Karl Schwarzschild was a German astronomer and physicist. He is remembered for his contributions to the general theory of relativity; Schwarzschild came up with the first exact solution to the Albert Einstein field equations. He also contributed immensely to the theory of black holes.
Along with his brother, Marcel Schlumberger, Conrad Schlumberger formed one of the most well-known geophysicist duos of Germany. A pioneer in petroleum production, he co-established Schlumberger Ltd., one of the world’s largest oil-field service companies, with Marcel. Their technique of oil exploration offered a cheap alternative than the existing coring methods.
Margaret Burbidge was a British-American observational astronomer and astrophysicist. She was the first author of the influential B2FH paper and one of the founders of stellar nucleosynthesis. She held several leadership and administrative posts and was well known for her work opposing discrimination against women in astronomy. In 1988, she was awarded the Albert Einstein World Award of Science.
British astrophysicist and cosmologist Edward Arthur Milne was a brilliant student and a Cambridge scholar. Remembered for his work on kinematic relativity, he introduced the Milne model, too. He applied the Saha equation in his studies on the spectral lines of stars and also lectured on Christianity.
Born in Russia, Otto Wilhelm von Struve was too young to join a university when he had completed his studies at the gymnasium and thus initially joined as a listener. He often assisted his astronomer father Frederich von Struve and later discovered about 500 double stars and studied Saturn’s rings.
Hermann Carl Vogel was a German astrophysicist who served as the director of Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP) from 1882 to 1907. He is best remembered for making important discoveries by studying the spectral analysis of the stars. Over the course of his illustrious career, Hermann Carl Vogel was honored with several awards, including the Bruce Medal in 1906.