Famous 20th Century Pharmacologists

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 1 
Frances Oldham Kelsey
(Canadian-American Pharmacologist Known for Preventing 'Thalidomide' From Being Marketed in the United States)
Frances Oldham Kelsey
4
Birthdate: July 24, 1914
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Cobble Hill, British Columbia, Canada
Died: August 7, 2015

As part of the FDA, Frances Oldham Kelsey prevented thalidomide from being allowed in the US drug market as a painkiller, as she was unsure of its impact. Her concerns were proved right when the drug caused birth defects in European children. She was subsequently awarded by the US president.

 2 
Howard Florey
(Australian Pharmacologist and Pathologist Who Shared the Nobel Prize for His Role in the Development of Penicillin)
Howard Florey
5
Birthdate: September 24, 1898
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Adelaide, Australia
Died: February 21, 1968

Howard Florey was an Australian pathologist and pharmacologist. He is best remembered for his role in the formation of penicillin, for which he shared the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Alexander Fleming and Ernst Chain in the year 1945. Florey is credited with carrying out the first clinical trial of penicillin at the Radcliffe Infirmary in 1941.

 3 
Rudolf Vrba
(Former biochemist became known for having escaped from the camp in April 1944, at the height of the Holocaust)
Rudolf Vrba
5
Birthdate: September 11, 1924
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Topoľčany, Slovakia
Died: March 27, 2006
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 4 
Gertrude B. Elion
(Biochemist, Pharmacologist)
Gertrude B. Elion
3
Birthdate: January 23, 1918
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: New York City, New York, United States
Died: February 21, 1999

The daughter of Jewish immigrants in New York, Gertrude B. Elion excelled in chemistry at Hunter College, where she studied for free, but was initially unable to find a job due to gender bias. The renowned biochemist and pharmacologist later won a Nobel and became a pioneer in medical research.

 5 
Ferid Murad
(American Pharmacologist, Physician and Co-Winner of the 1988 Nobel Prize in Medicine)
Ferid Murad
5
Birthdate: September 14, 1936
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Whiting, Indiana

Ferid Murad is an American pharmacologist and physician. He achieved popularity in 1998, when he received the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Ferid Murad is the recipient of several other prominent awards, including the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research.

 6 
Louis J. Ignarro
(American Pharmacologist Who Won the Nobel Prize in Physiology in 1998)
Louis J. Ignarro
3
Birthdate: May 31, 1941
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Brooklyn, New York, United States

Louis J. Ignarro is an American pharmacologist best known for winning the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1998. He won the awards along with Ferid Murad and Robert F. Furchgott. Louis J. Ignarro is also the recipient of many other prestigious awards, such as the Merck Research Award, Edward G Schlieder Foundation Award, and Arthritis Foundation Research Award.

 7 
Alice Ball
(American Chemist Renowned for Developing the 'Ball Method')
Alice Ball
0
Birthdate: July 24, 1892
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Seattle, Washington, United States
Died: December 31, 1916

Alice Ball was an American chemist best remembered for developing the Ball Method, which became the most effective treatment for leprosy in the early 20th century. She was the first African American and first woman to work as a chemistry professor at the University of Hawaii. Alice Ball's contributions to science were recognized several years after her death.

 8 
Otto Loewi
(Former pharmacologist and psychobiologist who discovered the role of acetylcholine as an endogenous neurotransmitter)
Otto Loewi
3
Birthdate: June 3, 1873
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Frankfurt, Germany
Died: December 25, 1961

Otto Loewi was a German-born American psycho-biologist and pharmacologist, whose research on neurology proved that chemicals were involved in the transmission of nerve impulses. Working with Sir Henry Dale, he established the role of acetylcholine as an endogenous neurotransmitter, co-winning the Nobel Prize for it. Later, he worked on diabetes and devised Loewi’s test for the detection of pancreatic disease.

 9 
Sir James W. Black
(Pharmacologist, Physician)
Sir James W. Black
3
Birthdate: June 14, 1924
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Uddingston, Scotland
Died: March 21, 2010

Sir James W. Black was a Scottish pharmacologist and physician. Black, who became interested in the study of the human heart and its reaction to adrenaline, developed a beta-blocker named propranolol to treat heart diseases. He is also credited with developing cimetidine, a drug used to cure stomach ulcers. He was honored with the 1988 Nobel Prize for Medicine.

 10 
Arvid Carlsson
(Neuropharmacologist)
Arvid Carlsson
2
Birthdate: January 25, 1923
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Uppsala, Sweden
Died: June 29, 2018

Swedish pharmacologist Arvid Carlsson’s research work establishing dopamine as a significant neurotransmitter in the brain resulted in the development of drugs for Parkinson’s disease. In the year 2000, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work. During his career, he was also awarded the Wolf Prize in Medicine, the Japan Prize and Italy's Feltrinelli Prize.

 11 
Henry Hallett Dale
(English Physiologist, Pharmacologist and 1936 Nobel Prize Winner in Medicine)
Henry Hallett Dale
2
Birthdate: June 9, 1875
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: London, England
Died: July 23, 1968

Henry Hallett Dale was an English physiologist and pharmacologist. He is best remembered for winning the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1936 along with Otto Loewi. Henry Hallett Dale was also the recipient of many other awards like the Royal Medal, the Copley Medal, and the Albert Medal.

 12 
Salvador Moncada
(Honduran-British pharmacologist and professor)
Salvador Moncada
2
Birthdate: December 3, 1944
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Tegucigalpa

Salvador Moncada is a Honduran-British pharmacologist and professor. He is well known for his discoveries related to nitric oxide function and metabolism. In the past, he was the research director of the Wellcome Research Laboratories and is currently the research domain director for cancer at the University of Manchester. He is married to Princess Marie-Esméralda of Belgium. 

 13 
Julius Axelrod
(American Biochemist & Co-Winner of 1970 Nobel Prize in Physiology)
Julius Axelrod
2
Birthdate: May 30, 1912
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: New York, United States
Died: December 29, 2004

Julius Axelrod was an American biochemist best remembered for winning the 1970 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Ulf von Euler and Bernard Katz. He is also remembered for making important contributions to the understanding of the functions of the pineal gland. Julius Axelrod was also the recipient of several other awards, including the Gairdner Foundation International Award.

 14 
Carl Ferdinand Cori
(Czech-American Biochemist and Pharmacologist Who Won the 1947 Nobel Prize in Physiology)
Carl Ferdinand Cori
2
Birthdate: December 5, 1896
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Prague, Czechia
Died: October 20, 1984

Czech-American biochemist Carl Ferdinand Cori’s interest in science was not surprising, with him being a zoologist’s son. Along with his wife, Gerty Cori, and Argentine physiologist Bernardo Houssay, Cori won the Nobel Prize for finding out that glycogen is an energy storehouse of the body.

 15 
Alfred G. Gilman
(Pharmacologist, Biochemist)
Alfred G. Gilman
2
Birthdate: July 1, 1941
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: New Haven, Connecticut
Died: December 23, 2015

American pharmacologist and Nobel laureate Alfred G. Gilman is best remembered for his research on G proteins. Born to a Yale pharmacology professor and author father, he was destined to make it big in science. He also taught at the University of Virginia and other institutes and co-established a biotechnology company.

 16 
John R. Vane
(British Pharmacologist Known for His Research on Understanding How Aspirin Produces Anti-Inflammatory and Pain-Relief Effects)
John R. Vane
2
Birthdate: March 29, 1927
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Tardebigge, Worcestershire
Died: November 19, 2004

John R. Vane was a British pharmacologist best remembered for his work that helped understand how aspirin produces anti-inflammatory and pain-relief effects. His work also led to the development of new treatments for blood vessel and heart disease. In 1982, John R. Vane was honored with the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine alongside Bengt Samuelsson and Sune Bergström.

 17 
Daniel Bovet
(Pharmacologist)
Daniel Bovet
1
Birthdate: March 23, 1907
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Fleurier, Switzerland
Died: April 8, 1992
 18 
Ulf von Euler
(Physiologist and Pharmacologist)
Ulf von Euler
1
Birthdate: February 7, 1905
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Stockholm, Sweden
Died: March 9, 1983

Noted Swedish physiologist and pharmacologist Ulf von Euler was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology (1970) for his work on discovery of neurotransmitters. A full Professor of Physiology at Karolinska Institute for over three decades, he also received the Gairdner prize, became a Foreign Member of the Royal Society and a founding member of the World Cultural Council.

 19 
John Jacob Abel
(American Biochemist and Pharmacologist Known for His Contributions to a Modern Understanding of the Ductless, or Endocrine, Glands)
John Jacob Abel
1
Birthdate: May 19, 1857
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Died: May 26, 1938

John Jacob Abel was a biochemist and pharmacologist who established the pharmacology department at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. While at Hopkins, he made several important medical advancements. He made significant contributions in the field of hormone extraction and founded the Journal of Biological Chemistry. He was a recipient of the Conne Medal and the Kober Medal. 

 20 
Earl W. Sutherland Jr.
(American Pharmacologist, Biochemist and Winner of the 1971 Nobel Prize in Physiology / Medicine)
Earl W. Sutherland Jr.
1
Birthdate: November 19, 1915
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Burlingame, Kansas, United States
Died: March 9, 1974

Earl W. Sutherland Jr. was a pharmacologist and biochemist known for his work in the field of hormones. He was honored with a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1971. As a young man, he worked in the laboratory of Nobel laureate Carl Ferdinand Cori. Under Cori’s guidance, he began his research on the effects of hormones. 

 21 
Colin Murdoch
(Pharmacist, veterinary chemist, and inventor)
Colin Murdoch
1
Birthdate: February 6, 1929
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Christchurch, New Zealand
Died: May 4, 2008
 22 
Louis S. Goodman
(American Pharmacologist Who Pioneered the Chemotherapy Trials Using Nitrogen Mustard)
Louis S. Goodman
1
Birthdate: August 27, 1906
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Portland, Oregon, United States
Died: November 19, 2000

Louis S. Goodman was an American pharmacologist best remembered for his collaboration with Alfred Gilman, Sr. The two authored The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics and pioneered the chemotherapy trials using nitrogen mustard. In 1965, Louis S. Goodman was made a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

 23 
William Prusoff
(American Pharmacologist Who Developed the First Antiviral Drug Approved By the FDA)
William Prusoff
1
Birthdate: June 25, 1920
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: New York, United States
Died: April 3, 2011

William Prusoff was an American pharmacologist best remembered as an early innovator in antiviral drugs. He is credited with developing idoxuridine, the first antiviral drug approved by the FDA. He also co-developed one of the earliest AIDS drugs called stavudine. William Prusoff was the recipient of several prestigious awards, including the ASPET Award. 

 24 
Frank Berger
(Pharmacologist)
Frank Berger
1
Birthdate: June 25, 1913
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Plzeň, Czech Republic
Died: March 18, 2008
 25 
Georg Trakl
(Expressionist poet known for Der Herbst des Einsamen (The Autumn of The Lonely))
Georg Trakl
5
Birthdate: February 3, 1887
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Salzburg, Austria
Died: November 3, 1914

Georg Trakl had had a tumultuous early life, having been addicted to drugs, apart from being attracted to his own sister. He initially aspired to be a pharmacist but later became one of Austria’s finest elegists. The Expressionist poet wrote masterpieces such as Grodek. He died of a drug overdose.

 26 
Joshua Harold Burn
(British Pharmacologist Known for His Research in the Measurement of Hormones and Vitamins in Human Body)
Joshua Harold Burn
0
Birthdate: March 6, 1892
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Barnard Castle, England
Died: July 13, 1981

British pharmacologist and Oxford professor Joshua Harold Burn is remembered for his pathbreaking research on the measurement of hormones and vitamins. A Fellow of The Royal Society, he was also a co-founder of the British Pharmacological Society and the first to receive the Wellcome Gold Medal of the same society.

 27 
Friedrich Karl Kleine
(German Pharmacologist and Microbiologist Who Developed the First Successful Remedy for Sleeping Sickness)
Friedrich Karl Kleine
1
Birthdate: May 14, 1869
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Stralsund, Germany
Died: March 22, 1951

Friedrich Karl Kleine was a German pharmacologist and microbiologist. He is best remembered for developing the first successful remedy for African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness. Friedrich Karl Kleine was the recipient of several prestigious awards, including the Bernhard Nocht Medal, which was awarded to him in 1925.

 28 
Rida al-Tubuly
(Pharmacologist)
Rida al-Tubuly
0
Birthdate: 1967 AD
Birthplace: Tripoli, Libya