2 Howard Carter(Archaeologist)
3 George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon(Egyptologist)
4 Heinrich Schliemann(Archaeologist)
German businessman Heinrich Schliemann didn’t let his poverty or lack of education hinder his growth and learned several languages moving from place to place for trade. A pioneer in the field of archaeology, he is now remembered as the man who discovered Troy in his bid to unearth “Priam's Treasure."
5 Nicholas Roerich(Painter)
Russian painter, writer, philosopher, theosophist and archaeologist, Nicholas Roerich, counted among the greatest Russian painters, is noted for initiating the modern movement for the defense of cultural objects. One of the greatest feats that he achieved during his lifetime was the Roerich Pact that was signed into law by the US and most nations of the Pan-American Union.
6 Gustave Le Bon(Physician, Anthropologist, Archaeologist, Psychologist, Philosopher, Historian, Sociologist)
French social psychologist Gustave Le Bon is best remembered for his research on crowd psychology. In his iconic work La psychologie des foules, or The Crowd, he stated that people are driven by their emotions and not by their intellect when they act as part of a crowd.
7 Margaret Murray(Anthropologist, Archaeologist, Egyptologist)
British Egyptologist and anthropologist Margaret Murray was also a scholar of witchcraft. Her best-known work is her 1921 book The Witch Cult in Western Europe, which inspired later witchcraft scholars such as Gerald B. Gardner. The University College London professor had worked in places such as Egypt, Malta, and Petra.
8 Arthur Evans(Archaeologist)
9 Sir Mortimer Wheeler(Archaeologist)
Sir Mortimer Wheeler was a British archaeologist who served as the director of the London Museum as well as the National Museum of Wales during his illustrious career. He is credited with developing the Wheeler–Kenyon method of archaeological excavation. Wheeler is also remembered for his association with the Archaeological Survey of India where he served as Director-General.
10 R. G. Collingwood(Philosopher)
11 Prosper Mérimée(Former writer in the movement of Romanticism, and one of the pioneers of the novella, a short novel or long short story)
Prosper Mérimée was a French writer and one of the pioneers of narrative prose, which came to be known as a novella. A multi-talented personality, Mérimée was also a historian and archaeologist; he played a key role in the development of the process of architectural preservation. He was responsible for safeguarding several historic sites, such as the Cité de Carcassonne.
12 Sir Flinders Petrie(Egyptologist)
13 E.F. Benson(Novelist)
Chiefly known as a novelist, biographer, and memoirist, Edward Frederic Benson began his career with the British School of Archaeology in Athens, publishing his first successful novel, Dodo: A Detail of the Day, during this period. Its popularity encouraged him to continue publishing, the most significant works among them being Mapp and Lucia series, and the biography of Queen Victoria.
14 John Hubert Marshall(Archaeologist)
15 Sir Aurel Stein(Archaeologist)
Hungarian-British archaeologist Sir Aurel Stein is best remembered for his research in Central Asia. He was also associated with institutes in British India, such as Oriental College, Lahore, and later translated Kalhana’s Rajatarangini from Sanskrit to English. He was a dog lover and remained single for life.
16 Osman Hamdi Bey(Painter)
17 Austen Henry Layard(Archaeologist)
British archaeologist Austen Henry Layard initially worked in a London law office but quit it suddenly to go on an impromptu trip to Syria. He was later hired as an unofficial British diplomat in Turkey. He is remembered for his excavations in Nineveh and his exploration of the Assyrian and Babylonian culture.
18 Christian Jürgensen Thomsen(Antiquarian)
Christian Jürgensen Thomsen was a Danish antiquarian best remembered for developing early archaeological methods and techniques. In 1816, he was selected as the head of an organization, which later became the National Museum of Denmark. Christian Jürgensen Thomsen is credited with mentoring future archaeologists like Bror Emil Hildebrand and J. J. A. Worsaae.
19 Augustus Pitt Rivers(Archaeologist)
20 James Henry Breasted(Archaeologist)
21 Sir Leonard Woolley(Archaeologist)
22 William F. Albright(Archaeologist)
23 John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury(Anthropologist, Politician, Archaeologist, Prehistorian, Banker, Statistician, Naturalist, Zoologist, Entomologist)
British banker John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, better known as Sir John Lubbock, had also been an MP. However, he is best known for his contribution to ethnography and archaeology. He is also credited with coining the terms Paleolithic and Neolithic, and is known for his books on animal behavior.
24 Sir Henry Rawlinson, 1st Baronet(Army Officer)
25 Eugène Dubois(Curator, Geologist, Physician, Anthropologist, Paleontologist, Archaeologist, Prehistorian, Paleoanthropologist)
26 Charles Warren(He was one of the earliest European archaeologists of the Biblical Holy Land)
27 Gaston Maspero(Egyptologist)
28 Marcelino de Sautuola(Jurist)
Spanish jurist and amateur archaeologist Marcelino de Sautuola was the owner of the land where the Altamira cave was found. Led by his eight-year-old daughter María, Sautuola discovered drawings of the cave that are earliest known examples of Stone Age painting. Sautuola and archaeologist Juan Vilanova y Piera excavated the cave that was later declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO.
29 Leo Frobenius(Ethnologist)
30 Karl Richard Lepsius(Egyptologist)
31 Hormuzd Rassam(Archaeologist)
32 Michael Ivanovich Rostovtzeff(Archaeologist)
Russian historian Mikhail Ivanovich Rostovtzeff is best-known for producing significant works on ancient Roman and Greek history. He emerged as an influential authority on ancient-history of South Russia and Ukraine while working in Russia. The term caravan city is believed to have been coined by him. Noted books of Rostovtzeff include Dura-Europos and Its Art and Skythien und der Bosporus.
33 Auguste Mariette(Scholar)
34 Vivant Denon(Artist)
35 David George Hogarth(Archaeologist)
36 Guo Moruo(Archaeologist)
Chinese archaeologist and scholar Guo Moruo left his Chinese wife and moved to Japan, where he studied medicine and met his second wife. Noted for works such as Nü shen, he was targeted during the Cultural Revolution and said his works should be burned for failing to understand Mao.