Famous 19th Century Geneticists

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 1 
Nettie Stevens
(American Geneticist Known for Her Discovery of 'X and Y Sex Determining Chromosomes')
Nettie Stevens
4
Birthdate: July 7, 1861
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Cavendish, Vermont, United States
Died: May 4, 1912

Nettie Stevens was an American geneticist. She is credited with discovering sex chromosomes which later came to be known as the X and Y chromosomes. In 1994, Nettie Stevens was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame.

 2 
Thomas Hunt Morgan
(Geneticist)
Thomas Hunt Morgan
4
Birthdate: September 25, 1866
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Lexington
Died: December 4, 1945

Thomas Hunt Morgan was an evolutionary biologist, geneticist, and embryologist. He won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933. He worked extensively on the role that the chromosome plays in heredity and demonstrated that genes are carried on chromosomes. In his later career, he established the division of biology at the California Institute of Technology. 

 3 
Ronald Fisher
(Statistician)
Ronald Fisher
4
Birthdate: February 17, 1890
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: East Finchley, London, England
Died: July 29, 1962

Ronald Fisher was a British polymath, statistician, geneticist, mathematician, and academic. He is credited to have single-handedly created the foundations for modern statistical science. He made important contributions to the field of genetics and is known as one of the three principal founders of population genetics. He was elected to the Royal Society in 1929. 

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 4 
Oswald Avery
(Biologist, Physician, Geneticist)
Oswald Avery
4
Birthdate: October 21, 1877
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Halifax
Died: February 20, 1955

A pioneer of molecular biology, Oswald Avery revolutionized science with his research on the chemical processes involved in immunology. The Canadian-American bacteriologist initially aspired to be a musician. He later proved that DNA was the basis of heredity. Though nominated for the Nobel Prize multiple times, he never won it.

 5 
Luther Burbank
(Horticulturist, Geneticist, Botanist, Gardener, Academic, Non-fiction writer)
Luther Burbank
4
Birthdate: March 7, 1849
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Santa Rosa
Died: April 11, 1926

Luther Burbank was an American horticulturist and botanist. A pioneer in agricultural science, Luther Burbank developed over 800 varieties of plants and strains in an illustrious career that spanned 55 years. He is also credited with developing a spineless cactus that served as cattle feed. In 1986, Luther Burbank was made an inductee of the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

 6 
Hugo de Vries
(Botanist, Biologist, Geneticist, University teacher)
Hugo de Vries
3
Birthdate: February 16, 1848
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Haarlem
Died: May 21, 1935
 7 
Hermann Joseph Muller
3
Birthdate: December 21, 1890
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: New York City, New York, United States
Died: April 4, 1967

Nobel Prize-winning German geneticist Hermann Joseph Muller is best remembered for his work on mutation and the effects of radiation on genes. His contributions include his book The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity, which is a classic text in the subject. He was named the 1963 Humanist of the Year.

 8 
August Weismann
(Biologist, Zoologist, Geneticist)
August Weismann
3
Birthdate: January 17, 1834
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Frankfurt
Died: November 5, 1914
 9 
Sewall Wright
(Geneticist)
Sewall Wright
3
Birthdate: December 21, 1889
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Melrose, Massachusetts, United States
Died: March 3, 1988
 10 
Reginald Punnett
(British Geneticist Who Co-founded with William Bateson, the 'Journal of Genetics')
Reginald Punnett
3
Birthdate: June 20, 1875
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Tonbridge, England
Died: January 3, 1967

Reginald Punnett was a British geneticist who is credited with creating the Punnett square, which is used by biologists even today to evaluate the probability of genotypes of offspring. He is also credited with co-founding the Journal of Genetics alongside William Bateson in 1910. Reginald Punnett’s book Mendelism is considered by some to be the first textbook on genetics.

 11 
Walter Sutton
(Geneticist)
Walter Sutton
2
Birthdate: April 5, 1877
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Utica, New York, United States
Died: November 10, 1916

Walter Sutton was an American physician and geneticist best remembered for his Boveri-Sutton chromosome theory, which is widely regarded as one of the most important contributions to present-day biology. Walter Sutton is also credited with improving several medical and surgical practices, such as anesthetic techniques.

 12 
Alfred Sturtevant
(Geneticist)
Alfred Sturtevant
2
Birthdate: November 21, 1891
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Jacksonville, Illinois, United States
Died: April 5, 1970

Alfred Sturtevant was an American geneticist. He is credited with constructing a chromosome's first genetic map in 1911. Throughout his career, Sturtevant did extensive research on Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) and his research on the Drosophila genome allowed other geneticists to map chromosomes of higher organisms like human beings. Alfred Sturtevant received the prestigious National Medal of Science in 1967.

 13 
Wilhelm Ludvig Johannsen
(Danish Botanist, Physiologist, and Geneticist Best Known for Coining the Terms Gene, Phenotype and Genotype)
Wilhelm Ludvig Johannsen
2
Birthdate: February 3, 1857
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Elsinore, Denmark
Died: November 11, 1927

Danish geneticist and botanist Wilhelm Ludvig Johannsen is remembered for his research on plant heredity. Initially a professor, who had also taught plant physiology at the University of Copenhagen, he later focused on research. He is also credited with coining the terms phenotype, genotype, and genes.

 14 
Edmund Beecher Wilson
(American Zoologist and Geneticist Known for His Researches in Embryology and Cytology)
Edmund Beecher Wilson
2
Birthdate: October 19, 1856
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Geneva, Illinois, United States
Died: March 3, 1939

Edmund Beecher Wilson was an American geneticist and zoologist. He is credited with writing a textbook titled The Cell which is widely regarded as one of the most influential and important books in modern biology. Regarded as America's first cell biologist, Wilson is also credited with discovering the XY sex-determination system which is used to classify several mammals, including humans.

 15 
Theodor Boveri
(Biologist)
Theodor Boveri
2
Birthdate: October 12, 1862
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Bamberg, Germany
Died: October 15, 1915
 16 
Carl Correns
(German Botanist and Geneticist Remembered for His Work on the Principles of Heredity)
Carl Correns
2
Birthdate: September 19, 1864
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Munich, Germany
Died: February 14, 1933

German botanist and geneticist Carl Correns is remembered for re-working on rediscovered Gregor Mendel’s paper on the principles of heredity. He was a student of renowned Swedish botanist Karl Nägeli. Initially a botany instructor at the University of Tübingen, he later became the first director at the Berlin-based Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology.

 17 
Calvin Bridges
(Scientist)
Calvin Bridges
1
Birthdate: January 11, 1889
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Schuyler Falls, New York, United States
Died: December 27, 1938

Calvin Bridges was an American scientist best remembered for his work in the field of genetics. Bridges was part of the famous Fly Room experiments along with other popular scientists like H.J. Muller and Alfred Sturtevant. The experiments were the first in a series of other experiments that conducted research on Drosophila melanogaster.

 18 
Robert Chambers
(Geologist)
Robert Chambers
1
Birthdate: July 10, 1802
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Peebles, Scotland
Died: March 17, 1871
 19 
George Harrison Shull
(American Botanist and Geneticist Known for Developing a Method of Corn Breeding)
George Harrison Shull
1
Birthdate: April 15, 1874
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Clark County, Ohio, United States
Died: September 28, 1954

George Harrison Shull gained fame not just as a plant geneticist but also for his pioneering discovery of hybrid corn, or maize. He also coined the term heterosis. He taught at Princeton for 27 years and also established the journal Genetics, serving as its managing editor.

 20 
Félix d'Hérelle
(Microbiologist)
Félix d'Hérelle
1
Birthdate: April 25, 1873
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Montreal, Canada
Died: February 22, 1949
 21 
Herbert Spencer Jennings
(American Zoologist and Geneticist Who Was One of the First Scientists to Study the Behaviour of Individual Microorganisms)
Herbert Spencer Jennings
0
Birthdate: April 8, 1868
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Tonica, Illinois, United States
Died: April 14, 1947

Renowned zoologist and geneticist Herbert Spencer Jennings is best known for his research on microorganisms and the genetic processes in single-celled organisms. The Harvard alumnus had also penned valuable texts such as Behaviour of the Lower Organisms and Life and Death: Heredity and Evolution in Unicellular Organisms.

 22 
Edward Murray East
(American Plant Geneticist, Botanist and Eugenicist Known for His Experiments That Led to the Development of Hybrid Corn)
Edward Murray East
0
Birthdate: October 4, 1879
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Du Quoin, Illinois, United States
Died: November 9, 1938

Known for his contribution to the development of hybrid corn, Edward Murray East was a plant geneticist, botanist and agronomist. Trained as chemist, he soon switched to genetics and began working on corn-breeding experiments, intending to increase its fat and protein content, later writing Inbreeding and Outbreeding with his student Donald F. Jones, introducing the concept of heterosis in it.

 23 
Edith Rebecca Saunders
0
Birthdate: October 14, 1865
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Brighton, England
Died: June 6, 1945

Known especially for her work on trait inheritance in plants, Edith Rebecca Saunders has been described as the mother of British plant genetics. Beginning her career as a botany teacher at Newnham College, she later became the director of the Balfour Biological Laboratory for Women, concurrently continuing with her own research works, publishing series of papers on inheritance in plants.

 24 
Egerton Brydges
(Bibliographer)
Egerton Brydges
0
Birthdate: November 30, 1762
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Wootton, England
Died: September 8, 1837

British baronet and MP Egerton Brydges was also a significant writer and genealogist, and had edited some major texts of his time, such as Edward Phillips’s Theatrum Poetarum and Arthur Collins’s Peerage of England. He had also formed an affluent bibliophiles’ club named the Roxburghe Club.