Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physiologist famous for his experiments on the digestive system of dogs which led him to discover conditional reflexes that originate in the cerebral cortex of the brain. His research on the physiology of digestion led to the development of the experimental model of learning, popularly known as Classical Conditioning. His studies primarily revolved around the influence of stimuli on inducing salivation in dogs even before food was provided to them. Born into a large family, he grew up in poverty. But the hardships of his childhood could not squelch the inherent curiosity of the boy. A brilliant child he displayed a natural instinct for research. The son of a village priest, his first professional choice was to pursue a career in theology. However, he abandoned this idea and decided to devote his life to science after reading ‘The Origin of Species’ by Charles Darwin. His decision to enter the world of scientific research was also influenced by the progressive ideas of the literary critic D.I.Pisarev and I. M. Sechenov, the father of Russian physiology. Eventually, Pavlov’s scientific work earned him the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1904. He also mentored several brilliant students who helped carry forward his legacy of scientific research even after he left the world.