The 20th century was a very vibrant period for the scientific fraternity. With improved technologies available for scientific enquiries, several significant inventions and discoveries happened in the 20th century. Enrico Fermi, credited with discovering how to create a nuclear chain reaction, which led directly the creation of the atomic bomb, was born at the dawn of the century as was Nikolaas 'Niko' Tinbergen, Dutch biologist and ornithologist. Clinton Richard Dawkins, an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist and author, is among the scientists who were born in the mid-20th century. Information technology is one field that emerged in this century and revolutionized the world of communication and technology. Alan Turing, a pioneering English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst and theoretical biologist played a pivotal role in the development of theoretical computer science. The inventor of the World Wide Web, Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee, is another one of the major scientists of the 20th century. Lawrence Krauss and Carl Sagan are among the other influential scientists born in this era. Read on to learn more about the life and works of famous scientists of the 20th century.
Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein
14 March 1879, German, American
Physicist
Stephen HawkingStephen Hawking
08 January 1942, British
Theoretical Physicist, Cosmologist

Alan TuringAlan Turing
23 June 1912, British
Computer Scientist

Marie CurieMarie Curie
07 November 1867, Polish
First woman to win a Nobel Prize

Richard FeynmanRichard Feynman
11 May 1918, American
Physicist

John KendrewJohn Kendrew
24 March 1917, British
Biochemist and Crystallographer
Larry PageLarry Page
26 March 1973, American
Co-founder of Google

Sergey BrinSergey Brin
21 August 1973, Russian, American
Computer scientist

John Forbes Nash Jr.John Forbes Nash Jr.
13 June 1928, American
Mathematician

J. Robert OppenheimerJ. Robert Oppenheimer
22 April 1904, American
 
Katherine JohnsonKatherine Johnson
26 August 1918, American
Mathematician

Neil deGrasse TysonNeil deGrasse Tyson
05 October 1958, American
Astrophysicist
Carl SaganCarl Sagan
09 November 1934, American
Astronomer, Astrophysicist, Writer

Isaac AsimovIsaac Asimov
02 January 1920, American
Writer, Professor

Tim Berners-LeeTim Berners-Lee
08 June 1955, British
Inventor of the World Wide Web
Werner HeisenbergWerner Heisenberg
05 December 1901, German
Physicist

Richard Dawkins Richard Dawkins
26 March 1941, British
Evolutionary Biologist
John von NeumannJohn von Neumann
28 December 1903, Hungarian, American
Mathematician

Sally RideSally Ride
26 May 1951, American
Physicist, Astronaut

Norman BorlaugNorman Borlaug
25 March 1914, American
Father of the Green Revolution
Shigeru MiyamotoShigeru Miyamoto
16 November 1952, Japanese
Video Game Designer, Artist

Rachel CarsonRachel Carson
27 May 1907, American
Marine biologist
Murray Gell-MannMurray Gell-Mann
15 September 1929, American
Physicist

Grace HopperGrace Hopper
09 December 1906, American
Computer Scientist

Rosalind FranklinRosalind Franklin
25 July 1920, British
Chemist

Jared DiamondJared Diamond
10 September 1937, American
Scientist & Author
Gabe NewellGabe Newell
03 November 1962, American
Entrepreneur
Enrico FermiEnrico Fermi
29 September 1901, Italian, American
Nobel Laureate in Physics

James Harris SimonsJames Harris Simons
1938 AD, American
Mathematicians & Hedge Fund Manager

Shakuntala DeviShakuntala Devi
04 November 1929, Indian
Human Computer

James WatsonJames Watson
06 April 1928, American
Molecular Biologist
Jonas SalkJonas Salk
28 October 1914, American
Medical researcher

Maria MontessoriMaria Montessori
31 August 1870, Italian
Physician and Educator

Albert HofmannAlbert Hofmann
11 January 1906, Swiss
The First Person to Synthesize LSD

Subrahmanyan ChandrasekharSubrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
19 October 1910, Indian
 

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Tom LehrerTom Lehrer
09 April 1928, American
American musician
Guido van RossumGuido van Rossum
31 January 1956, Dutch
Programmer

Linus PaulingLinus Pauling
28 February 1901, American
Chemist, Biochemist
Kip ThorneKip Thorne
01 June 1940, American
Physicist

Zbigniew BrzezinskiZbigniew Brzezinski
28 March 1928, Polish, American
Former Diplomat, Political Scientist

Kurt GödelKurt Gödel
28 April 1906, American
Mathematician, Philosopher
Vikram SarabhaiVikram Sarabhai
12 August 1919, Indian
Scientist

Paul DiracPaul Dirac
08 August 1902, British
Physicist
Josef Allen HynekJ. Allen Hynek
01 May 1910, American
Astronomer, Ufologist

A.P.J. Abdul KalamA.P.J. Abdul Kalam
15 October 1931, Indian
Former President of India

Francis CrickFrancis Crick
08 June 1916, British
Co-discoverer of the Structure of the DNA

Edward TellerEdward Teller
15 January 1908, American
 

Robert BallardRobert Ballard
30 June 1942, American
Deep Sea Explorer
William ShockleyWilliam Shockley
13 February 1910, American
Physicist

Klaus FuchsKlaus Fuchs
29 December 1911, German
Theoretical Physicist and Atomic Spy

Stephen Jay GouldStephen Jay Gould
10 September 1941, American
 

M. S. SwaminathanM. S. Swaminathan
07 August 1925, Indian
Agricultural Scientist
Lev Landau Lev Landau
22 January 1908, Russian
Physicist

Venkatraman RamakrishnanVenkatraman Ramakrishnan
1952 AD, Indian, British, American
Structural biologist
E. O. WilsonE. O. Wilson
10 June 1929, American
Biologist

Tommy RettigTommy Rettig
10 December 1941, American
Child Actor

Har Gobind KhoranaHar Gobind Khorana
09 January 1922, American
 
Thomas KuhnThomas Kuhn
18 July 1922, American
Physicist

Abdus SalamAbdus Salam
29 January 1926, Pakistani
Theoretical Physicist
Andrei SakharovAndrei Sakharov
21 May 1921, Russian
The Father of Soviet nuclear bomb’

Wolfgang PauliWolfgang Pauli
25 April 1900, Austrian
Nobel Laureate in Physics

Glen T. SeaborgGlenn T. Seaborg
19 April 1912, American
Chemist
Steven ChuSteven Chu
28 February 1948, American
Former United States Secretary of Energy

Manjul BhargavaManjul Bhargava
08 August 1974, American
Mathematician
Alexander GrothendieckAlexander Grothendieck
28 March 1928, French
Mathematician

Barbara McClintockBarbara McClintock
16 June 1902, American
Scientist

Alan KayAlan Kay
17 May 1940, American
Computer Scientist

John Archibald WheelerJohn Archibald Wheeler
09 July 1911, American
Physicist
John BardeenJohn Bardeen
23 May 1908, American
Nobel Laureate in Physics
Luis Walter AlvarezLuis Walter Alvarez
13 June 1911, American
Physicist

Konrad LorenzKonrad Lorenz
07 November 1903, Austrian
Zoologist

Barry MarshallBarry Marshall
30 September 1951, Australian
Australian physician

Lynn MargulisLynn Margulis
05 March 1938, American
Author
Peggy WhitsonPeggy Whitson
09 February 1960, American
Astronaut, Biochemist

Konstantin TsiolkovskyKonstantin Tsiolkovsky
17 September 1857, Russian
Russian-Soviet Rocket Scientist

Steven WeinbergSteven Weinberg
03 May 1933, American
 

David BohmDavid Bohm
20 December 1917, American
Scientist

Hans BetheHans Bethe
02 July 1906, American
Physicist
Dorothy HodgkinDorothy Hodgkin
12 May 1910, British
Biochemist

Eugene Paul Eugene Wigner
17 November 1902, American
Physicist & Mathematician
Frederick SangerFrederick Sanger
13 August 1918, British
Biochemist

Vladimir Petrovich DemikhovVladimir Demikhov
18 July 1916, Russian
Organ Transplant Pioneer

Judea PearlJudea Pearl
04 September 1936, Israeli, American
Computer Scientist
Rita Levi-MontalciniRita Levi-Montalcini
22 April 1909, Italian
Neurologist

Robert WinstonRobert Winston
15 July 1940, British
Surgeon, Scientist, TV Presenter
Henrietta Swan LeavittHenrietta Swan Leavitt
04 July 1868, American
Astronomer

John Stewart BellJohn Stewart Bell
28 June 1928, Northern Irish
Physicist

Stephanie KwolekStephanie Kwolek
31 July 1923, American
Chemist

Elizabeth BlackburnElizabeth Blackburn
26 November 1948, Australian, American
American-Australian researcher
George GamowGeorge Gamow
04 March 1904, Russian
Physicist

Julian SchwingerJulian Schwinger
12 February 1918, American
Physicist
Maurice Hugh Frederick WilkinsMaurice Wilkins
15 December 1916, British
Biophysicist

Frédéric Joliot-CurieFrédéric Joliot-Curie
19 March 1900, French
Physicist

Richard LeakeyRichard Leakey
19 December 1944, Kenyan
Paleoanthropologist and Conservationist

Ilya PrigogineIlya Prigogine
25 January 1917, Belgian
Physical Chemist
Ernst MayrErnst Mayr
05 July 1904, American
Biologist