Famous 19th Century Psychologists

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Vote for Your Favourite 19th Century Psychologists

 1 
Carl Jung
(Psychiatrist)

Carl Jung
8
Birthdate: July 26, 1875
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Kesswil, Switzerland
Died: June 6, 1961

Widely regarded as the father of analytical psychology, Carl Jung is one of the most important contributors to symbolization and dream analysis. The concepts of socionics and a popular psychometric instrument called Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) were developed from Jung's theory. Apart from working as a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, Carl Jung was also an artist, craftsman, builder, and prolific writer.

 2 
William James
(Philosopher, Psychologist)

William James
8
Birthdate: January 11, 1842
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: New York City, New York, United States
Died: August 26, 1910

William James was an American psychologist and philosopher. Widely regarded as the father of American psychology and one of the most influential American philosophers, James was the first educator in the United States to offer a course in psychology. He is also credited with co-founding a psychological school of thought called functional psychology and establishing a philosophical school called pragmatism.

 3 
Ivan Pavlov
(Physiologist)

Ivan Pavlov
4
Birthdate: September 26, 1849
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Ryazan, Russia
Died: February 27, 1936
Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov is best remembered for his research in classical conditioning. He became the first Russian Nobel laureate after winning the 1904 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his study of the physiology of digestion. His experiment on conditioned reflex using dogs is still studied in colleges.
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 4 
John B. Watson
(Psychologist)

John B. Watson
6
Birthdate: January 9, 1878
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Travelers Rest, South Carolina, United States
Died: September 25, 1958

John B. Watson was the first to introduce the theory of behaviorism to psychology. He believed human behavior, like animal behavior, should be studied under objective and experimental conditions. One of his experiments included conditioning the fear of white rats into an 11-year-old boy he named Little Albert.

 5 
Alfred Adler
(Psychotherapist)

Alfred Adler
4
Birthdate: February 7, 1870
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Rudolfsheim-Fünfhaus, Vienna, Austria
Died: May 28, 1937

Alfred Adler was an Austrian psychotherapist and medical doctor. He is credited with founding the school of individual psychology. He was also one of the founders of the psychoanalytic movement along with Sigmund Freud and Freud's colleagues. In 2002, a survey conducted by Review of General Psychology named Adler among the 20th century's most eminent psychologists.

 6 
Wilhelm Wundt
(Philosopher)

Wilhelm Wundt
4
Birthdate: August 16, 1832
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Mannheim, Germany
Died: August 31, 1920

Wilhelm Wundt was a German physiologist, professor, and philosopher. He is often counted among the founders of modern psychology and is widely considered the father of experimental psychology. He is also credited with founding the first laboratory for psychological research, which he founded at the University of Leipzig in 1879.

 7 
Karen Horney
(Psychoanalyst)

Karen Horney
5
Birthdate: September 16, 1885
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Blankenese, Hamburg, Germany
Died: December 4, 1952

Remembered for her pioneering work on feminist psychology, Karen Horney studied medicine at a time when women weren’t allowed in universities. Going against Sigmund Freud’s concept of penis envy, she suggested the idea of womb envy. She believed psychological differences weren’t rooted in gender but rather depended on the socio-cultural influences.

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 8 
Sigmund Freud
(Neurologist & the Founder of Psychoanalysis)

Sigmund Freud
16
Birthdate: May 6, 1856
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Příbor, Czechia
Died: September 23, 1939

Regarded as the father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud was a neurologist. Despite suffering criticism, psychoanalysis remains influential in the fields of psychology and psychiatry; such is the influence Freud has on humanities. Scholars believe that Freud is one of the most influential personalities of the 20th century and that his impact is comparable to that of Marxism and Darwinism.

 9 
John Dewey
(Philosopher)

John Dewey
8
Birthdate: October 20, 1859
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Burlington, Vermont, United States
Died: June 1, 1952

A staunch advocate of progressive education and liberalism, the American philosopher and psychologist was the founder of the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. John Dewey’s famous writings included The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology and Human Nature and Conduct. According to him, passion for knowledge and intellectual curiosity were central to a teacher. He called himself a democratic socialist.

 10 
Alfred Binet
(Psychologist, Educationist)

Alfred Binet
3
Birthdate: July 8, 1857
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Nice
Died: October 18, 1911

 11 
Gordon Allport
(Psychologist, Academic, University teacher, Non-fiction writer)

Gordon Allport
5
Birthdate: November 11, 1897
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Montezuma
Died: October 9, 1967

 12 
G. Stanley Hall
(Psychologist, Science writer)

G. Stanley Hall
3
Birthdate: February 1, 1844
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Massachusetts
Died: April 24, 1924

 13 
Edward Thorndike
(Psychologist)

Edward Thorndike
3
Birthdate: August 31, 1874
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Williamsburg, Massachusetts, United States
Died: August 9, 1949

 14 
Fritz Perls
(Psychologist, Psychiatrist)

Fritz Perls
3
Birthdate: July 8, 1893
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Berlin
Died: March 14, 1970

Fritz Perls initially fought in World War I, following which he treated brain injuries of soldiers. He was later drawn to Freudian psychoanalysis. During World War II, he was the psychiatrist for the South African military. His Gestalt therapy, which he co-created with his wife, Laura, redefined psychology.

 15 
George Herbert Mead
(Philosopher)

George Herbert Mead
5
Birthdate: February 27, 1863
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: South Hadley, Massachusetts, United States
Died: April 26, 1931

American philosopher and social psychologist George Herbert Mead was one of the pioneers of pragmatism and symbolic interactionism. He taught at the University of Chicago, and his ideas later came to be known as the Chicago school of sociology. His notable lectures were published as books only after his death.

 16 
Melanie Klein
(Psychanalyst)

Melanie Klein
5
Birthdate: March 30, 1882
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Vienna
Died: September 22, 1960

Melanie Klein was an Austrian-British author and psychoanalyst. A key figure in the development of object relations theory, she is best known for her work in child analysis. She began her studies by observing her own children’s behavior while they were growing up. As a woman in a field dominated by men, she was also a feminist icon. 

 17 
Gustave Le Bon
(Physician, Anthropologist, Archaeologist, Psychologist, Philosopher, Historian, Sociologist)

Gustave Le Bon
3
Birthdate: May 7, 1841
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Nogent-le-Rotrou
Died: December 13, 1931

French social psychologist Gustave Le Bon is best remembered for his research on crowd psychology. In his iconic work La psychologie des foules, or The Crowd, he stated that people are driven by their emotions and not by their intellect when they act as part of a crowd.

 18 
Lou Andreas-Salomé
(Psychoanalyst)

Lou Andreas-Salomé
5
Birthdate: February 12, 1861
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died: February 5, 1937

Russian-born German author Lou Andreas-Salomé apparently rejected renowned philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche’s marriage proposal and then married a professor instead. A skilled psychoanalyst, she was also close to Rainer Maria Rilke and Sigmund Freud. She was one of the first to offer a psychoanalytic perspective to female sexuality.

 19 
Hermann Ebbinghaus
(Psychologist, Educationist, University teacher)

Hermann Ebbinghaus
3
Birthdate: January 24, 1850
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Barmen
Died: February 26, 1909

Especially remembered for his pioneering work on rote learning and memory, German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus became interested in the subject after reading Gustav Fechner's Elements of Psychophysics.  Eventually, he developed the experimental methods for measuring memory, using 2,300 three-letter nonsense syllables that he devised. Later, he also discovered the forgetting curve and the spacing effect and described the learning curve.

 20 

Lillian Moller Gilbreth
3
Birthdate: May 24, 1878
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Oakland, California, United States
Died: January 2, 1972

 21 
Otto Rank
(Psychologist)

Otto Rank
3
Birthdate: April 22, 1884
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Vienna
Died: October 31, 1939

Otto Rank was an Austrian psychoanalyst and philosopher. A close colleague of Sigmund Freud, Rank was also the managing director of Freud's publishing house. Rank was a prolific writer and wrote extensively on psychoanalytic themes. He was the first person who viewed therapy as a learning and unlearning experience focusing on feelings. Psychologist Rollo May was deeply influenced by Rank. 

 22 
Mary Whiton Calkins
(Psychologist, University teacher)

Mary Whiton Calkins
2
Birthdate: March 30, 1863
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Hartford
Died: February 26, 1930

 23 
Lewis Terman
(Psychologist, University teacher)

Lewis Terman
3
Birthdate: January 15, 1877
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Johnson County
Died: December 21, 1956

 24 
Emil Kraepelin
(Psychiatrist)

Emil Kraepelin
3
Birthdate: February 15, 1856
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Neustrelitz, Germany
Died: October 7, 1926

The son of a musician, Emil Kraepelin, remembered as the founder of psychiatry, was the first to differentiate between dementia praecox, now known as schizophrenia, and manic-depressive psychosis. His classification of mental illnesses influenced much of the research on the subject in the 20th century.

 25 
Otto Weininger
(Philosopher, Writer, Psychologist)

Otto Weininger
3
Birthdate: April 3, 1880
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Vienna
Died: October 4, 1903

Austrian thinker Otto Weininger, whose main areas of interests included philosophy of religion, logic, gender and psychology, lived in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. His book Geschlecht und Charakter (Sex and Character), which gained popularity following his suicide by gunshot, became a sourcebook for anti-Semitic propagandists. Some of his writings were used by Nazi propaganda.  

 26 
Josef Breuer
(Physician, Psychologist, University teacher, Psychiatrist)

Josef Breuer
2
Birthdate: January 15, 1842
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Vienna
Died: June 20, 1925

Psychoanalyst and physician Josef Breuer inspired what later came to be known as Sigmund Freud’s cathartic method to treat mental ailments. His experiments with his patient Anna O. proved the therapeutic effect of the talking cure. He had also conducted research on the respiratory cycle and discovered the Hering-Breuer reflex.

 27 
Toni Wolff
(Psychologist)

Toni Wolff
2
Birthdate: September 18, 1888
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Zürich
Died: March 21, 1953

Denied formal education for being a woman, Toni Wolff later became one of psychoanalyst Carl Jung’s closest collaborators. She entered Jung’s life as a patient of depression after her father’s death. She later headed the Psychologischer Club Zürich as its president and is often described as an intellectual rival of Jung’s wife.

 28 
Edward B. Titchener
(Philosopher, Psychologist, University teacher)

Edward B. Titchener
3
Birthdate: January 11, 1867
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Chichester
Died: August 3, 1927

 29 
Émile Coué
(Psychologist)

Émile Coué
3
Birthdate: February 26, 1857
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Troyes, France
Died: July 2, 1926

 30 
Max Wertheimer
(Psychologist, University teacher)

Max Wertheimer
2
Birthdate: April 15, 1880
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Prague
Died: October 12, 1943

 31 
Charles Spearman
(Psychologist)

Charles Spearman
2
Birthdate: September 10, 1863
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: London, England
Died: September 17, 1945

 32 
Franz Brentano
(Philosopher)

Franz Brentano
2
Birthdate: January 16, 1838
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Rhine Province
Died: March 17, 1917

 33 
Edward C. Tolman
(Psychologist)

Edward C. Tolman
2
Birthdate: April 14, 1886
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Newton
Died: November 19, 1959

 34 
Gustav Fechner
(Physicist, Psychologist, Statistician, University teacher, Philosopher)

Gustav Fechner
2
Birthdate: April 19, 1801
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Bad Muskau
Died: November 18, 1887

Gustav Fechner was a German physicist, philosopher, and experimental psychologist. A pioneer in the field of experimental psychology, Fechner is credited with founding psychophysics. Gustav Fechner inspired several philosophers and scientists like Jan Koenderink, David Heeger, and Farley Norman. In 1970, a crater on the Moon was named after him by the International Astronomical Union.

 35 
Kurt Schneider
(Military physician, Psychologist, Psychiatrist, University teacher)

Kurt Schneider
2
Birthdate: January 7, 1887
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Crailsheim
Died: October 27, 1967

Chiefly known for his works on the diagnosis and understanding of schizophrenia, German psychiatrist Kurt Schneider published many papers on the subject, creating a list of the psychotic symptoms, today known as Schneiderian First-Rank Symptoms, to differentiate it from other forms of mental disorder. He also made significant contributions to personality disorders, coining term like endogenous depression and reactive depression.

 36 
Wolfgang Köhler
(Psychologist)

Wolfgang Köhler
2
Birthdate: January 21, 1887
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Tallinn, Estonia
Died: June 11, 1967

 37 
Fredric Wertham
(Psychologist, Psychiatrist)

Fredric Wertham
4
Birthdate: March 20, 1895
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: New York City
Died: November 18, 1981

 38 
Harry Stack Sullivan
(Psychiatrist, Psychotherapist, Psychologist)

Harry Stack Sullivan
2
Birthdate: February 21, 1892
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: New York City
Died: January 14, 1949

 39 
Hugo Münsterberg
(Psychologist, University teacher, Philosopher)

Hugo Münsterberg
2
Birthdate: June 1, 1863
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Gdańsk
Died: December 16, 1916

 40 
Louis Leon Thurstone
(Psychologist)

Louis Leon Thurstone
2
Birthdate: May 29, 1887
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Chicago, Illinois, United States
Died: September 30, 1955

 41 
David Wechsler
(Psychologist, University teacher)

David Wechsler
2
Birthdate: January 12, 1896
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Iași County
Died: May 2, 1981

 42 
Henry Goddard
(psychologist, educationist)

Henry Goddard
2
Birthdate: August 14, 1866
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: United States of America
Died: June 18, 1957

 43 
Clark L. Hull
(Psychologist)

Clark L. Hull
2
Birthdate: May 24, 1884
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: New York
Died: May 10, 1952

 44 
Pierre Janet
(Psychologist)

Pierre Janet
2
Birthdate: May 30, 1859
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: February 24, 1947

 45 
Johann Friedrich Herbart
(Philosopher, psychologist and founder of pedagogy as an academic discipline)

Johann Friedrich Herbart
2
Birthdate: May 4, 1776
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Oldenburg, Germany
Died: August 14, 1841

 46 
Sándor Ferenczi
(Psychanalyst, Psychiatrist, Non-fiction writer, Neurologist)

Sándor Ferenczi
2
Birthdate: July 7, 1873
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Miskolc
Died: May 22, 1933

Sándor Ferenczi is best remembered for his research on free association and the psychoanalytic theory. Initially an army doctor, he specialized in subjects such as neuropathology and hypnosis. He was also close to Sigmund Freud and later taught at the University of Budapest. He also established the Hungarian Psychoanalytic Society.

 47 
Cyril Burt
(Psychologist)

Cyril Burt
2
Birthdate: March 3, 1883
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Westminster, London, England
Died: October 10, 1971

Cyril Burt was an English geneticist and educational psychologist who also made immense contributions to statistics. A prolific writer, Cyril Burt published several books and articles on topics ranging from psychometrics to parapsychology over the course of his career.

 48 
Ernest Jones
(Psychoanalyst)

Ernest Jones
2
Birthdate: January 1, 1879
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Gowerton, Wales
Died: February 11, 1958

 49 

Margaret Floy Washburn
4
Birthdate: July 25, 1871
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: New York City
Died: October 29, 1939

 50 
Kurt Koffka
(Psychologist, University teacher)

Kurt Koffka
1
Birthdate: March 18, 1886
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Berlin
Died: November 22, 1941