Jean-Jacques Dessalines was an important figure and leader of the Haitian Revolution. He went on to rule an independent Haiti, which became the first country to abolish slavery permanently. Considered one of Haiti's founding fathers, Dessalines reigned as the emperor of Haiti from 1804 until his murder in 1806. Today, he is regarded as an icon of Haitian nationalism.
Zulu king Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu was a descendant of King Cetshwayo, who led the Zulu struggle for independence against the British. His 50-year rule had witnessed his efforts in preserving the Zulu culture and traditions such as the Reed Dance ceremony. However, his comments were blamed for attacks against foreigners.
Former Haitian president Henry Christophe also declared himself the king of northern Haiti as Henry I. Apart from spending lavishly on building palaces for himself, he also restored soldier peasants and gifted plantations to military leaders. He eventually committed suicide by shooting himself, fearing a coup against him.
Known as one of the most influential emperors of Ethiopia, Yohannes IV spent most of his reign in conflict with invaders from Egypt, Italy, and Sudan. He also had a political agreement with Menilek II, his most significant rival. He died in the Battle of Metema, while invading Sudan.
Askia Mohammad I, or Askia the Great, established the Askia Dynasty of the Songhai Empire and reigned as its first ruler. Known for his efficient administration, than his fighting prowess, he introduced provinces and provincial governors in his kingdom. He also developed trade with Asia and Europe.