Famous 19th Century Archaeologists

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Vote for Your Favourite 19th Century Archaeologists

 1 
T. E. Lawrence
(Archaeologist & Army Officer Known for His Legendary War Activities in the Middle East During World War I)

T. E. Lawrence
14
Birthdate: August 16, 1888
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Tremadog, Carnarvonshire, Wales
Died: May 19, 1935
T. E. Lawrence was a British army officer who participated in the Arab Revolt, against the Ottoman regime, during World War I. Nicknamed Lawrence of Arabia, he inspired a movie of the same name. His treatise of his war experiences was published as Seven Pillars of Wisdom, his best-known work.

 2 
Howard Carter
(Archaeologist)

Howard Carter
6
Birthdate: May 9, 1874
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Kensington, London, England
Died: March 2, 1939

George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon
4
Birthdate: June 26, 1866
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Hampshire, England
Died: April 5, 1923
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 4 
Heinrich Schliemann
(Archaeologist)

Heinrich Schliemann
4
Birthdate: January 6, 1822
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Neubukow, Germany
Died: December 26, 1890

German businessman Heinrich Schliemann didn’t let his poverty or lack of education hinder his growth and learned several languages moving from place to place for trade. A pioneer in the field of archaeology, he is now remembered as the man who discovered Troy in his bid to unearth “Priam's Treasure."

 5 

Nicholas Roerich
4
Birthdate: October 9, 1874
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died: December 13, 1947

Russian painter, writer, philosopher, theosophist and archaeologist, Nicholas Roerich, counted among the greatest Russian painters, is noted for initiating the modern movement for the defense of cultural objects. One of the greatest feats that he achieved during his lifetime was the Roerich Pact that was signed into law by the US and most nations of the Pan-American Union.

 6 
Gustave Le Bon
(Physician, Anthropologist, Archaeologist, Psychologist, Philosopher, Historian, Sociologist)

Gustave Le Bon
4
Birthdate: May 7, 1841
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Nogent-le-Rotrou
Died: December 13, 1931

French social psychologist Gustave Le Bon is best remembered for his research on crowd psychology. In his iconic work La psychologie des foules, or The Crowd, he stated that people are driven by their emotions and not by their intellect when they act as part of a crowd.

 7 
Margaret Murray
(Anthropologist, Archaeologist, Egyptologist)

Margaret Murray
4
Birthdate: July 13, 1863
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Kolkata
Died: November 13, 1963

British Egyptologist and anthropologist Margaret Murray was also a scholar of witchcraft. Her best-known work is her 1921 book The Witch Cult in Western Europe, which inspired later witchcraft scholars such as Gerald B. Gardner. The University College London professor had worked in places such as Egypt, Malta, and Petra.

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 8 
Arthur Evans
(Archaeologist)

Arthur Evans
4
Birthdate: July 8, 1851
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Nash Mills, England
Died: July 11, 1941

 9 
Sir Mortimer Wheeler
(Archaeologist)

Sir Mortimer Wheeler
6
Birthdate: September 10, 1890
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Glasgow, Scotland
Died: July 22, 1976

Sir Mortimer Wheeler was a British archaeologist who served as the director of the London Museum as well as the National Museum of Wales during his illustrious career. He is credited with developing the Wheeler–Kenyon method of archaeological excavation. Wheeler is also remembered for his association with the Archaeological Survey of India where he served as Director-General.

 10 
R. G. Collingwood
(Philosopher)

R. G. Collingwood
3
Birthdate: February 22, 1889
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Cartmel Fell, England
Died: January 9, 1943

 11 
Prosper Mérimée
(Former writer in the movement of Romanticism, and one of the pioneers of the novella, a short novel or long short story)

Prosper Mérimée
3
Birthdate: September 28, 1803
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: September 23, 1870

Prosper Mérimée was a French writer and one of the pioneers of narrative prose, which came to be known as a novella. A multi-talented personality, Mérimée was also a historian and archaeologist; he played a key role in the development of the process of architectural preservation. He was responsible for safeguarding several historic sites, such as the Cité de Carcassonne. 

 12 
Sir Flinders Petrie
(Egyptologist)

Sir Flinders Petrie
6
Birthdate: June 3, 1853
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: London, England
Died: July 28, 1942

 13 
E.F. Benson
(Novelist)

E.F. Benson
3
Birthdate: July 24, 1867
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Wellington College, England
Died: February 29, 1940

Chiefly known as a novelist, biographer, and memoirist, Edward Frederic Benson began his career with the British School of Archaeology in Athens, publishing his first successful novel, Dodo: A Detail of the Day, during this period. Its popularity encouraged him to continue publishing, the most significant works among them being Mapp and Lucia series, and the biography of Queen Victoria.

 14 
John Hubert Marshall
(Archaeologist)

John Hubert Marshall
3
Birthdate: March 19, 1876
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Chester, England
Died: August 17, 1958

 15 
Sir Aurel Stein
(Archaeologist)

Sir Aurel Stein
3
Birthdate: November 26, 1862
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Budapest, Hungary
Died: October 26, 1943

Hungarian-British archaeologist Sir Aurel Stein is best remembered for his research in Central Asia. He was also associated with institutes in British India, such as Oriental College, Lahore, and later translated Kalhana’s Rajatarangini from Sanskrit to English. He was a dog lover and remained single for life.

 16 

Osman Hamdi Bey
3
Birthdate: December 30, 1842
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: İstanbul, Turkey
Died: February 24, 1910

 17 
Austen Henry Layard
(Archaeologist)

Austen Henry Layard
3
Birthdate: March 5, 1817
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: July 5, 1894

British archaeologist Austen Henry Layard initially worked in a London law office but quit it suddenly to go on an impromptu trip to Syria. He was later hired as an unofficial British diplomat in Turkey. He is remembered for his excavations in Nineveh and his exploration of the Assyrian and Babylonian culture.

 18 

Christian Jürgensen Thomsen
3
Birthdate: December 29, 1788
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Copenhagen, Denmark
Died: May 21, 1865

Christian Jürgensen Thomsen was a Danish antiquarian best remembered for developing early archaeological methods and techniques. In 1816, he was selected as the head of an organization, which later became the National Museum of Denmark. Christian Jürgensen Thomsen is credited with mentoring future archaeologists like Bror Emil Hildebrand and J. J. A. Worsaae.  

 19 
Augustus Pitt Rivers
(Archaeologist)

Augustus Pitt Rivers
3
Birthdate: April 14, 1827
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Bramham cum Oglethorpe, England
Died: May 4, 1900

 20 
James Henry Breasted
(Archaeologist)

James Henry Breasted
3
Birthdate: August 27, 1865
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Rockford, Illinois, United States
Died: December 2, 1935

 21 
Sir Leonard Woolley
(Archaeologist)

Sir Leonard Woolley
5
Birthdate: April 17, 1880
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: London, England
Died: February 20, 1960

 22 
William F. Albright
(Archaeologist)

William F. Albright
5
Birthdate: May 24, 1891
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Coquimbo, Chile
Died: September 19, 1971

 23 
John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury
(Anthropologist, Politician, Archaeologist, Prehistorian, Banker, Statistician, Naturalist, Zoologist, Entomologist)

John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury
3
Birthdate: April 30, 1834
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: London
Died: May 28, 1913

British banker John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, better known as Sir John Lubbock, had also been an MP. However, he is best known for his contribution to ethnography and archaeology. He is also credited with coining the terms Paleolithic and Neolithic, and is known for his books on animal behavior.

Sir Henry Rawlinson, 1st Baronet
3
Birthdate: April 5, 1810
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Chadlington, England
Died: March 5, 1895

 25 
Eugène Dubois
(Curator, Geologist, Physician, Anthropologist, Paleontologist, Archaeologist, Prehistorian, Paleoanthropologist)

Eugène Dubois
3
Birthdate: January 28, 1858
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Eijsden
Died: December 16, 1940

 26 
Charles Warren
(He was one of the earliest European archaeologists of the Biblical Holy Land)

Charles Warren
0
Birthdate: February 7, 1840
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Bangor, England
Died: January 21, 1927

 27 
Gaston Maspero
(Egyptologist)

Gaston Maspero
3
Birthdate: June 23, 1846
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: June 30, 1916

 28 

Marcelino de Sautuola
3
Birthdate: June 2, 1831
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Santander, Cantabria Santander, Spain
Died: March 30, 1888

Spanish jurist and amateur archaeologist Marcelino de Sautuola was the owner of the land where the Altamira cave was found. Led by his eight-year-old daughter María, Sautuola discovered drawings of the cave that are earliest known examples of Stone Age painting. Sautuola and archaeologist Juan Vilanova y Piera excavated the cave that was later declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO.

 29 
Leo Frobenius
(Ethnologist)

Leo Frobenius
3
Birthdate: June 29, 1873
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Berlin, Germany
Died: August 9, 1938

 30 
Karl Richard Lepsius
(Egyptologist)

Karl Richard Lepsius
2
Birthdate: December 23, 1810
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Naumburg, Germany
Died: July 10, 1884

 31 
Hormuzd Rassam
(Archaeologist)

Hormuzd Rassam
3
Birthdate: 1826 AD
Birthplace: Mosul, Iraq
Died: September 16, 1910

 32 

Michael Ivanovich Rostovtzeff
3
Birthdate: November 10, 1870
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Zhytomyr, Ukraine
Died: October 20, 1952

Russian historian Mikhail Ivanovich Rostovtzeff is best-known for producing significant works on ancient Roman and Greek history. He emerged as an influential authority on ancient-history of South Russia and Ukraine while working in Russia. The term caravan city is believed to have been coined by him. Noted books of Rostovtzeff include Dura-Europos and Its Art and Skythien und der Bosporus.

 33 

Auguste Mariette
3
Birthdate: February 11, 1821
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Boulogne-sur-Mer, France
Died: January 18, 1881

 34 
Vivant Denon
(Artist)

Vivant Denon
2
Birthdate: January 4, 1747
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Chalon-sur-Saône, France
Died: April 27, 1825

 35 
David George Hogarth
(Archaeologist)

David George Hogarth
2
Birthdate: May 23, 1862
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Lincolnshire, England
Died: November 6, 1927

 36 
Guo Moruo
(Archaeologist)

Guo Moruo
3
Birthdate: November 16, 1892
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Leshan, China
Died: June 12, 1978

Chinese archaeologist and scholar Guo Moruo left his Chinese wife and moved to Japan, where he studied medicine and met his second wife. Noted for works such as Nü shen, he was targeted during the Cultural Revolution and said his works should be burned for failing to understand Mao.

 37 

Luigi Palma di Cesnola
2
Birthdate: July 29, 1832
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Rivarolo Canavese, Italy
Died: November 20, 1904

 38 
Henri Breuil
(Archaeologist)

Henri Breuil
2
Birthdate: February 28, 1877
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Mortain, France
Died: August 14, 1961

 39 
Giuseppe Fiorelli
(Archaeologist)

Giuseppe Fiorelli
2
Birthdate: June 8, 1823
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Naples, Italy
Died: January 28, 1896

 40 

Robert Bruce Foote
2
Birthdate: September 22, 1834
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Cheltenham,England
Died: December 29, 1912

 41 
Robert Koldewey
(Archaeologist)

Robert Koldewey
2
Birthdate: September 10, 1855
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Blankenburg am Harz, Duchy of Brunswick, German Confederation
Died: February 4, 1925

 42 
Richard Payne Knight
(Archaeologist)

Richard Payne Knight
0
Birthdate: February 11, 1751
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: England
Died: April 23, 1824

 43 
J. Eric S. Thompson
(Anthropologist)

J. Eric S. Thompson
2
Birthdate: December 31, 1898
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: London, England
Died: September 9, 1975
British anthropologist and ethnographer J. Eric S. Thompson is remembered for his lifelong research on the Mayan people. He had a long stint as an archaeologist at the Carnegie Institution and was also knighted for his achievements. His research culminated in books such as The Rise and Fall of Maya Civilization.

 44 
Gustaf Kossinna
(Archaeologist, Philologist)

Gustaf Kossinna
0
Birthdate: September 28, 1858
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Tilsit, East Prussia, Germany
Died: December 20, 1931

 45 
Carl Blegen
(Archaeologist)

Carl Blegen
2
Birthdate: January 27, 1887
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
Died: August 24, 1971

 46 
Augustus Le Plongeon
(Archaeologist, Photographer)

Augustus Le Plongeon
0
Birthdate: May 4, 1826
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Island of Jersey
Died: December 13, 1908

 47 
Bedřich Hrozný
(Orientalist)

Bedřich Hrozný
2
Birthdate: May 6, 1879
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Lysá nad Labem, Czechia
Died: December 12, 1952

 48 

Wilhelm Dörpfeld
2
Birthdate: December 26, 1853
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Barmen, Germany
Died: April 25, 1940

 49 
George Andrew Reisner
(Archaeologist)

George Andrew Reisner
2
Birthdate: November 5, 1867
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
Died: June 6, 1942

 50 
Manolis Andronicos
(Archaeologist)

Manolis Andronicos
2
Birthdate: October 23, 1919
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Bursa, Turkey
Died: March 30, 1992