
24 November 1926
Physicist

Albert von Szent-Györgyi Albert Szent-Györgyi
16 September 1893
Physiologist
Franklin DiazFranklin Chang Díaz
05 April 1950
Former NASA Astronaut

Harold UreyHarold Urey
29 April 1893
Chemist
Peter DebyePeter Debye
24 March 1884
American-Dutch chemist

Annie Jump CannonAnnie Jump Cannon
11 December 1863
Astronomer
Roger Wolcott SperryRoger Wolcott Sperry
20 August 1913
Neuropsychologist