Famous 19th Century Botanists

Find out more about the greatest 19th Century Botanists, including Charles Darwin, George Washington Carver, Jagadish Chandra Bose, Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Jan Smuts.

This ranking is based on an algorithm that combines various factors, including the votes of our users and search trends on the internet.

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 1 George Washington Carver

George Washington Carver.
8
Famous As: Scientist & Inventor
Birthdate: January 1, 1864
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Diamond, Missouri, United States
Died: January 5, 1943
Agricultural scientist George Washington Carver is best remembered for promoting crops that were alternative to cotton, such as peanuts and sweet potatoes. He invented ways to prevent soil depletion and developed scores of products made from peanuts, including paints and cosmetics. He won numerous honors, such as the Spingarn Medal.

 2 Jagadish Chandra Bose

Jagadish Chandra Bose.
8
Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: November 30, 1858
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Bikrampur, Bengal Presidency, British India (Now Munshiganj District of Bangladesh)
Died: November 23, 1937

Indian physicist, biologist, and plant physiologist Jagadish Chandra Bose revolutionized science with his research on how plants and animals react to external stimuli. He founded the Bose Institute, made pioneering contribution to the field of radio and microwave optics, and also penned one of the first works of Bengali science fiction.

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 3 John Muir

John Muir.
4
Famous As: Naturalist
Birthdate: April 21, 1838
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Dunbar
Died: December 24, 1914

John Muir was a Scottish-American naturalist, environmental philosopher, glaciologist, botanist, zoologist, and author. Nicknamed Father of the National Parks and John of the Mountains, Muir was an influential proponent of the preservation of wilderness in the US. He is credited with co-founding the American conservation organization, The Sierra Club. Muir is considered a hero by many environmentalists around the world.

 4 Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.
4
Famous As: Naturalist
Birthdate: August 1, 1744
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Bazentin, France
Died: December 18, 1829

French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck acquired his love for plants while serving as a soldier in the French army. Following an injury, he quit his military career but retained his love for botany. He later taught zoology, studied the classification of invertebrates, and also coined the term biology.

 5 Stamford Raffles

Stamford Raffles.
6
Famous As: Former Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies
Birthdate: July 6, 1781
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Port Morant, Jamaica
Died: July 5, 1826

Stamford Raffles was a British statesman who served as the Lieutenant-Governor of the Dutch East Indies from 1811 to 1816. From 1818 to 1824, he served as the Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen. Raffles is best remembered for founding the Straits Settlements and modern Singapore. He also played a major role in the invasion of Java in 1811 during the Napoleonic Wars.

 6 Marie Stopes

Marie Stopes.
4
Famous As: Paleobotanist & Women’s Rights Activists
Birthdate: October 15, 1880
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Edinburgh
Died: October 2, 1958

 7 Jan Smuts

Jan Smuts
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Famous As: Botanist, Officer, Lawyer
Birthdate: May 24, 1870
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Malmesbury, Western Cape
Died: September 11, 1950

Jan Smuts was a South African military leader, statesman, and philosopher. He played a key role in the formation of the Union of South Africa and helped shape its constitution. From 1919 to 1924 and again from 1939 to 1948, he served as the Union of South Africa's prime minister. He played a major role in establishing the United Nations.

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 8 Nikolai Vavilov

Nikolai Vavilov
6
Famous As: botanist, biologist, explorer, geneticist, geographer
Birthdate: November 13, 1887
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Moscow
Died: January 26, 1943

 9 Gertrude Jekyll

Gertrude Jekyll
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Famous As: Horticulturist, Painter, Gardener, Non-fiction writer, Botanist, Architect
Birthdate: November 29, 1843
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: London
Died: December 8, 1932

 10 Matthias Jakob Schleiden

Matthias Jakob Schleiden
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Famous As: Biologist, Botanist, Philosopher, University teacher
Birthdate: April 5, 1804
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Hamburg
Died: June 23, 1881

 11 Luther Burbank

Luther Burbank
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Famous As: Horticulturist, Geneticist, Botanist, Gardener, Academic, Non-fiction writer
Birthdate: March 7, 1849
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Santa Rosa
Died: April 11, 1926

Luther Burbank was an American horticulturist and botanist. A pioneer in agricultural science, Luther Burbank developed over 800 varieties of plants and strains in an illustrious career that spanned 55 years. He is also credited with developing a spineless cactus that served as cattle feed. In 1986, Luther Burbank was made an inductee of the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

 12 Patrick Geddes

Patrick Geddes
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Famous As: Biologist
Birthdate: October 2, 1854
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Ballater, Aberdeenshire, Scotland
Died: April 17, 1932

 13 David Starr Jordan

David Starr Jordan
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Famous As: Botanist, Peace activist, Zoologist, Autobiographer, Ichthyologist
Birthdate: January 19, 1851
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Gainesville (village), New York
Died: September 19, 1931

Remembered as the first president of the Leland Stanford Junior University, now known as Stanford University, David Starr Jordan was a reputed ichthyologist. An anti-war activist, too, who opposed America’s participation in World War I, he spent his later years as the chief director of the World Peace Foundation.

 14 Joseph Dalton Hooker

Joseph Dalton Hooker
5
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: June 30, 1817
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Halesworth, Suffolk, England
Died: December 10, 1911

 15 Janaki Ammal

Janaki Ammal.
5
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: 1897 AD
Birthplace: Thalassery
Died: 1984 AD

Janaki Ammal was an Indian botanist whose work concerning phytogeography, cytogenetics, and plant breeding earned her India's fourth-highest honor, the Padma Shri, in 1977. She is credited with improving India’s indigenous sugarcane varieties. She also helped analyze sugarcane's geographical distribution across India.

 16 Hugo de Vries

Hugo de Vries
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Famous As: Botanist, Biologist, Geneticist, University teacher
Birthdate: February 16, 1848
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Haarlem
Died: May 21, 1935

 17 Birbal Sahni

Birbal Sahni.
5
Famous As: Palaeobotanist
Birthdate: 1891 AD
Birthplace: Saharanpur district
Died: April 10, 1949

Birbal Sahni was a pioneer of palaeobotanical research in India. The founder of the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, he also taught botany at BHU and Lucknow University. He was also interested in music and tennis, and loved collecting coins. He was a Fellow of The Royal Society, too.

 18 Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin.
4
Famous As: Naturalist
Birthdate: February 12, 1809
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: The Mount House, Shrewsbury, England
Died: April 19, 1882

Widely regarded as one of the most influential personalities in the history of mankind, Charles Darwin was an English biologist, naturalist, and geologist. He is credited with publishing the Theory of Evolution, which explains the evolution of life from a unicellular organism to human beings. A prolific writer, Charles Darwin also wrote important books on plants and barnacles.

 19 Asa Gray

Asa Gray
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Famous As: Curator, Botanist, University teacher
Birthdate: November 18, 1810
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Paris
Died: January 30, 1888

 20 Francis Darwin

Francis Darwin
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Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: August 16, 1848
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Kent
Died: September 19, 1925

 21 Pierre-Joseph Redouté

Pierre-Joseph Redouté
3
Famous As: Painter
Birthdate: July 10, 1759
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Saint-Hubert, Belgium
Died: June 19, 1840

 22 David Douglas

David Douglas
5
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: June 25, 1799
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Scone, Perthshire, Scotland
Died: July 12, 1834

 23 Augustin Pyrame de Candolle

Augustin Pyrame de Candolle
5
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: February 4, 1778
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Geneva, Switzerland
Died: September 9, 1841

 24 Antoine Laurent de Jussieu

Antoine Laurent de Jussieu
5
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: April 12, 1748
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Lyon, France
Died: September 17, 1836

 25 Adelbert von Chamisso

Adelbert von Chamisso
3
Famous As: Poet
Birthdate: January 30, 1781
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Sivry-Ante, France
Died: August 21, 1838

 26 Heinrich Anton de Bary

Heinrich Anton de Bary
5
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: January 26, 1831
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Died: January 19, 1888

German surgeon and botanist Heinrich Anton de Bary is regarded as the pioneer of plant pathology and mycology. Apart from teaching botany, he chalked the life cycles of many fungi and also coined the term symbiosis to explain the mutually beneficial co-existence of many orgnanisms, such as fungi and algae.

 27 John Stevens Henslow

John Stevens Henslow
3
Famous As: Priest
Birthdate: February 6, 1796
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Rochester, England
Died: May 16, 1861

 28 Ferdinand von Mueller

Ferdinand von Mueller.
3
Famous As: Botanist and Geographer
Birthdate: June 30, 1825
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Rostock, Germany
Died: October 10, 1896

Ferdinand von Mueller was a German-Australian geographer, physician, and botanist. He is credited with founding the National Herbarium of Victoria, the oldest scientific institution in Victoria. He is also credited with naming several Australian plants. Such is his popularity that many plants, animals, journals, and places in Australia are named after him. 

 29 John Lindley

John Lindley
3
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: February 5, 1799
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Old Catton, England
Died: November 1, 1865

 30 Lorenz Oken

Lorenz Oken
2
Famous As: Naturalist
Birthdate: August 1, 1779
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Bohlsbach, Germany
Died: August 11, 1851

 31 William Jackson Hooker

William Jackson Hooker
2
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: July 6, 1785
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Norwich, England
Died: August 12, 1865

 32 Ludwig von Köchel

Ludwig von Köchel
2
Famous As: Austrian musician
Birthdate: January 14, 1800
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Krems an der Donau, Austria
Died: June 3, 1877

Austrian musicologist, composer, writer, botanist and publisher Ludwig von Köchel is best-known for creating the Köchel catalogue, a chronological and thematic register of works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Köchel also arranged works of Mozart into 24 categories and Breitkopf & Härtel used this while publishing the first complete edition of Mozart's works titled Alte Mozart-Ausgabe.

 33 Michel Adanson

Michel Adanson
2
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: April 7, 1727
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Aix-en-Provence, France
Died: August 3, 1806

 34 Julius von Sachs

Julius von Sachs
2
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: October 2, 1832
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Wrocław, Poland
Died: May 29, 1897

 35 John Claudius Loudon

John Claudius Loudon
2
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: April 8, 1783
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Cambuslang, Scotland
Died: December 14, 1843

 36 Thomas Nuttall

Thomas Nuttall
2
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: January 5, 1786
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Long Preston, England
Died: September 10, 1859

 37 Henri Dutrochet

Henri Dutrochet
2
Famous As: Physician
Birthdate: November 14, 1776
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Néon, France
Died: February 4, 1847

 38 Catharine Parr Traill

Catharine Parr Traill
2
Famous As: Author
Birthdate: January 9, 1802
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Southwark, England
Died: August 29, 1899

Catharine Parr Traill moved from England to Canada after her marriage and soon became one of the greatest authors of children’s and settlers’ literature of her time. Her writings reflected the charm of the Canadian countryside. Her letters to her mother in England were collated in The Backwoods of Canada.

 39 George Bentham

George Bentham
4
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: September 22, 1800
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Stoke Village, Plymouth, England
Died: September 10, 1884

 40 Elias Magnus Fries

Elias Magnus Fries
2
Famous As: Mycologist
Birthdate: August 15, 1794
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Sweden
Died: February 8, 1878

 41 André Michaux

André Michaux
2
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: March 8, 1746
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Satory, Versailles, France
Died: November 13, 1802

 42 Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre

Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre
2
Famous As: Writer
Birthdate: January 19, 1737
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Le Havre, France
Died: January 21, 1814

 43 Karl Friedrich Philipp von Martius

Karl Friedrich Philipp von Martius
2
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: April 17, 1794
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Erlangen, Germany
Died: December 13, 1868

 44 Carl Nägeli

Carl Nägeli
2
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: March 27, 1817
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Kilchberg, Switzerland
Died: May 10, 1891

 45 José Celestino Mutis

José Celestino Mutis
2
Famous As: Spanish botanist
Birthdate: April 6, 1732
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Cádiz, Spain
Died: September 11, 1808

Spanish botanist José Celestino Mutis had initially studied medicine and served as the royal physician of Ferdinand VI. While working in South America later, he studied the medicinal properties of plants. He also built a massive botanical garden and penned a treatise that contained over 6,000 illustrations of plants.

 46 George Engelmann

George Engelmann
2
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: February 2, 1809
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Frankfurt, Germany
Died: February 4, 1884

 47 Agnes Arber

Agnes Arber.
2
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: February 23, 1879
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: London
Died: March 22, 1960

 48 Wilhelm Hofmeister

Wilhelm Hofmeister
2
Famous As: Biologist
Birthdate: May 18, 1824
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Leipzig, Germany
Died: January 12, 1877

 49 Hugo von Mohl

Hugo von Mohl.
2
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: April 8, 1805
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Stuttgart
Died: April 1, 1872

 50 Thomas Andrew Knight

Thomas Andrew Knight
1
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: August 12, 1759
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Herefordshire, England
Died: May 11, 1838