Famous 19th Century Artists

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Find out more about the greatest 19th Century Artists, including Pablo Picasso, Rene Magritte, Amedeo Modigliani, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Auguste Rodin.
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Rabindranath Tagore
12
Birthdate: May 7, 1861
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Died: August 7, 1941

Rabindranath Tagore was an Indian polymath who contributed greatly to the fields of literature, art, and philosophy. Referred to as the Bard of Bengal, Tagore is credited with reshaping Bengali literature and music. The first non-European to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature, Tagore is also credited with composing the national anthems of India and Bangladesh.

 2 
William Blake
(Poet and Visual Artist of the Romantic Age)
William Blake
9
Birthdate: November 28, 1757
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Soho, London, England
Died: August 12, 1827
William Blake, author of The Songs of Innocence and of Experience, was a prominent figure of the early phase of the Romantic Age, known as the pre-Romantic era. Known for his visual artistry and poetry, he was also a staunch abolitionist and a forerunner of the "free love" movement.
 3 
Gustav Klimt
(Austrian Symbolist Painter and One of the Most Prominent Members of the ‘Vienna Secession’ Movement)
Gustav Klimt
5
Birthdate: July 14, 1862
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Baumgarten, Vienna, Austria
Died: February 6, 1918

Austrian symbolist painter, Gustav Klimt, was one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. His primary subject was the female body, and he produced numerous paintings, murals, sketches, and other art objects. He was known for his deliberate painting style. He successfully avoided personal scandal despite having an active sex life.

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 4 
Wassily Kandinsky
(Russian Painter, Art Theorist and a Pioneer in Abstract Art)
Wassily Kandinsky
7
Birthdate: December 16, 1866
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: December 13, 1944
Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky is considered the pioneer of abstract art. Known for notable works such as On White II and Study for Improvisation, he was a prominent artist of the Blue Rider Period and experimented with expressionism. He also earned a professorship at the University of Dorpat
 5 
Khalil Gibran
6
Birthdate: January 6, 1883
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Bsharri, Lebanon
Died: April 10, 1931

Lebanese author and poet Khalil Gibran is best remembered for his bestselling works The Prophet and Broken Wings. One of the leaders of the Mahjar movement of Arabic literature, he specialized in incorporating mythological and mystical symbols in his works and was inspired by Friedrich Nietzsche and William Blake.

Rene Magritte
5
Birthdate: November 21, 1898
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Lessines, Belgium
Died: August 15, 1967
Belgian surrealist artist René Magritte is remembered for his art that displayed alternate perceptions of reality. His creations were influenced by elements of pop art and minimalist art. Some of his most notable works were The Empire of Light and Les Amants. The Magritte Museum is dedicated to his work.
 7 
John Ruskin
(Art Critic and Painter)
John Ruskin
5
Birthdate: February 8, 1819
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: England
Died: January 20, 1900

The leading English art critic of the Victorian era, John Ruskin was a hugely influential figure in the latter half of the 19th century. Also a philosopher and prominent social thinker, he wrote on varied subjects like geology, architecture, education, botany, myth, ornithology, literature, and political economy. He founded the charitable trust Guild of St George.

 8 
Marc Chagall
(Artist)
Marc Chagall
6
Birthdate: July 6, 1887
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Lizona, Belarus
Died: March 28, 1985

Russian-French artist Marc Chagall, a key figure of modernism, had explored a wide range of media as an artist, from paintings and drawings to stained glass and ceramics. His major projects included the ceiling of the Paris Opéra, the Art Institute of Chicago, and the Jerusalem Windows of Israel.

 9 
Katsushika Hokusai
5
Birthdate: October 31, 1760
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Edo, Tokyo, Japan
Died: May 10, 1849

Katsushika Hokusai was a Japanese printmaker, ukiyo-e painter, and artist of the Edo period. He is best known as the creator of the monumental Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji, a series of landscape prints, which includes the iconic print, The Great Wave off Kanagawa. He is credited with transforming the ukiyo-e art form to include a much broader style of art.

 10 
Samuel Morse
(Inventor of Morse Code, Painter)
Samuel Morse
5
Birthdate: April 27, 1791
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States
Died: April 2, 1872
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Alphonse Mucha
4
Birthdate: July 24, 1860
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Ivancice, Czechia
Died: July 14, 1939
 12 
John Singer Sargent
(American Expatriate Artist and One of the Leading Portrait Painters of His Generation)
John Singer Sargent
5
Birthdate: January 12, 1856
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: April 14, 1925

John Singer Sargent, an artist active in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, was considered the "leading portrait painter of his generation." Prolific in his output, he created more than 2,000 watercolors and around 900 oil paintings. He also made numerous sketches and charcoal drawings. He painted with remarkable technical acumen and was internationally known for his expertise.   

 13 
Mary Cassatt
(Painter)
Mary Cassatt
5
Birthdate: May 22, 1844
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Allegheny
Died: June 14, 1926
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Henri Rousseau
5
Birthdate: May 21, 1844
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Laval, France
Died: September 2, 1910
 15 
Alexander Calder
(Sculptor, Painter)
Alexander Calder
5
Birthdate: July 22, 1898
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Lawnton
Died: November 11, 1976

Alexander Calder was an American sculptor best remembered for his innovative kinetic sculptures designed to use either motor, air currents, or other forces of nature. A multi-talented personality, Calder was also known for his paintings, miniatures, prints, jewelry design, theater set design, political posters, and tapestries and rugs. In 1977, he was honored with the prestigious Presidential Medal of Freedom.

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Gustave Doré
(Artist Best Known for His Prolific Output of Wood-Engravings and Illustrated Texts)
Gustave Doré
6
Birthdate: January 6, 1832
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Strasbourg, France
Died: January 23, 1883

Best known for his wood-engraving, Gustave Doré was a child prodigy who began his artwork at the tender age of 5. A master lithographer and caricaturist, he began his career with Journal pour Rire. He also worked on commissions from authors such as Cervantes, Milton, and Dante.

 17 
Charles Rennie Mackintosh
4
Birthdate: June 7, 1868
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Townhead, Glasgow, United Kingdom
Died: December 10, 1928

Charles Rennie Mackintosh was a Scottish architect, designer, and artist. He was married to fellow artist Margaret Macdonald, and they both were influential on the European design movements Art Nouveau and Secessionism. Mackintosh is considered one of the most important figures of Modern Style (British Art Nouveau style). In his later years, he worked largely as a watercolorist. 

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Marie Tussaud
(French Wax Sculpture Artist and Founder of 'Madame Tussauds', the Wax Museum in London)
Marie Tussaud
4
Birthdate: December 1, 1761
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Strasbourg, France
Died: April 16, 1850

Marie Tussaud was a French artist and sculptor best remembered for her wax sculptures. She founded Madame Tussauds, a wax museum, in London in 1835. The museum is a major tourist attraction today. As a young girl, she learned wax modeling from doctor cum wax modeler Philippe Curtius. In the ensuing years, she became a prominent sculptor.

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Stanford White
(Architect, Painter)
Stanford White
4
Birthdate: November 9, 1853
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: New York City
Died: June 25, 1906

Stanford White was an American architect who designed several important monuments including the Washington Square Arch. He also helped construct Nikola Tesla's Wardenclyffe Tower, which happens to be his last design. Although White was an influential and prominent designer of his time, he is best remembered for his illicit relationship with Evelyn Nesbit which has inspired several works of art.

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Grandma Moses
(Painter, Illustrator)
Grandma Moses
4
Birthdate: September 7, 1860
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: New York
Died: December 13, 1961

Anna Mary Robertson, better known as Grandma Moses, revolutionized American folk art with her iconic depictions of American rural life. After spending 15 years of her life working as a housekeeper, she deviated toward embroidery. A bout of arthritis made her switch to painting in her late 70s.

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Vanessa Bell
(Painter)
Vanessa Bell
4
Birthdate: May 30, 1879
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: London
Died: April 7, 1961
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Louis Comfort Tiffany
4
Birthdate: February 18, 1848
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: New York City, New York, United States
Died: January 17, 1933
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Raja Ravi Varma
4
Birthdate: April 29, 1848
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Kilimanoor, Travancore, India
Died: October 2, 1906

One of the greatest Indian painters of all time, Raja Ravi Varma is best remembered for mixing Indian mythological subjects with the Western historicist style of art. His painting skills made the king of Travancore his patron at 14. His best-known works include The Milkmaid and The Begum’s Bath.

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E. T. A. Hoffmann
4
Birthdate: January 24, 1776
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Königsberg, Germany
Died: June 25, 1822

E. T. A. Hoffmann was a German author, jurist, artist, composer, and music critic. His stories served as an inspiration and laid the foundation for The Tales of Hoffmann by Jacques Offenbach. The Nutcracker by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky is also based on Hoffmann's The Nutcracker and the Mouse King. Hoffmann is among the most influential authors of the Romantic Movement.

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
4
Birthdate: August 29, 1780
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Montauban, France
Died: January 14, 1867
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Berthe Morisot
4
Birthdate: January 14, 1841
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Bourges, France
Died: March 2, 1895
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Branwell Brontë
(Painter, Poet, Writer)
Branwell Brontë
4
Birthdate: June 26, 1817
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Yorkshire
Died: September 24, 1848
 28 
Taras Shevchenko
3
Birthdate: March 9, 1814
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Morintsy, Ukraine
Died: March 10, 1861
 29 
Thomas Cole
(Painter)
Thomas Cole
4
Birthdate: February 1, 1801
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Bolton, Lancashire, England
Died: February 11, 1848
 30 
Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi
(French Sculptor and Painter Best Known for Designing the 'Statue of Liberty')
Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi
4
Birthdate: August 2, 1834
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Colmar, France
Died: October 4, 1904

Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi was a French painter and sculptor remembered for designing the Statue of Liberty. He is also credited with designing other iconic statues like The Lion of Belfort and Marquis de Lafayette. In addition to being a sculptor, Bartholdi also played an important role in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, serving as a liaison officer to Giuseppe Garibaldi.

 31 
Käthe Kollwitz
(German Artist Known for Depicting Poverty, Hunger and War in Her Works 'The Weavers' and 'The Peasant War')
Käthe Kollwitz
4
Birthdate: July 8, 1867
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Königsberg, Russia
Died: April 22, 1945

Noted for series like Weavers’ Revolt and Peasants’ War, sculptor and graphic artist, Käthe Kollwitz, came in contact with the urban poor when she moved into Berlin's working class area. Touched by their plight, she soon started portraying them through her etchings, lithographs, woodcuts, and drawings, quickly becoming a powerful advocate for those suffering from social injustice, war, and inhumanity.

 32 
Paula Modersohn-Becker
(Painter and one of the most important representatives of early expressionism)
Paula Modersohn-Becker
4
Birthdate: February 8, 1876
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany
Died: November 21, 1907
 33 
Emily Carr
(Painter, Autobiographer)
Emily Carr
4
Birthdate: December 13, 1871
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Victoria
Died: March 2, 1945

Emily Carr was a Canadian writer and artist remembered for painting landscapes and authoring one of the earliest chronicles of life in British Columbia. Considered a Canadian icon, Carr was one of the first modernist painters to portray the spirit of Canada. In 2013, one of her paintings The Crazy Stair sold at a Toronto art auction for $3.39 million.

 34 
Peter Carl Fabergé
(Jeweller best known for the famous Fabergé eggs made in the style of genuine Easter eggs)
Peter Carl Fabergé
3
Birthdate: May 30, 1846
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died: September 24, 1920

Apart from being the official jeweler of the Russian imperial court, Peter Carl Fabergé also created some of the most innovative jewelry designs, such as the iconic Fabergé eggs. He had also launched workshops in London, Moscow, and Kiev. Later, hounded by the revolutionary government, he fled to Switzerland.

 35 
Rosa Bonheur
(Artist known best as a painter of animals)
Rosa Bonheur
3
Birthdate: March 16, 1822
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Bordeaux, France
Died: May 25, 1899

Rosa Bonheur was a French artist and sculptor whose paintings have been preserved in popular museums like the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Musée d'Orsay. An influential personality, Bonheur was widely regarded as the 19th century's most popular female painter. An open lesbian, Rosa Bonheur stood out as a groundbreaking individual both in her personal life and her career.

Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse
4
Birthdate: November 25, 1868
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Darmstadt, Germany
Died: October 9, 1937
Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse was the son of Louis IV and Princess Alice and the grandson of Queen Victoria of England. An art lover, he established the Darmstadt Artists’ Colony for artists and craftsmen, and patronized the artists of the art nouveau Jugendstil movement. 
 37 
Albert Bierstadt
4
Birthdate: January 7, 1830
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Solingen, Germany
Died: February 18, 1902

Landscape painter Albert Bierstadt immortalized the natural attractions of the American West, such as the Rocky Mountains, in his works. One of the finest painters of the Hudson River school, he specialized in paintings that showcased bright lighting, or luminism, and created over 500 paintings throughout his career.

 38 
Lili Elbe
(Danish Painter & Transgender Woman who was Among the Early Recipients of Sex Reassignment Surgery)
Lili Elbe
6
Birthdate: December 28, 1882
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Vejle, Denmark
Died: September 13, 1931
Danish painter Lili Elbe, a transgender woman, became one of the first to undergo a sex reassignment surgery. She passed away after a failed uterus transplant surgery. Her autobiography, Man into Woman: An Authentic Record of a Change of Sex, was released posthumously. She inspired the novel The Danish Girl.
 39 
Djuna Barnes
(Artist)
Djuna Barnes
3
Birthdate: June 12, 1892
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Storm King Mountain, New York, United States
Died: June 18, 1982
 40 
John Tenniel
(Illustrator)
John Tenniel
4
Birthdate: February 28, 1820
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Bayswater, London, England
Died: February 25, 1914
 41 
Walter Sickert
3
Birthdate: May 31, 1860
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Munich
Died: January 22, 1942

Part of the Camden Town Group of painters, who showcased both Impressionist and Post-Impressionist art, German-born British painter Walter Sickert liked painting both people and scenes. His work Jack the Ripper's Bedroom gave rise to speculations that he could have been either the killer or his accomplice.

 42 
Franz Marc
(German Painter, Printmaker and One of the Key Figures of German Expressionism)
Franz Marc
3
Birthdate: February 8, 1880
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Munich, Germany
Died: March 4, 1916

Best known as one of the founders of the German Expressionist group The Blue Rider, German painter Franz Marc mostly depicted animals through his works. The Tower of Blue Horses and Yellow Cow are two of his notable works. Children and the mentally disabled also appeared as his subjects.

 43 
Thomas Hart Benton
3
Birthdate: April 15, 1889
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Missouri
Died: January 19, 1975
 44 
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
(Expressionist painter and printmaker and one of the founders of the artists group Die Brücke)
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
3
Birthdate: May 6, 1880
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Aschaffenburg, Germany
Died: June 15, 1938

One of the pioneers of Expressionism, German painter Ernst Ludwig Kirchner co-established the artists’ group Die Brücke, or The Bridge. His iconic works such as Girl under Japanese Umbrella and Street, Berlin displayed psychological and erotic themes. Declared a "degenerate" by the Nazis, he later committed suicide.

 45 
Jean-François Millet
3
Birthdate: October 4, 1814
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Gréville-Hague, La Hague, France
Died: January 20, 1875
Soapy Smith
3
Birthdate: November 2, 1860
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Georgia
Died: July 8, 1898
 47 
Gertrude Jekyll
(Horticulturist, Painter, Gardener, Non-fiction writer, Botanist, Architect)
Gertrude Jekyll
3
Birthdate: November 29, 1843
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: London
Died: December 8, 1932

Landscape architect Gertrude Jekyll was born into an affluent family and grew up in a refined environment, learning music and traveling. Initially interested in painting, she gave it up to focus on gardening when she developed eyesight problems. She built around 400 gardens and also collaborated with Sir Edwin Lutyens.

 48 
Joaquín Sorolla
3
Birthdate: February 27, 1863
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Valencia, Spain
Died: August 10, 1923

Born into poverty and orphaned at age 2, Impressionist painter Joaquín Sorolla later traveled to Rome to acquire training in painting. He began his career painting on themes of historical and social relevance and later also excelled in landscapes and portraits. Sad Inheritance remains one of his best works.

 49 
Frederic Remington
(Sculptor, Writer, Painter)
Frederic Remington
3
Birthdate: October 4, 1861
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: New York
Died: December 26, 1909

Frederic Remington was an American sculptor, painter, illustrator, and writer. Best remembered for his depictions of the Western United States, Remington is a member of several cowboy halls of fame, including the Texas Trail Hall of Fame. Frederic Remington was regarded as one of the most successful and popular Western illustrators during the late 19th century and early 20th century.

 50 
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
(One of the Most Popular Victorian Painters of 19th Century)
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
3
Birthdate: January 8, 1836
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Dronrijp, Netherlands
Died: June 25, 1912

Lawrence Alma-Tadema was a Dutch classical subject painter whose painting about luxury and decadence of the Roman Empire became very well known. Regarded a prominent Victorian painter, he was successful, admired, famous and highly paid during his lifetime. However, his popularity waned after his death and saw a resurgence only in the second half of the 20th century.