Famous 19th Century Archaeologists

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 1 
Howard Carter
(Archaeologist)
Howard Carter
12
Birthdate: May 9, 1874
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Kensington, London, England
Died: March 2, 1939
George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon
8
Birthdate: June 26, 1866
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Hampshire, England
Died: April 5, 1923
 3 
Heinrich Schliemann
(German Archaeologist and Excavator of Troy, Mycenae, and Tiryns)
Heinrich Schliemann
8
Birthdate: January 6, 1822
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Neubukow, Germany
Died: December 26, 1890

German businessman Heinrich Schliemann didn’t let his poverty or lack of education hinder his growth and learned several languages moving from place to place for trade. A pioneer in the field of archaeology, he is now remembered as the man who discovered Troy in his bid to unearth “Priam's Treasure."

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 4 
Arthur Evans
(Archaeologist)
Arthur Evans
6
Birthdate: July 8, 1851
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Nash Mills, England
Died: July 11, 1941
 5 
Margaret Murray
(Anthropologist, Archaeologist, Egyptologist)
Margaret Murray
6
Birthdate: July 13, 1863
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Kolkata
Died: November 13, 1963

British Egyptologist and anthropologist Margaret Murray was also a scholar of witchcraft. Her best-known work is her 1921 book The Witch Cult in Western Europe, which inspired later witchcraft scholars such as Gerald B. Gardner. The University College London professor had worked in places such as Egypt, Malta, and Petra.

 6 
Sir Flinders Petrie
(Egyptologist)
Sir Flinders Petrie
6
Birthdate: June 3, 1853
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: London, England
Died: July 28, 1942
 7 
Mortimer Wheeler
(British Archaeologist and Officer in the British Army)
Mortimer Wheeler
8
Birthdate: September 10, 1890
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Glasgow, Scotland
Died: July 22, 1976

Sir Mortimer Wheeler was a British archaeologist who served as the director of the London Museum as well as the National Museum of Wales during his illustrious career. He is credited with developing the Wheeler–Kenyon method of archaeological excavation. Wheeler is also remembered for his association with the Archaeological Survey of India where he served as Director-General.

 8 
T. E. Lawrence
(Archaeologist & Army Officer Known for His Legendary War Activities in the Middle East During World War I)
T. E. Lawrence
26
Birthdate: August 16, 1888
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Tremadog, Carnarvonshire, Wales
Died: May 19, 1935
T. E. Lawrence was a British army officer who participated in the Arab Revolt, against the Ottoman regime, during World War I. Nicknamed Lawrence of Arabia, he inspired a movie of the same name. His treatise of his war experiences was published as Seven Pillars of Wisdom, his best-known work.
 9 
R. G. Collingwood
(Philosopher)
R. G. Collingwood
5
Birthdate: February 22, 1889
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Cartmel Fell, England
Died: January 9, 1943
 10 
Prosper Mérimée
(French Writer and One of the Pioneers of the 'Novella')
Prosper Mérimée
5
Birthdate: September 28, 1803
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: September 23, 1870

Prosper Mérimée was a French writer and one of the pioneers of narrative prose, which came to be known as a novella. A multi-talented personality, Mérimée was also a historian and archaeologist; he played a key role in the development of the process of architectural preservation. He was responsible for safeguarding several historic sites, such as the Cité de Carcassonne. 

 11 
E.F. Benson
(British Writer and Archaeologist Best Known for His Collection of Novels 'Mapp and Lucia')
E.F. Benson
5
Birthdate: July 24, 1867
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Wellington College, Berkshire, England
Died: February 29, 1940

Chiefly known as a novelist, biographer, and memoirist, Edward Frederic Benson began his career with the British School of Archaeology in Athens, publishing his first successful novel, Dodo: A Detail of the Day, during this period. Its popularity encouraged him to continue publishing, the most significant works among them being Mapp and Lucia series, and the biography of Queen Victoria.

 12 
John Hubert Marshall
(Archaeologist)
John Hubert Marshall
5
Birthdate: March 19, 1876
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Chester, England
Died: August 17, 1958
 13 
Johann Ludwig Burckhardt
(Swiss Traveller, Geographer and Orientalist)
Johann Ludwig Burckhardt
7
Birthdate: November 24, 1784
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Lausanne, Switzerland
Died: October 15, 1817
 14 
Sir Aurel Stein
(British Archaeologist Known for His Explorations and Archaeological Discoveries in Central Asia)
Sir Aurel Stein
3
Birthdate: November 26, 1862
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Budapest, Hungary
Died: October 26, 1943

Hungarian-British archaeologist Sir Aurel Stein is best remembered for his research in Central Asia. He was also associated with institutes in British India, such as Oriental College, Lahore, and later translated Kalhana’s Rajatarangini from Sanskrit to English. He was a dog lover and remained single for life.

 15 
Christian Jürgensen Thomsen
(Danish Antiquarian Who Developed Early Archaeological Techniques and Methods)
Christian Jürgensen Thomsen
3
Birthdate: December 29, 1788
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Copenhagen, Denmark
Died: May 21, 1865

Christian Jürgensen Thomsen was a Danish antiquarian best remembered for developing early archaeological methods and techniques. In 1816, he was selected as the head of an organization, which later became the National Museum of Denmark. Christian Jürgensen Thomsen is credited with mentoring future archaeologists like Bror Emil Hildebrand and J. J. A. Worsaae.  

 16 
Augustus Pitt Rivers
(Archaeologist)
Augustus Pitt Rivers
3
Birthdate: April 14, 1827
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Bramham cum Oglethorpe, England
Died: May 4, 1900
 17 
Sir Leonard Woolley
(Archaeologist)
Sir Leonard Woolley
5
Birthdate: April 17, 1880
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: London, England
Died: February 20, 1960
 18 
James Henry Breasted
(Archaeologist)
James Henry Breasted
3
Birthdate: August 27, 1865
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Rockford, Illinois, United States
Died: December 2, 1935
 19 
John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury
(Anthropologist, Politician, Archaeologist, Prehistorian, Banker, Statistician, Naturalist, Zoologist, Entomologist)
John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury
3
Birthdate: April 30, 1834
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: London
Died: May 28, 1913

British banker John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, better known as Sir John Lubbock, had also been an MP. However, he is best known for his contribution to ethnography and archaeology. He is also credited with coining the terms Paleolithic and Neolithic, and is known for his books on animal behavior.

 20 
William F. Albright
(Archaeologist)
William F. Albright
5
Birthdate: May 24, 1891
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Coquimbo, Chile
Died: September 19, 1971
 21 
Osman Hamdi Bey
(Painter)
Osman Hamdi Bey
3
Birthdate: December 30, 1842
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: İstanbul, Turkey
Died: February 24, 1910
 22 
Charles Warren
(He was one of the earliest European archaeologists of the Biblical Holy Land)
Charles Warren
0
Birthdate: February 7, 1840
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Bangor, England
Died: January 21, 1927
 23 
Sir Henry Rawlinson, 1st Baronet
(Army Officer)
Sir Henry Rawlinson, 1st Baronet
3
Birthdate: April 5, 1810
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Chadlington, England
Died: March 5, 1895
 24 
Austen Henry Layard
(British Archaeologist, Diplomat and Former Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs )
Austen Henry Layard
3
Birthdate: March 5, 1817
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: July 5, 1894

British archaeologist Austen Henry Layard initially worked in a London law office but quit it suddenly to go on an impromptu trip to Syria. He was later hired as an unofficial British diplomat in Turkey. He is remembered for his excavations in Nineveh and his exploration of the Assyrian and Babylonian culture.

 25 
Gaston Maspero
(Egyptologist)
Gaston Maspero
3
Birthdate: June 23, 1846
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: June 30, 1916
 26 
Eugène Dubois
(Curator, Geologist, Physician, Anthropologist, Paleontologist, Archaeologist, Prehistorian, Paleoanthropologist)
Eugène Dubois
3
Birthdate: January 28, 1858
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Eijsden
Died: December 16, 1940
 27 
Hormuzd Rassam
(Archaeologist)
Hormuzd Rassam
3
Birthdate: 1826 AD
Birthplace: Mosul, Iraq
Died: September 16, 1910
 28 
Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola
(Spanish Jurist and Amateur Archaeologist Who Excavated Altamira Cave)
Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola
3
Birthdate: June 2, 1831
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Santander, Spain
Died: March 30, 1888

Spanish jurist and amateur archaeologist Marcelino de Sautuola was the owner of the land where the Altamira cave was found. Led by his eight-year-old daughter María, Sautuola discovered drawings of the cave that are earliest known examples of Stone Age painting. Sautuola and archaeologist Juan Vilanova y Piera excavated the cave that was later declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO.

 29 
Leo Frobenius
(Ethnologist)
Leo Frobenius
3
Birthdate: June 29, 1873
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Berlin, Germany
Died: August 9, 1938
 30 
Michael Rostovtzeff
(Russian Archaeologist and Historian)
Michael Rostovtzeff
3
Birthdate: November 10, 1870
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Zhytomyr, Ukraine
Died: October 20, 1952

Russian historian Mikhail Ivanovich Rostovtzeff is best-known for producing significant works on ancient Roman and Greek history. He emerged as an influential authority on ancient-history of South Russia and Ukraine while working in Russia. The term caravan city is believed to have been coined by him. Noted books of Rostovtzeff include Dura-Europos and Its Art and Skythien und der Bosporus.

 31 
Auguste Mariette
(Scholar)
Auguste Mariette
3
Birthdate: February 11, 1821
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Boulogne-sur-Mer, France
Died: January 18, 1881
 32 
Karl Richard Lepsius
(Egyptologist)
Karl Richard Lepsius
2
Birthdate: December 23, 1810
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Naumburg, Germany
Died: July 10, 1884
 33 
Vivant Denon
(Artist)
Vivant Denon
2
Birthdate: January 4, 1747
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Chalon-sur-Saône, France
Died: April 27, 1825
 34 
Robert Koldewey
(Archaeologist)
Robert Koldewey
2
Birthdate: September 10, 1855
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Blankenburg am Harz, Duchy of Brunswick, German Confederation
Died: February 4, 1925
 35 
Henri Breuil
(Archaeologist)
Henri Breuil
2
Birthdate: February 28, 1877
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Mortain, France
Died: August 14, 1961
 36 
Carl Blegen
(Archaeologist)
Carl Blegen
2
Birthdate: January 27, 1887
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
Died: August 24, 1971
 37 
David George Hogarth
(Archaeologist)
David George Hogarth
2
Birthdate: May 23, 1862
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Lincolnshire, England
Died: November 6, 1927
 38 
Luigi Palma di Cesnola
(Soldier)
Luigi Palma di Cesnola
2
Birthdate: July 29, 1832
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Rivarolo Canavese, Italy
Died: November 20, 1904
 39 
Giuseppe Fiorelli
(Archaeologist)
Giuseppe Fiorelli
2
Birthdate: June 8, 1823
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Naples, Italy
Died: January 28, 1896
 40 
Robert Bruce Foote
(British Geologist and Archaeologist Who Conducted Pioneering Research on the Prehistory of India)
Robert Bruce Foote
2
Birthdate: September 22, 1834
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Cheltenham, England
Died: December 29, 1912

British geologist and archaeologist Robert Bruce Foote is remembered for his pioneering contribution to the study of the prehistory of India. He was in his early 20s when he joined the Geological Survey of India and soon made many discoveries, including that of the first Paleolithic hand axe in India.

 41 
George Andrew Reisner
(Archaeologist)
George Andrew Reisner
2
Birthdate: November 5, 1867
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
Died: June 6, 1942
 42 
Augustus Le Plongeon
(Archaeologist, Photographer)
Augustus Le Plongeon
0
Birthdate: May 4, 1826
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Island of Jersey
Died: December 13, 1908
 43 
J. Eric S. Thompson
(Anthropologist)
J. Eric S. Thompson
2
Birthdate: December 31, 1898
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: London, England
Died: September 9, 1975
British anthropologist and ethnographer J. Eric S. Thompson is remembered for his lifelong research on the Mayan people. He had a long stint as an archaeologist at the Carnegie Institution and was also knighted for his achievements. His research culminated in books such as The Rise and Fall of Maya Civilization.
 44 
Gustaf Kossinna
(Archaeologist, Philologist)
Gustaf Kossinna
0
Birthdate: September 28, 1858
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Tilsit, East Prussia, Germany
Died: December 20, 1931
 45 
Richard Payne Knight
(Archaeologist)
Richard Payne Knight
0
Birthdate: February 11, 1751
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: England
Died: April 23, 1824
 46 
Manolis Andronicos
(Archaeologist)
Manolis Andronicos
2
Birthdate: October 23, 1919
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Bursa, Turkey
Died: March 30, 1992
 47 
Bedřich Hrozný
(Orientalist)
Bedřich Hrozný
2
Birthdate: May 6, 1879
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Lysá nad Labem, Czechia
Died: December 12, 1952
 48 
Wilhelm Dörpfeld
(Architect)
Wilhelm Dörpfeld
2
Birthdate: December 26, 1853
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Barmen, Germany
Died: April 25, 1940
 49 
Jane Dieulafoy
(Archaeologist)
Jane Dieulafoy
2
Birthdate: June 29, 1851
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Toulouse, France
Died: May 25, 1916
 50 
William Henry Holmes
(US Explorer, Anthropologist, Archaeologist, and Geologist)
William Henry Holmes
2
Birthdate: December 1, 1846
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Harrison County, Ohio, United States
Died: April 20, 1933

American explorer, anthropologist, and archaeologist William Henry Holmes was a pioneer of professional archaeology in the US. He was also a geologist and a scientific illustrator. He had been a curator at the Smithsonian Institution and had been the director of the National Gallery of Art.