The 20th century was a very vibrant period for the scientific fraternity. With improved technologies available for scientific enquiries, several significant inventions and discoveries happened in the 20th century. Enrico Fermi, credited with discovering how to create a nuclear chain reaction, which led directly the creation of the atomic bomb, was born at the dawn of the century as was Nikolaas 'Niko' Tinbergen, Dutch biologist and ornithologist. Clinton Richard Dawkins, an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist and author, is among the scientists who were born in the mid-20th century. Information technology is one field that emerged in this century and revolutionized the world of communication and technology. Alan Turing, a pioneering English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst and theoretical biologist played a pivotal role in the development of theoretical computer science. The inventor of the World Wide Web, Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee, is another one of the major scientists of the 20th century. Lawrence Krauss and Carl Sagan are among the other influential scientists born in this era. Read on to learn more about the life and works of famous scientists of the 20th century.
Stephen HawkingStephen Hawking

08 January 1942

British

Alan TuringAlan Turing

23 June 1912

British

Marie CurieMarie Curie

07 November 1867

Polish

Lev Landau Lev Landau

22 January 1908

Russian

Neil deGrasse TysonNeil deGrasse Tyson

05 October 1958

American

John Forbes Nash Jr.John Forbes Nash Jr.

13 June 1928

American

Larry PageLarry Page

26 March 1973

American

Sergey BrinSergey Brin

21 August 1973

Russian,American

Katherine JohnsonKatherine Johnson

26 August 1918

American

Carl SaganCarl Sagan

09 November 1934

American

Isaac AsimovIsaac Asimov

02 January 1920

American

James WatsonJames Watson

06 April 1928

American

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J. Robert OppenheimerJ. Robert Oppenheimer

22 April 1904

American

Richard FeynmanRichard Feynman

11 May 1918

American

Tim Berners-LeeTim Berners-Lee

08 June 1955

British

Richard Dawkins Richard Dawkins

26 March 1941

British

Rosalind FranklinRosalind Franklin

25 July 1920

British

Josef Allen HynekJ. Allen Hynek

01 May 1910

American

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John von NeumannJohn von Neumann

28 December 1903

Hungarian,American

Werner HeisenbergWerner Heisenberg

05 December 1901

German

Shigeru MiyamotoShigeru Miyamoto

16 November 1952

Japanese

Enrico FermiEnrico Fermi

29 September 1901

Italian,American

Shakuntala DeviShakuntala Devi

04 November 1929

Indian

Sally RideSally Ride

26 May 1951

American

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Grace HopperGrace Hopper

09 December 1906

American

Francis CrickFrancis Crick

08 June 1916

British

Gabe NewellGabe Newell

03 November 1962

American

Jonas SalkJonas Salk

28 October 1914

American

Zbigniew BrzezinskiZbigniew Brzezinski

28 March 1928

Polish,American

Norman BorlaugNorman Borlaug

25 March 1914

American

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Linus PaulingLinus Pauling

28 February 1901

American

Maria MontessoriMaria Montessori

31 August 1870

Italian

Paul DiracPaul Dirac

08 August 1902

British

James Harris SimonsJames Harris Simons

1938 AD

American

Vikram SarabhaiVikram Sarabhai

12 August 1919

Indian

Guido van RossumGuido van Rossum

31 January 1956

Dutch

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Kurt GödelKurt Gödel

28 April 1906

American

Dan ShechtmanDan Shechtman

24 January 1941

Israeli

Rachel CarsonRachel Carson

27 May 1907

American

Albert HofmannAlbert Hofmann

11 January 1906

Swiss

A.P.J. Abdul KalamA.P.J. Abdul Kalam

15 October 1931

Indian

William ShockleyWilliam Shockley

13 February 1910

American

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Tom LehrerTom Lehrer

09 April 1928

American

M. S. SwaminathanM. S. Swaminathan

07 August 1925

Indian

Subrahmanyan ChandrasekharSubrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

19 October 1910

Indian

Stephen Jay GouldStephen Jay Gould

10 September 1941

American

Kip ThorneKip Thorne

01 June 1940

American

Edward TellerEdward Teller

15 January 1908

American

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Venkatraman RamakrishnanVenkatraman Ramakrishnan

1952 AD

Indian,British,American

Jared DiamondJared Diamond

10 September 1937

American

Abdus SalamAbdus Salam

29 January 1926

Pakistani

Thomas KuhnThomas Kuhn

18 July 1922

American

Klaus FuchsKlaus Fuchs

29 December 1911

German

Har Gobind KhoranaHar Gobind Khorana

09 January 1922

American

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Robert BallardRobert Ballard

30 June 1942

American

E. O. WilsonE. O. Wilson

10 June 1929

American

Andrei SakharovAndrei Sakharov

21 May 1921

Russian

Manjul BhargavaManjul Bhargava

08 August 1974

American

Wolfgang PauliWolfgang Pauli

25 April 1900

Austrian

Peggy WhitsonPeggy Whitson

09 February 1960

American

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Lynn MargulisLynn Margulis

05 March 1938

American

Konrad LorenzKonrad Lorenz

07 November 1903

Austrian

John BardeenJohn Bardeen

23 May 1908

American

Steven ChuSteven Chu

28 February 1948

American

John Archibald WheelerJohn Archibald Wheeler

09 July 1911

American

Maurice Hugh Frederick WilkinsMaurice Wilkins

15 December 1916

British

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Barbara McClintockBarbara McClintock

16 June 1902

American

Alexander GrothendieckAlexander Grothendieck

28 March 1928

French

Frederick SangerFrederick Sanger

13 August 1918

British

Konstantin TsiolkovskyKonstantin Tsiolkovsky

17 September 1857

Russian

Alan KayAlan Kay

17 May 1940

American

David BohmDavid Bohm

20 December 1917

American

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Robert WinstonRobert Winston

15 July 1940

British

Murray Gell-MannMurray Gell-Mann

15 September 1929

American

Hans BetheHans Bethe

02 July 1906

American

Steven WeinbergSteven Weinberg

03 May 1933

American

Glen T. SeaborgGlenn T. Seaborg

19 April 1912

American

Dorothy HodgkinDorothy Hodgkin

12 May 1910

British

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Luis Walter AlvarezLuis Walter Alvarez

13 June 1911

American

Eugene Paul Eugene Wigner

17 November 1902

American

Rita Levi-MontalciniRita Levi-Montalcini

22 April 1909

Italian