The 20th century America was one of the major hubs of scientific and technological developments in the world. In the early part of the century, many prominent European scientists including Hans Bethe, Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, Leó Szilárd, Edward Teller, and Felix Bloch migrated to the United States where they accomplished several important achievements. During this era, scientists in the US made one highly controversial yet commendable accomplishment—the harnessing of nuclear energy. Gerald Woodrow Johnson, William Howard Arnold, and Charles Kincaid Bockelman were some of the established nuclear scientists of 20th century. America was also a pioneer in computer technology and information technology. Pioneers like John McCarthy who was one of the founders of the discipline of artificial intelligence played a major role in accelerating America’s progress in the area of computer science. Grace Brewster Murray Hopper, born in the early 20th century, was one of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I computer. Americans have led the world in physics as well with the likes of Alan Harvey Guth, Steven Weinberg, and Sam Bard Treiman making important contributions to the field. Read on to learn more about the life and works of famous American scientists of the 20th century.
Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein

14 March 1879

Larry PageLarry Page

26 March 1973

Richard FeynmanRichard Feynman

11 May 1918

Katherine JohnsonKatherine Johnson

26 August 1918

Sergey BrinSergey Brin

21 August 1973

Neil deGrasse TysonNeil deGrasse Tyson

05 October 1958

Carl SaganCarl Sagan

09 November 1934

Isaac AsimovIsaac Asimov

02 January 1920

John von NeumannJohn von Neumann

28 December 1903

Sally RideSally Ride

26 May 1951

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Grace HopperGrace Hopper

09 December 1906

Rachel CarsonRachel Carson

27 May 1907

Murray Gell-MannMurray Gell-Mann

15 September 1929

Josef Allen HynekJ. Allen Hynek

01 May 1910

James WatsonJames Watson

06 April 1928

Gabe NewellGabe Newell

03 November 1962

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Norman BorlaugNorman Borlaug

25 March 1914

Jonas SalkJonas Salk

28 October 1914

Enrico FermiEnrico Fermi

29 September 1901

Jared DiamondJared Diamond

10 September 1937

Linus PaulingLinus Pauling

28 February 1901

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Tom LehrerTom Lehrer

09 April 1928

Kip ThorneKip Thorne

01 June 1940

Kurt GödelKurt Gödel

28 April 1906

Zbigniew BrzezinskiZbigniew Brzezinski

28 March 1928

William ShockleyWilliam Shockley

13 February 1910

Robert BallardRobert Ballard

30 June 1942

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Edward TellerEdward Teller

15 January 1908

Stephen Jay GouldStephen Jay Gould

10 September 1941

Thomas KuhnThomas Kuhn

18 July 1922

E. O. WilsonE. O. Wilson

10 June 1929

Har Gobind KhoranaHar Gobind Khorana

09 January 1922

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Peggy WhitsonPeggy Whitson

09 February 1960

Glen T. SeaborgGlenn T. Seaborg

19 April 1912

Manjul BhargavaManjul Bhargava

08 August 1974

Steven ChuSteven Chu

28 February 1948

Barbara McClintockBarbara McClintock

16 June 1902

Alan KayAlan Kay

17 May 1940

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John BardeenJohn Bardeen

23 May 1908

Lynn MargulisLynn Margulis

05 March 1938

David BohmDavid Bohm

20 December 1917

Eugene Paul Eugene Wigner

17 November 1902

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Steven WeinbergSteven Weinberg

03 May 1933

Hans BetheHans Bethe

02 July 1906

Judea PearlJudea Pearl

04 September 1936

Stephanie KwolekStephanie Kwolek

31 July 1923

Elizabeth BlackburnElizabeth Blackburn

26 November 1948

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Gertrude B. ElionGertrude B. Elion

23 January 1918

David BaltimoreDavid Baltimore

07 March 1938

Ernst MayrErnst Mayr

05 July 1904

Julian SchwingerJulian Schwinger

12 February 1918

Ernest LawrenceErnest Lawrence

08 August 1901

Ivar GiaeverIvar Giaever

05 April 1929

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Tsung-Dao LeeTsung-Dao Lee

24 November 1926

Sheldon Lee GlashowSheldon Lee Glashow

05 December 1932

Joshua LederbergJoshua Lederberg

23 May 1925

Willard Frank LibbyWillard Libby

17 December 1908

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Roger Wolcott SperryRoger Wolcott Sperry

20 August 1913

Philip Warren AndersonPhilip Warren Anderson

13 December 1923

Ferid MuradFerid Murad

14 September 1936

Elias James CoreyElias James Corey

12 July 1928

Roald HoffmannRoald Hoffmann

18 July 1937

Melvin Ellis CalvinMelvin Calvin

08 April 1911

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Charles Hard TownesCharles H. Townes

28 July 1915

Leon M. LedermanLeon M. Lederman

15 July 1922

Paul BergPaul Berg

30 June 1926

Arthur Kornberg Arthur Kornberg

03 March 1918

Arno Allan PenziasArno Allan Penzias

26 April 1933

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Emilio Gino SegrèEmilio Segrè

30 January 1905

Robert HofstadterRobert Hofstadter

05 February 1915

Samuel Chao Chung TingSamuel C. C. Ting

07 January 1936