The United States is one of the most technologically advanced nations in the world; from the time it emerged as an independent nation, the United States has encouraged science and innovation. In fact, two of America’s founding fathers—Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson—were reputed scientists. Most scientists of the late 18th century, including Franklin and Jefferson were involved in the struggle to win American independence during the American Revolution and later engaged in nation building. The 19th century America saw the birth of great inventors like Robert Fulton, Samuel Morse, Eli Whitney, Cyrus McCormick, and Thomas Alva Edison, whose works in diverse fields contributed immensely to the nation’s growth and development. One of the biggest innovations by 19th century Americans was undoubtedly the designing and building of the world's first successful airplane by brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright. In the 20th century, Americans like Herman Hollerith and Robert Goddard made pioneering advances in telecommunications and space technology. American scientists have dominated the Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine since World War II. The nation is also home to some of the most prominent scientists alive today. Read on to discover about the life and works of various famous American scientists.
Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein
14 March 1879
Physicist
Edward SnowdenEdward Snowden
21 June 1983
Computer Professional, Former CIA Employee

Nikola TeslaNikola Tesla
10 July 1856
Inventor, Father of Radio

Benjamin FranklinBenjamin Franklin
17 January 1706
Founding Father of the United States

Larry PageLarry Page
26 March 1973
Co-founder of Google

Neil deGrasse TysonNeil deGrasse Tyson
05 October 1958
Astrophysicist
Sergey BrinSergey Brin
21 August 1973
Computer scientist

John Forbes Nash Jr.John Forbes Nash Jr.
13 June 1928
Mathematician

Richard FeynmanRichard Feynman
11 May 1918
Physicist

Carl SaganCarl Sagan
09 November 1934
Astronomer, Astrophysicist, Writer
Katherine JohnsonKatherine Johnson
26 August 1918
Mathematician

J. Robert OppenheimerJ. Robert Oppenheimer
22 April 1904
 
Isaac AsimovIsaac Asimov
02 January 1920
Writer, Professor

John von NeumannJohn von Neumann
28 December 1903
Mathematician

Sally RideSally Ride
26 May 1951
Physicist, Astronaut
Grace HopperGrace Hopper
09 December 1906
Computer Scientist

George Washington CarverGeorge Washington Carver
01 January 1864
Scientist & Inventor
Terence TaoTerence Tao
17 July 1975
Mathematician

Dian FosseyDian Fossey
16 January 1932
Zoologist, Conservationist

Gabe NewellGabe Newell
03 November 1962
Entrepreneur
Jonas SalkJonas Salk
28 October 1914
Medical researcher

Enrico FermiEnrico Fermi
29 September 1901
Nobel Laureate in Physics
Linus PaulingLinus Pauling
28 February 1901
Chemist, Biochemist

James WatsonJames Watson
06 April 1928
Molecular Biologist

Rachel CarsonRachel Carson
27 May 1907
Marine biologist

Norman BorlaugNorman Borlaug
25 March 1914
Father of the Green Revolution
Tom LehrerTom Lehrer
09 April 1928
American musician
Kurt GödelKurt Gödel
28 April 1906
Mathematician, Philosopher

Jared DiamondJared Diamond
10 September 1937
Scientist & Author

Ken ThompsonKen Thompson
04 February 1943
Computer Scientist

Zbigniew BrzezinskiZbigniew Brzezinski
28 March 1928
Former Diplomat, Political Scientist
Edward TellerEdward Teller
15 January 1908
 

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Har Gobind KhoranaHar Gobind Khorana
09 January 1922
 

John BardeenJohn Bardeen
23 May 1908
Nobel Laureate in Physics

Venkatraman RamakrishnanVenkatraman Ramakrishnan
1952 AD
Structural biologist

Stephen Jay GouldStephen Jay Gould
10 September 1941
 
Kip ThorneKip Thorne
01 June 1940
Physicist

Robert BallardRobert Ballard
30 June 1942
Deep Sea Explorer
Alfred KinseyAlfred Kinsey
23 June 1894
Sexologist

William ShockleyWilliam Shockley
13 February 1910
Physicist

E. O. WilsonE. O. Wilson
10 June 1929
Biologist
Alfred North WhiteheadAlfred North Whitehead
15 February 1861
Mathematician, Philosopher

Thomas KuhnThomas Kuhn
18 July 1922
Physicist
Benjamin BannekerBenjamin Banneker
09 November 1731
Compiler of Almanacs

Luis Walter AlvarezLuis Walter Alvarez
13 June 1911
Physicist

Tommy RettigTommy Rettig
10 December 1941
Child Actor

Franklin DiazFranklin Chang Díaz
05 April 1950
Former NASA Astronaut

Arthur D. LevinsonArthur D. Levinson
31 March 1950
Microbiologist
John James AudubonJohn James Audubon
26 April 1785
Naturalist, Painter, Ornithologist

Josef Allen HynekJ. Allen Hynek
01 May 1910
Astronomer, Ufologist

Samuel ColtSamuel Colt
19 July 1814
Inventor

Lynn MargulisLynn Margulis
05 March 1938
Author
Alan KayAlan Kay
17 May 1940
Computer Scientist

Manjul BhargavaManjul Bhargava
08 August 1974
Mathematician
Murray Gell-MannMurray Gell-Mann
15 September 1929
Physicist

Barbara McClintockBarbara McClintock
16 June 1902
Scientist

Aldo LeopoldAldo Leopold
11 January 1887
 
Judea PearlJudea Pearl
04 September 1936
Computer Scientist

Robert Andrews MillikanRobert Andrews Millikan
22 March 1868
Physicist
Steven ChuSteven Chu
28 February 1948
Former United States Secretary of Energy

John Archibald WheelerJohn Archibald Wheeler
09 July 1911
Physicist

Hans BetheHans Bethe
02 July 1906
Physicist
David BohmDavid Bohm
20 December 1917
Scientist

Steven WeinbergSteven Weinberg
03 May 1933
 
Eugene Paul Eugene Wigner
17 November 1902
Physicist & Mathematician

Glen T. SeaborgGlenn T. Seaborg
19 April 1912
Chemist

Peggy WhitsonPeggy Whitson
09 February 1960
Astronaut, Biochemist

James Harris SimonsJames Harris Simons
1938 AD
Mathematicians & Hedge Fund Manager
Karl LandsteinerKarl Landsteiner
14 June 1868
Physician
John Wesely PowellJohn Wesley Powell
24 March 1834
Explorer, Geologist

Elizabeth BlackburnElizabeth Blackburn
26 November 1948
American-Australian researcher

Thomas Hunt MorganThomas Hunt Morgan
25 September 1866
Geneticist

Howard Martin TeminHoward Martin Temin
10 December 1934
Geneticist and Virologist
Leo BaekelandLeo Baekeland
14 November 1863
Chemist & Inventor

Ernest LawrenceErnest Lawrence
08 August 1901
Physicist

Louis AgassizLouis Agassiz
28 May 1807
Geologist

David BaltimoreDavid Baltimore
07 March 1938
Virologist

Stephanie KwolekStephanie Kwolek
31 July 1923
Chemist
Gerty CoriGerty Cori
15 August 1896
Biochemist

Henrietta Swan LeavittHenrietta Swan Leavitt
04 July 1868
Astronomer
Percy Lavon JulianPercy Lavon Julian
11 April 1899
Chemist

Gertrude B. ElionGertrude B. Elion
23 January 1918
Biochemist, Pharmacologist

Albert Abraham MichelsonAlbert A. Michelson
19 December 1852
Physicist
Irving LangmuirIrving Langmuir
31 January 1881
Chemist

Maria MitchellMaria Mitchell
01 August 1818
Astronomer
Julian SchwingerJulian Schwinger
12 February 1918
Physicist

Joseph HenryJoseph Henry
17 December 1797
Scientist

Ernst MayrErnst Mayr
05 July 1904
Biologist

Ivar GiaeverIvar Giaever
05 April 1929
Physicist
Leon M. LedermanLeon M. Lederman
15 July 1922
Physicist

Annie Jump CannonAnnie Jump Cannon
11 December 1863
Astronomer
Isidor Isaac Rabi Isidor Isaac Rabi
29 July 1898
Physicist

Radia PerlmanRadia Perlman
18 December 1951
Computer Network Engineer
Arthur ComptonArthur Compton
10 September 1892
Nobel Prize Laureate in Physics

John Robert SchriefferJohn Robert Schrieffer
31 May 1931
Physicist
Albert von Szent-Györgyi Albert Szent-Györgyi
16 September 1893
Physiologist