Famous 19th Century Physiologists

Right IconThis ranking is based on an algorithm that combines various factors, including the votes of our users and search trends on the internet.

Vote for Your Favourite 19th Century Physiologists
 1 
Wilhelm Wundt
(Philosopher)
Wilhelm Wundt
down6
Birthdate: August 16, 1832
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Mannheim, Germany
Died: August 31, 1920

Wilhelm Wundt was a German physiologist, professor, and philosopher. He is often counted among the founders of modern psychology and is widely considered the father of experimental psychology. He is also credited with founding the first laboratory for psychological research, which he founded at the University of Leipzig in 1879.

 2 
Theodor Schwann
(Physiologist)
Theodor Schwann
down6
Birthdate: December 7, 1810
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Neuss, Germany
Died: January 11, 1882

Theodor Schwann was a German physiologist and physician best remembered for his important contributions to biology. He is credited with discovering the Schwann cells, which is named after him. He is also credited with discovering pepsin and the organic nature of yeast. Theodor Schwann also invented the term metabolism.

 3 
Claude Bernard
(Physiologist)
Claude Bernard
down6
Birthdate: July 12, 1813
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Saint-Julien, France
Died: February 10, 1878

Claude Bernard was a French physiologist whose scientific experiments led to several important discoveries. He is credited with coining the phrase milieu intérieur, which refers to the extracellular fluid (ECF) environment. He also pioneered the use of a blinded experiment to eliminate various experimental biases.

Recommended Lists:
 4 
Albert Szent-Györgyi
(Physiologist)
Albert Szent-Györgyi
down4
Birthdate: September 16, 1893
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Budapest, Austria-Hungary
Died: October 22, 1986

Born in Budapest, Nobel Prize-winning biochemist Albert Szent-Györgyi shot himself in the arm while serving in World War II, so that he could be sent back home, and then studied medicine. While he is remembered for first isolating vitamin C, unknown to many, he was also a skilled pianist.

 5 
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
(German Physician & Naturalist Considered to be a Main Founder of 'Zoology' and 'Anthropology' as Comparative, Scientific Disciplines)
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
down8
Birthdate: May 11, 1752
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Gotha, Germany
Died: January 22, 1840

A pioneer of physical anthropology, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach laid down one of the first racial classification systems for humans after studying human skulls, dividing mankind into five racial groups. Born into a family of academics, he was a prodigy. He was against scientific racism, though his theory promoted the degenerative hypothesis.

 6 
Emil Adolf von Behring
(German physiologist)
Emil Adolf von Behring
down6
Birthdate: March 15, 1854
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Ławice
Died: March 31, 1917

Nobel Prize-winning German physiologist Emil Adolf von Behring is remembered as a pioneer of immunology for his research on serum therapy developed an antitoxin to cure diphtheria. One of the 13 children of his parents, he had studied medicine at a military academy due to lack of funds.

 7 
Charles Scott Sherrington
(English Neurophysiologist Who Won the 1932 Nobel Prize in Medicine)
Charles Scott Sherrington
down3
Birthdate: November 27, 1857
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Islington, London, England
Died: March 4, 1952

Charles Scott Sherrington was an English histologist, neurophysiologist, pathologist, and bacteriologist. In 1932, Sherrington and Edgar Douglas Adrian were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries of the functions of neurons. Charles Scott Sherrington's exposition of synaptic communication between neurons helped understand the central nervous system. He was also the recipient of the prestigious Royal Medal.

You May Like
 8 
Nicolae Paulescu
(Romanian Scientist Who Is Known for His Research on 'Insulin' and His Anti-Semitic Writings)
Nicolae Paulescu
down3
Birthdate: October 30, 1869
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Bucharest, Romania
Died: July 17, 1931
 9 
Étienne-Jules Marey
(French Scientist Who is Widely Considered to be a Pioneer of Photography)
Étienne-Jules Marey
down3
Birthdate: March 5, 1830
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Beaune, France
Died: May 15, 1904

Étienne-Jules Marey was a French scientist, chronophotographer, and physiologist. He is best remembered for his work which played a major role in the development of physical instrumentation, cardiology, cinematography, aviation, and the science of laboratory photography. Étienne-Jules Marey is widely regarded as a pioneer of photography.

 10 
Walter Bradford Cannon
down3
Birthdate: October 19, 1871
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, United States
Died: October 1, 1945
 11 
Johannes Peter Müller
down3
Birthdate: July 14, 1801
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Koblenz, Germany
Died: April 28, 1858

Johannes Peter Müller was a German physiologist, ichthyologist, herpetologist, and comparative anatomist. Known for his discoveries and his capability to synthesize knowledge, Müller made important contributions to the field of physiology. He also mentored physiologists and scientists like Hermann von Helmholtz, Theodor Schwann, Emil du Bois-Reymond, Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle, Ernst Haeckel, and Ernst Wilhelm Brücke.

 12 
John Scott Haldane
(Former Physician, Physiologist known for Black Veil Respirator, Haldane effect in haemoglobin)
John Scott Haldane
down3
Birthdate: May 2, 1860
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Died: March 14, 1936

Copley Medal-winning Scottish physiologist John Scott Haldane is best remembered for his research on the physiology of respiration. He also contributed significantly to mine safety regulations and developed a method to help deep-sea divers. It is believed, he would often lock himself in sealed rooms, inhaling gases, to observe their effects on him.

 13 
Henry Hallett Dale
(English Physiologist, Pharmacologist and 1936 Nobel Prize Winner in Medicine)
Henry Hallett Dale
down3
Birthdate: June 9, 1875
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: London, England
Died: July 23, 1968

Henry Hallett Dale was an English physiologist and pharmacologist. He is best remembered for winning the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1936 along with Otto Loewi. Henry Hallett Dale was also the recipient of many other awards like the Royal Medal, the Copley Medal, and the Albert Medal.

 14 
Charles Richet
(Physiologist)
Charles Richet
down3
Birthdate: August 25, 1850
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: December 4, 1935

Charles Richet was a French physiologist remembered for his pioneering work in immunology. He is acclaimed for his work on anaphylaxis, which earned him the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1913. He was also interested in the study of the paranormal. A proponent of eugenics, Richet was in charge of the French Eugenics Society for six years.

 15 
Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille
(French Physiologist and Physicist Best Remembered for Formulating and Publishing the 'Hagen–Poiseuille Equation')
Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille
down3
Birthdate: April 22, 1797
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: December 26, 1869

Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille was a French physiologist and physicist. He is best remembered for formulating and publishing the Hagen–Poiseuille equation. Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille came up with the equation after developing an interest in the flow of blood in capillaries and veins.

 16 
John James Rickard Macleod
(British Biochemist and Physiologist Who Co-Discovered 'Insulin' and Worked on 'Carbohydrate Metabolism')
John James Rickard Macleod
down7
Birthdate: September 6, 1876
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Clunie, Perthshire, Scotland
Died: March 16, 1935

John James Rickard Macleod was a Scottish biochemist and physiologist. Even though his research covered diverse topics in physiology and biochemistry, he is best remembered for his work in carbohydrate metabolism. He played a major role in the discovery and isolation of insulin, for which he shared the 1923 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine with Frederick Banting.  

 17 
Bernardo Houssay
(Physiologist)
Bernardo Houssay
down3
Birthdate: April 10, 1887
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Buenos Aires, Argentina
Died: September 21, 1971

Bernardo Houssay was an Argentine physiologist best remembered for winning the 1947 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine and becoming the first Argentine Nobel Prize winner in the field of sciences. Bernardo Houssay won the award for discovering the role of the pituitary hormones in regulating the amount of glucose in animals. 

 18 
E. Morton Jellinek
(Physiologist)
E. Morton Jellinek
down3
Birthdate: August 15, 1890
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: New York City, New York, United States
Died: October 22, 1963
 19 
Ernest Starling
(Physiologist)
Ernest Starling
down3
Birthdate: April 17, 1866
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: London, England
Died: May 2, 1927

British physiologist Ernest Starling is best known for establishing the Starling’s hypothesis, which explained the fluid balance between tissues and vessels. A physiology professor at UCL, he later laid down the Law of the Heart and also worked on poisonous gases during World War I. He was, however, shunned by the Nobel Committee.

 20 
Albert von Kölliker
down3
Birthdate: July 6, 1817
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Zürich, Switzerland
Died: November 2, 1905
Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard
down3
Birthdate: April 8, 1817
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Port Louis, Mauritius
Died: April 2, 1894
 22 
Robert Remak
(Physiologist)
Robert Remak
down3
Birthdate: July 26, 1815
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Poznań, Poland
Died: August 29, 1865

German embryologist and neurologist Robert Remak is known for pathbreaking scientific feats such as the discovery of the Remak’s ganglia and the use of electrotherapy to treat nervous ailments. He also named the three layers of the embryo, the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. His Jewish origin deprived him from valid recognition.

 23 
Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond
(German Physiologist and Physician Who Developed Experimental Electrophysiology and Co-Discovering Nerve Action Potential)
Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond
down2
Birthdate: November 7, 1818
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Berlin, Germany
Died: December 26, 1896

Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond was a German physiologist and physician. He is credited with developing experimental electrophysiology and co-discovering nerve action potential. He was also a renowned teacher and is known for his association with the University of Berlin where he served as a professor.

 24 
Wilhelm Ludvig Johannsen
down2
Birthdate: February 3, 1857
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Copenhagen, Denmark
Died: November 11, 1927

Danish geneticist and botanist Wilhelm Ludvig Johannsen is remembered for his research on plant heredity. Initially a professor, who had also taught plant physiology at the University of Copenhagen, he later focused on research. He is also credited with coining the terms phenotype, genotype, and genes.

 25 
Carl Gustav Carus
(German Painter and Physiologist Who Created the Concept of the Vertebrate Archetype.)
Carl Gustav Carus
down4
Birthdate: January 3, 1789
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Leipzig, Germany
Died: July 28, 1869

Carl Gustav Carus was a German painter and physiologist. He is best remembered for creating the concept of the vertebrate archetype. A man of many talents, Carl Gustav Carus was a renowned naturalist, psychologist, scientist, and doctor.

 26 
Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg
(German Scientist & Comparative Anatomist)
Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg
down4
Birthdate: April 19, 1795
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Delitzsch, Germany
Died: June 27, 1876

Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg was a German zoologist, naturalist, geologist, microscopist, and comparative anatomist. Regarded as one of the most popular and productive scientists of his generation, Ehrenberg was honored with several prestigious awards including the first Leeuwenhoek Medal in 1877.

 27 
Nathaniel Kleitman
(Physiologist)
Nathaniel Kleitman
down4
Birthdate: April 26, 1895
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Moldova
Died: August 13, 1999
 28 
Sir Patrick Manson
down2
Birthdate: October 3, 1844
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Oldmeldrum, Aberdeenshire, Scotland
Died: April 9, 1922

Best remembered as the founder of the domain of tropical medicine, parasitologist Sir Patrick Manson also had a degree in law. He practiced medicine in places such as Taiwan, Hong Kong, and China and was the man behind the formation of the University of Hong Kong. He was later knighted, too.

 29 
Paul Bert
(French Physiologist Who is Referred to as the 'Father of Aviation Medicine')
Paul Bert
down4
Birthdate: October 19, 1833
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Auxerre, France
Died: November 11, 1886

Paul Bert was a French physiologist, zoologist, and politician. Referred to as the Father of Aviation Medicine, Bert is best remembered for his 1878 work La Pression barometrique, which explains the physiological effects of air-pressure. Paul Bert is also credited with describing oxygen toxicity for the first time.

 30 
François Magendie
(French physiologist and a Pioneer of Experimental Physiology)
François Magendie
down4
Birthdate: October 6, 1783
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Bordeaux, France
Died: October 7, 1855

François Magendie was a French physiologist and a pioneer of experimental physiology. He is perhaps best remembered as a notorious vivisector who often shocked his contemporaries and general public with live dissections at public lectures. Many scholars and scientists have criticized him for needlessly torturing animals in the name of experiments.

 31 
Jean Pierre Flourens
(French Physiologist and a Pioneer in Anesthesia)
Jean Pierre Flourens
down2
Birthdate: April 13, 1794
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Maureilhan, France
Died: December 6, 1867

Jean Pierre Flourens was a French physiologist and a pioneer in anesthesia. He is also credited with founding experimental brain science; he performed operations on the brains of living rabbits and pigeons to investigate localisationism. Through his experiments, Jean Pierre Flourens was able to confirm that the main divisions of the brain were responsible for different functions.

 32 
Ewald Hering
(German Physiologist Who Is Remembered for His Research on Binocular Vision, Eye Movements and Color Vision)
Ewald Hering
down2
Birthdate: August 5, 1834
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Gersdorf, Germany
Died: January 26, 1918
 33 
John Boyd Orr
(Teacher)
John Boyd Orr
down2
Birthdate: September 23, 1880
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Kilmaurs, Scotland
Died: June 25, 1971

Apart from being a scientist and physician, John Boyd Orr also conducted ground-breaking research on nutrition. The Nobel Peace Prize winner, who was known for his campaigns to end world hunger, had also served the British army and navy as a medical officer. He was later knighted, too.

 34 
Julius von Sachs
(German Botanist Who Is Remembered for Developing Experimental Plant Physiology)
Julius von Sachs
down4
Birthdate: October 2, 1832
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Wrocław, Poland
Died: May 29, 1897
 35 
Henri Dutrochet
(French Physician, Physiologist, and Botanist Who is Best Known for His Investigation into Osmosis)
Henri Dutrochet
down2
Birthdate: November 14, 1776
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Néon, France
Died: February 4, 1847

Henri Dutrochet was a French physician, physiologist, and botanist. Dutrochet is best remembered for his investigation into osmosis. He is also credited with discovering cells in plants and cell biology. Henri Dutrochet’s works earned him several awards including the Académie Française's prize for experimental physiology.

 36 
Shiga Kiyoshi
(Physician)
Shiga Kiyoshi
down1
Birthdate: February 7, 1871
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Miyagi, Japan
Died: January 25, 1957
 37 
Lawrence Joseph Henderson
down1
Birthdate: June 3, 1878
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Lynn, Massachusetts, United States
Died: February 10, 1942

A Harvard alumnus, Lawrence Joseph Henderson was associated with the Harvard Medical School for almost four decades. His chief contribution as a biochemist was his proposal of the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation, which calculates the acid–base equilibria of substances. He also penned the iconic work The Fitness of the Environment.

 38 
William Bayliss
(Physiologist)
William Bayliss
down1
Birthdate: May 2, 1860
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Wolverhampton, England
Died: August 27, 1924

William Bayliss was an English physiologist whose contribution to medicine was honored with a knighthood in 1922. He published his life's work in the book Principles of General Physiology in 1919. The same year, he was honored with the prestigious Copley Medal. William Bayliss had earlier won the Royal Medal in 1911.

 39 
Carl Ludwig
(German Physician and Physiologist )
Carl Ludwig
down1
Birthdate: December 29, 1816
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Witzenhausen, Germany
Died: April 23, 1895
 40 
Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke
down1
Birthdate: July 6, 1819
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Berlin, Germany
Died: January 7, 1892

Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke was a German physician and physiologist. He studied medicine at the University of Berlin. Together with Emil Du Bois-Reymond, Hermann von Helmholtz and others, he founded the Physikalische Gesellschaft (Physical Society) in Berlin. He had a successful academic career and is remembered for his research on the nature of cells and studies of albumin. 

 41 
Jacques Loeb
( American Physiologist and Biologist)
Jacques Loeb
down1
Birthdate: April 7, 1859
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Mayen, Germany
Died: February 11, 1924
 42 
Michael Foster
(Physiologist)
Michael Foster
down1
Birthdate: March 8, 1836
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Huntingdon, England
Died: January 29, 1907

British physiologist Michael Foster scripted history as the first physiology professor at the University of Cambridge. As a teacher, he stressed on the importance of laboratory experiments and thus modernized the teaching methods for subjects such as biology and physiology. He had also tried his luck in politics.

 43 
Felix Hoppe-Seyler
(German Chemist and Physiologist Who Founded the Disciplines of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry)
Felix Hoppe-Seyler
down1
Birthdate: December 26, 1825
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Freyburg, Germany
Died: August 10, 1895

Felix Hoppe-Seyler was a German chemist and physiologist. He is credited with founding the disciplines of molecular biology and biochemistry. He is also credited with founding Journal for Physiological Chemistry and worked as its editor until his demise in 1895. Felix Hoppe-Seyler also played an important role as a teacher; among his students were Albrecht Kossel and Friedrich Miescher.

 44 
Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer
down1
Birthdate: June 2, 1850
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Hornsey, England
Died: March 29, 1935

Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer was an English physiologist credited with founding endocrinology, a branch of medicine and biology dealing with the endocrine system. In 1894, along with George Oliver, Schafer discovered the existence of adrenaline. Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer is also credited with coining the word insulin

Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, 1st Baronet
down1
Birthdate: June 9, 1783
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: West Winterslow, England
Died: October 21, 1862

Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, 1st Baronet, was an English surgeon and physiologist best remembered for his pioneering research into joint and bone disease. He was elected a member of the Royal Society in 1810 where he published many papers describing investigations in physiology. From 1858 to 1861, Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie served as the 29th President of the Royal Society.

 46 
Dickinson W. Richards
down1
Birthdate: October 30, 1895
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: City of Orange, New Jersey, United States
Died: February 23, 1973
 47 
André Frédéric Cournand
(French-American Physician Who Won Nobel Prize in Medicine for Developing Cardiac Catheterization)
André Frédéric Cournand
down1
Birthdate: September 24, 1895
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: February 19, 1988

André Frédéric Cournand was a French-American physiologist and physician. He is best remembered for winning the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for developing cardiac catheterization. André Frédéric Cournand received the prize along with Dickinson W. Richards and Werner Forssmann in 1956.

 48 
Ludwig Büchner
(Philosopher)
Ludwig Büchner
down1
Birthdate: March 29, 1824
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Darmstadt, Germany
Died: May 1, 1899

Ludwig Büchner was a German philosopher, physiologist, and physician. He was one of the exponents of 19th-century scientific materialism. He studied at the University of Strasbourg, the University of Würzburg, and the University of Vienna before becoming a lecturer in medicine. As an exponent of scientific materialism, he founded the "German Freethinkers League" ("Deutsche Freidenkerbund") in Frankfurt.  

 49 
Emil Christian Hansen
down1
Birthdate: May 8, 1842
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Ribe, Denmark
Died: August 27, 1909
 50 
Marshall Hall
(Physician)
Marshall Hall
down0
Birthdate: February 18, 1790
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Basford, England
Died: August 11, 1857

Marshall Hall was an English physician, neurologist, and physiologist. He is credited with contributing immensely to the theory of reflex arc. Hall also wrote many books on neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and apoplexy (stroke). An ardent supporter of the abolitionist movement, Marshall Hall was inducted into the American Philosophical Society (APS) in 1853.

Find out more about the greatest 19th Century Physiologists, including Wilhelm Wundt, Theodor Schwann, Otto Heinrich Warburg, Claude Bernard and Albert Szent-Györgyi.