**Birthdate:**November 7, 1867

**Sun Sign:**Scorpio

**Birthplace:**Warsaw, Poland

**Died:**July 4, 1934

*radioactivity*and discovered polonium and radium.

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Find out more about the greatest 19th Century French Scientists, including Louis Pasteur, Henri Poincare, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Louis de Broglie and Pierre Curie.

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1

Marie Curie

(The First Woman to Win a Nobel Prize)

Amongst the most notable scientists of her time, the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the sole person to win two Nobel Prize in two different category, and the first woman professor at the University of Paris—Marie Curie’s list of achievements is incredible. She did extensive research in the field of *radioactivity* and discovered polonium and radium.

2

Louis Pasteur

(French Chemist and Microbiologist Who Discovered the Principles of Vaccination, Microbial Fermentation and Pasteurization)

Considered one of the founders of bacteriology, Louis Pasteur created vaccines for anthrax and rabies, and invented the process of heating food and wine to kill microbes that cause contamination, which was named pasteurization after him. Known as the “father of microbiology,” he also founded the **Pasteur Institute** in Paris.

3

Pierre-Simon Laplace

(French Mathematician and Astronomer Who was Best Known for His Investigations into the Stability of the Solar System)

Though French scholar Pierre-Simon Laplace is primarily known for his work on the solar system, his research extended to areas such as mathematics and physics, apart from astronomy. Widely known as the *Newton of France*, he escaped being executed during the French Revolution, owing to his lack of political views.

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4

Henri Poincare

(French Polymath and Mathematician Known as One of the Founders of the 'Field of Topology')

Known as *The Last Universalist *for his expertise in a variety of domains, French mathematician Henri Poincare conducted research that formed the basis of the modern chaos theory. Apart from his work on relativity and the three-body problem, he also laid the foundation of algebraic topology.

5

Évariste Galois

(Mathematician)

Évariste Galois was a French mathematician best remembered for solving a 350-year-old problem when he was still in his teens. His work formed the basis for group theory and Galois theory, two important branches of abstract algebra. Also a political activist, Évariste Galois died at the age of 20 after suffering wounds in a duel.

6

Joseph Fourier

(Mathematician & Physicist)

Joseph Fourier was a French physicist and mathematician best remembered for commencing the investigation of the Fourier series, which is used widely to solve problems of heat transfer and vibrations. Fourier's law of conduction and Fourier transform are named in his honor. Fourier is also said to have discovered the greenhouse effect.

7

Louis de Broglie

(Physicist)

Louis de Broglie was a French aristocrat and physicist who made important contributions to quantum theory. His *de Broglie hypothesis,* which suggests that all matter has wave properties, is one of the most important features in the theory of quantum mechanics. In 1929, de Broglie was honored with the* Nobel Prize for Physics* for his work.

8

Adrien-Marie Legendre

(Mathematician)

Born into an affluent family, French mathematician Adrien-Marie Legendre probably never had to earn a living till the beginning of the French Revolution. Excelling in math and physics, he later contributed to areas such as *elliptic functions*, developed the *least squares method*, and lent his name to *Legendre polynomials*.

9

Henri Becquerel

(Physicist, Discoverer of Radioactivity)

**Nobel Prize**-winning physicist Henri Becquerel is known for his chance discovery of spontaneous radioactivity. Born into a family of scientists, Becquerel had been an engineer and a physics professor earlier. Marie Curie, who shared the **Nobel **with him and her husband, Pierre, was one of his doctoral students.

10

Augustin-Louis Cauchy

(Mathematician)

French mathematician Augustin-Louis Cauchy was initially a military engineer. In his early days, he and his family escaped the Reign of Terror and settled in Arcueil. He was one of the pioneers of mathematical analysis and made significant contributions to subjects such as error theory, calculus, and complex functions.

11

Pierre Curie

(Nobel Laureate in Physics)

A pioneer in crystallography, radioactivity, piezoelectricity, and magnetism, Pierre Curie was a French physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics along with Henri Becquerel and Marie Curie. Despite being an** **atheist, Pierre Curie was fascinated by spiritualism** **as he believed that spiritual questions deal with physics.

12

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac

(French Chemist and Physicist Who Discovered That Water is Made of Two Parts Hydrogen and One Part Oxygen)

Known for his pathbreaking *Gay-Lussac's Law*, French chemist-physicist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac was also the first, along with his colleague Alexander von Humboldt, to discover that water is composed of one part of oxygen and two parts of hydrogen. His name is one of the 72 that adorn the** Eiffel Tower**.

13

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

(Naturalist and Biologist Best Known for Proposing that Acquired Characteristics can be Inherited.)

French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck acquired his love for plants while serving as a soldier in the French army. Following an injury, he quit his military career but retained his love for botany. He later taught zoology, studied the classification of invertebrates, and also coined the term *biology*.

14

Andre Marie Ampere

(Physicist)

Andre Marie Ampere was a French physicist and mathematician. He is best known for being one of the founders of the science of classical electromagnetism. He was a professor at the École Polytechnique and the Collège de France and a member of the French Academy of Sciences. The base SI unit of electric current, the ampere, is named after him.

15

Georges Cuvier

(French Naturalist and Zoologist Known for Establishing the Field of 'Comparative Anatomy' and 'Paleontology')

Georges Cuvier was a French zoologist and naturalist. A major figure in the early 19th century's research of natural sciences, Cuvier played an important role in establishing the fields of comparative paleontology and anatomy by comparing fossils with living animals, for which he is sometimes regarded as** the founding father of paleontology.**

16

Sophie Germain

(French Mathematician Known for Her 'Sophie Germain Prime Numbers')

French mathematician Sophie Germain had used the pseudonym *M. Le Blanc* to get hold of notes from the **École Polytechnique**, as being a woman, she was not allowed to attend the institute. She later contributed to the number theory and also pioneered the elasticity theory. She died of breast cancer.

17

Vilfredo Pareto

(Economist, Writer, Philosopher, Sociologist, University teacher)

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A qualified civil engineer, Vilfredo Pareto had initially worked for the railways and the ironworks. However, he gradually deviated to philosophy, sociology, and politics and gained fame for his application of math to economic issues and his introduction of *Pareto efficiency*. *Mind and Society* remains his best-known work.

18

Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot

(French Mechanical Engineer Who is Described as the Father of Thermodynamics)

Son of French Revolutionary leader and mathematician Lazare Carnot, Sadi Carnot was an engineer in the French army. He later laid down the *Carnot cycle* of heat engines. Much of his works were buried with him when he died of cholera at 36, due to the contagiousness of the disease.

19

Gustave Le Bon

(Physician, Anthropologist, Archaeologist, Psychologist, Philosopher, Historian, Sociologist)

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French social psychologist Gustave Le Bon is best remembered for his research on crowd psychology. In his iconic work *La psychologie des foules*, or *The Crowd*, he stated that people are driven by their emotions and not by their intellect when they act as part of a crowd.

20

Charles Hermite

(Mathematician)

Charles Hermite was a French mathematician best remembered for his research on number theory, invariant theory, algebra, elliptic functions, orthogonal polynomials, and quadratic forms. Also an inspiring and influential teacher, Hermite taught Jules Henri Poincaré, who went on to become fa amous mathematician in his own right.

21

Claude Bernard

(Physiologist)

Claude Bernard was a French physiologist whose scientific experiments led to several important discoveries. He is credited with coining the phrase *milieu intérieur*, which refers to the extracellular fluid (ECF) environment. He also pioneered the use of a blinded experiment to eliminate various experimental biases.

22

Paul Langevin

(Physicist, Professor, Chemist, Philosopher of science, Educationist, Non-fiction writer)

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Best known for developing the *Langevin dynamics* and the *Langevin equation*, physicist Paul Langevin was also a staunch Communist. Having worked on his doctoral thesis under Pierre Curie, he had formed a connection with Curie’s wife, Marie Curie, which developed into a full-blown love affair after Pierre’s death.

23

Alexis Carrel

(Surgeon, Biologist)

24

François Arago

(Astronomer, Mathematician, Physicist, Politician, Scientist, University teacher)

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French physicist and mathematician François Arago discovered rotatory magnetism, named *Arago's rotations*. He is also remembered for his research on *the wave theory of light* and for the reforms he introduced as the French minister of war and the navy. **The Eiffel Tower** has his name inscribed on it.

25

Siméon Denis Poisson

(Mathematician)

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26

Léon Foucault

(Physicist)

Léon Foucault was a French physicist remembered for his presentation of the *Foucault pendulum*. Foucault is credited with measuring the speed of light and discovering eddy currents. He is also credited with coining the term *gyroscope*. Considered one of the most important physicists from France, Foucault's name is among the 72 names etched on the famous Eiffel Tower in Paris.

27

Jacques Hadamard

(Mathematician)

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28

Lazare Carnot

(Mathematician, Politician, Engineer, Officer, Physicist)

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Lazare Carnot was a French physicist, mathematician, and politician. His role in the *Napoleonic Wars* and *French Revolutionary Wars* earned him the sobriquet *Organizer of Victory*. Carnot is credited with developing innovative defensive designs for forts, such as the *Carnot wall *which served as a defensive mechanism against infantry and artillery attack.

29

Léon Walras

(Economist, University teacher, Mathematician)

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Léon Walras was a French mathematical economist and Georgist. He is known for formulating the marginal theory of value independently of William Stanley Jevons. Considered a pioneer in the development of general equilibrium theory, he authored the book *Éléments d'économie politique pure*. He is also considered one of the three leaders of the marginalist revolution.

30

Charles Lucien Bonaparte

(French Ornithologist and Naturalist)

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Charles Lucien Bonaparte was a French ornithologist and naturalist. His father Lucien Bonaparte was the brother of Napoleon I, making Charles Lucien Bonaparte the emperor’s nephew. In Luigi Magni's 1990 Italian historical film *In the Name of the Sovereign People*, Charles was portrayed by Carlo Croccolo.

31

Alexandre Yersin

(Discoverer of Yersinia Pestis)

Alexandre Yersin was a physician and bacteriologist. He is credited with co-discovering *Yersinia pestis*, the bacillus that causes the bubonic plague. Also an agriculturist, Yersin pioneered the cultivation of rubber trees. He is revered by the Vietnamese people because of his association with *Hanoi Medical University*; a private university in Da Lat is named in his honor.

32

Urbain Le Verrier

(French Astronomer and Mathematician Best Known for Predicting the Existence and Position of 'Neptune' Using Only Mathematics)

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French astronomer Urbain Le Verrier revolutionized celestial mechanics by ascertaining the existence of Neptune by mathematical means. Apart from winning the **Royal Society of London**’s **Copley Medal**, he had also led the **Observatory of Paris **as its director. His name remains one of the 72 engraved on the **Eiffel Tower**.

33

Conrad Schlumberger

(Geophysicist)

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Along with his brother, Marcel Schlumberger, Conrad Schlumberger formed one of the most well-known geophysicist duos of Germany. A pioneer in petroleum production, he co-established **Schlumberger Ltd.**, one of the world’s largest oil-field service companies, with Marcel. Their technique of oil exploration offered a cheap alternative than the existing coring methods.

34

Joseph Proust

(French Chemist Best Known for His Discovery of the Law of Definite Proportions)

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Initially training to be an apothecary like his father, Joseph Proust later deviated to pharmacy and then to chemistry. He is best remembered for developing the *law of definite proportions*, also known as the *Proust's law*, which states that pure chemical compounds always consist of constant proportions of constituent elements.

35

Étienne-Jules Marey

(French Scientist Who is Widely Considered to be a Pioneer of Photography)

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Étienne-Jules Marey was a French scientist, chronophotographer, and physiologist. He is best remembered for his work which played a major role in the development of physical instrumentation, cardiology, cinematography, aviation, and the science of laboratory photography. Étienne-Jules Marey is widely regarded as a pioneer of photography.

36

Henri Lebesgue

(Mathematician)

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37

Camille Flammarion

(Former Astronomer author who published the magazine L'Astronomie, starting in 1882)

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French astronomer Camille Flammarion began his career as a human computer at the **Paris Observatory** at 16. He believed intelligent beings from Mars had tried to communicate with people on Earth in the past. He also published *L'Astronomie *and penned sci-fi novels such as *Omega: The Last Days of the World*.

38

Louis Bachelier

(Mathematician, Economist, Non-fiction writer)

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French mathematician Louis Bachelier was said to be the first to chart a mathematical model for what is now called the *Brownian motion*. After losing his wine merchant father early in life, he took over the reins of his family business, but he gradually became a pioneer in mathematical finance.

39

Pierre-André Latreille

(Zoologist)

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40

Camille Jordan

(Mathematician, Engineer, Professor)

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Camille Jordan was a French mathematician best remembered for his influential *Cours d'analyse *and his foundational work in group theory. He also served as an educator, teaching at prestigious institutions like the* Collège de France* and* École Polytechnique.* The asteroid *25593 Camillejordan* is named in his honor.

41

Waldemar Haffkine

(Bacteriologists)

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42

Jean-Henri Fabre

(French Entomologist Who is Widely Regarded as the Father of Modern Entomology)

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Jean-Henri Fabre was a French entomologist, naturalist, teacher, chemist, physicist, botanist, and author. He is best remembered for his study of insects; Fabre is widely regarded as** the father of modern entomology**. He is also remembered for his interesting literary work on the lives of insects. Jean-Henri Fabre's life and career inspired the 1951 biographical movie* Monsieur Fabre.*

43

Serge Voronoff

(Surgeon, Immunologist, Gynaecologist)

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Russian-French surgeon Serge Voronoff, or the *Monkey Gland Man*, stunned everyone by implanting monkey testicles in his patients to cure impotence. He had apparently also injected himself with dog and guinea pig testicle extracts. Unfortunately, the scientific community dismissed his claims as simply the result of *placebo effect*.

44

Marie-Anne Paulze Lavoisier

(Chemist)

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At 13, Marie-Anne Paulze Lavoisier had married lawyer and chemist Antoine Lavoisier. Her mastery of English helped her assist her husband communicate with his collaborators. She also illustrated her husband’s books and eventually negotiated with Joseph Priestley, on his behalf, over the naming of oxygen, which Priestley had discovered.

45

Gaspard Monge

(Mathematician)

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46

Henri Moissan

(Chemist)

Henri Moissan was a French chemist and pharmacist. He is best known for his work in isolating fluorine from its compounds, an achievement that earned him the 1906 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He was one of the original members of the International Atomic Weights Committee. He also made significant contributions to the production of artificial diamonds.

47

Jean Baptiste Perrin

(French Physicist and Winner of the 1926 Nobel Prize for Physics)

Jean Baptiste Perrin was a French physicist who won the prestigious *Nobel Prize for Physics* in 1926. He is credited with confirming the atomic nature of matter. Jean Baptiste Perrin also served as a professor at the *University of Paris *for many years.

48

Émile Borel

(Former mathematician, he was known for his founding work in the areas of measure theory and probability)

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49

Pierre Duhem

(French Physicist, Mathematician, and Philosopher Best Known for His Work on 'Chemical Thermodynamics')

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Noted for his view that every physical theory should be derivable from thermodynamic first principles, French theoretical physicist Pierre Duhem was also an eminent historian and philosopher of science, producing groundbreaking work in medieval science. Equally known for his work on relation between theory and experiments, he also established that it is impossible to test a scientific hypothesis in isolation.

50

Élie Cartan

(Mathematician)

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