The 20th century was a very vibrant period for the scientific fraternity. With improved technologies available for scientific enquiries, several significant inventions and discoveries happened in the 20th century. Enrico Fermi, credited with discovering how to create a nuclear chain reaction, which led directly the creation of the atomic bomb, was born at the dawn of the century as was Nikolaas 'Niko' Tinbergen, Dutch biologist and ornithologist. Clinton Richard Dawkins, an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist and author, is among the scientists who were born in the mid-20th century. Information technology is one field that emerged in this century and revolutionized the world of communication and technology. Alan Turing, a pioneering English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst and theoretical biologist played a pivotal role in the development of theoretical computer science. The inventor of the World Wide Web, Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee, is another one of the major scientists of the 20th century. Lawrence Krauss and Carl Sagan are among the other influential scientists born in this era. Read on to learn more about the life and works of famous scientists of the 20th century.
Edward SnowdenEdward Snowden
21 June 1983, American
Computer Professional, Former CIA Employee
Stephen HawkingStephen Hawking
08 January 1942, British
Theoretical Physicist, Cosmologist

Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein
14 March 1879, German, American
Physicist

A.P.J. Abdul KalamA.P.J. Abdul Kalam
15 October 1931, Indian
Former President of India

Nikola TeslaNikola Tesla
10 July 1856, Austrian, American
Inventor, Father of Radio

Marie CurieMarie Curie
07 November 1867, French, Polish
First woman to win a Nobel Prize
Alan TuringAlan Turing
23 June 1912, British
Mathematician

Srinivasa RamanujanSrinivasa Ramanujan
22 December 1887, Indian
Mathematician

Larry PageLarry Page
26 March 1973, American
Co-founder of Google
Roger PenroseRoger Penrose
08 August 1931, British
Mathematician

Sergey BrinSergey Brin
21 August 1973, Russian, American
Computer scientist
Neil deGrasse TysonNeil deGrasse Tyson
05 October 1958, American
Astrophysicist

Carl SaganCarl Sagan
09 November 1934, American
Astronomer, Astrophysicist, Writer

Katherine JohnsonKatherine Johnson
26 August 1918, American
Mathematician

Richard FeynmanRichard Feynman
11 May 1918, American
Physicist

J. Robert OppenheimerJ. Robert Oppenheimer
22 April 1904, American
 
Shakuntala DeviShakuntala Devi
04 November 1929, Indian
Human Computer

Wernher Von BraunWernher Von Braun
23 March 1912, German, Polish, American
 

Isaac AsimovIsaac Asimov
02 January 1920, American
Writer, Professor

Tim Berners-LeeTim Berners-Lee
08 June 1955, British
Inventor of the World Wide Web
Richard Dawkins Richard Dawkins
26 March 1941, British
Evolutionary Biologist

Kary B. MullisKary B. Mullis
28 December 1944, American
Biochemist
John von NeumannJohn von Neumann
28 December 1903, Hungarian, American
Mathematician

Shigeru MiyamotoShigeru Miyamoto
16 November 1952, Japanese
Video Game Designer, Artist

Sally RideSally Ride
26 May 1951, American
Physicist, Astronaut
Werner HeisenbergWerner Heisenberg
05 December 1901, German
Physicist

Jonas SalkJonas Salk
28 October 1914, American
Medical researcher
Gabe NewellGabe Newell
03 November 1962, American
Entrepreneur

Rosalind FranklinRosalind Franklin
25 July 1920, British
Chemist

Guido van RossumGuido van Rossum
31 January 1956, Dutch
Programmer
Zbigniew BrzezinskiZbigniew Brzezinski
28 March 1928, Polish, American
Former Diplomat, Political Scientist

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Tom LehrerTom Lehrer
09 April 1928, American
American musician
Grace HopperGrace Hopper
09 December 1906, American
Computer Scientist

Rita Levi-MontalciniRita Levi-Montalcini
22 April 1909, Italian
Neurologist

Dennis RitchieDennis Ritchie
09 September 1941, American
Computer Scientist

Vikram SarabhaiVikram Sarabhai
12 August 1919, Indian
Scientist
Richard StallmanRichard Stallman
16 March 1953, American
Software Programmer
Enrico FermiEnrico Fermi
29 September 1901, Italian, American
Nobel Laureate in Physics

Linus PaulingLinus Pauling
28 February 1901, American
Chemist, Biochemist

Norman BorlaugNorman Borlaug
25 March 1914, American
Father of the Green Revolution

Maria MontessoriMaria Montessori
31 August 1870, Italian
Physician and Educator
James WatsonJames Watson
06 April 1928, American
Molecular Biologist

Kurt GödelKurt Gödel
28 April 1906, American
Mathematician, Philosopher

Ken ThompsonKen Thompson
04 February 1943, American
Computer Scientist

Paul DiracPaul Dirac
08 August 1902, British
Physicist

Albert HofmannAlbert Hofmann
11 January 1906, Swiss
The First Person to Synthesize LSD
Subrahmanyan ChandrasekharSubrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
19 October 1910, Indian
 

Abdus SalamAbdus Salam
29 January 1926, Pakistani
Theoretical Physicist
Rachel CarsonRachel Carson
27 May 1907, American
Marine biologist

Klaus FuchsKlaus Fuchs
29 December 1911, German
Theoretical Physicist and Atomic Spy

Lewis Howard LatimerLewis Howard Latimer
04 September 1848, American
Inventor
Jared DiamondJared Diamond
10 September 1937, American
Scientist & Author

Donald KnuthDonald Knuth
10 January 1938, American
Computer Scientist
Kip ThorneKip Thorne
01 June 1940, American
Physicist

Francis CrickFrancis Crick
08 June 1916, British
Co-discoverer of the Structure of the DNA

William ShockleyWilliam Shockley
13 February 1910, American
Physicist

Paul ErdősPaul Erdős
26 March 1913, Hungarian
Mathematician

Edward TellerEdward Teller
15 January 1908, American
 
Stephen Jay GouldStephen Jay Gould
10 September 1941, American
 

M. S. SwaminathanM. S. Swaminathan
07 August 1925, Indian
Agricultural Scientist

John Archibald WheelerJohn Archibald Wheeler
09 July 1911, American
Physicist

Louis SlotinLouis Slotin
01 December 1910, Canadian
Physicist
Lord KelvinLord Kelvin
26 June 1824, British
Mathematician, Physicist

Vannevar BushVannevar Bush
11 March 1890, American
Engineer
Oswald SpenglerOswald Spengler
29 May 1880, German
Philosopher

Thomas KuhnThomas Kuhn
18 July 1922, American
Physicist

Andrei SakharovAndrei Sakharov
21 May 1921, Russian
The Father of Soviet nuclear bomb’
Robert H. GoddardRobert H. Goddard
05 October 1882, American
Physicist

E. O. WilsonE. O. Wilson
10 June 1929, American
Biologist
Robert BallardRobert Ballard
30 June 1942, American
Deep Sea Explorer

Arthur D. LevinsonArthur D. Levinson
31 March 1950, American
Microbiologist

Charles Sanders PeirceCharles Sanders Peirce
10 September 1839, American
Scientist, Philosopher
Steven ChuSteven Chu
28 February 1948, American
Former United States Secretary of Energy

Frédéric Joliot-CurieFrédéric Joliot-Curie
19 March 1900, French
Physicist
René GirardRené Girard
25 December 1923, French
Philosopher

Tommy RettigTommy Rettig
10 December 1941, American
Child Actor

Har Gobind KhoranaHar Gobind Khorana
09 January 1922, American
 

Alexander GrothendieckAlexander Grothendieck
28 March 1928, French
Mathematician
John BardeenJohn Bardeen
23 May 1908, American
Nobel Laureate in Physics
Lynn MargulisLynn Margulis
05 March 1938, American
Author

David BohmDavid Bohm
20 December 1917, Brazilian, British, American
Scientist

Josef Allen HynekJ. Allen Hynek
01 May 1910, American
Astronomer, Ufologist

Norbert WienerNorbert Wiener
26 November 1894, American
Father of Cybernetics
Wolfgang PauliWolfgang Pauli
25 April 1900, Austrian
Nobel Laureate in Physics

Frederick SangerFrederick Sanger
13 August 1918, British
Biochemist

Vladimir Petrovich DemikhovVladimir Demikhov
18 July 1916, Russian
Organ Transplant Pioneer

Fridtjof NansenFridtjof Nansen
10 October 1861, Norwegian
Explorer

Konstantin TsiolkovskyKonstantin Tsiolkovsky
17 September 1857, Russian
Russian-Soviet Rocket Scientist
Jack SteinbergerJack Steinberger
25 May 1921, American
Physicist

Lev Landau Lev Landau
22 January 1908, Russian
Physicist
Konrad LorenzKonrad Lorenz
07 November 1903, Austrian
Zoologist

Dorothy HodgkinDorothy Hodgkin
12 May 1910, British
Biochemist
Steven WeinbergSteven Weinberg
03 May 1933, American
 
Glen T. SeaborgGlenn T. Seaborg
19 April 1912, American
Chemist