**Birthdate:**March 14, 1879

**Sun Sign:**Pisces

**Birthplace:**Ulm, Germany

**Died:**April 18, 1955

Vote for Your Favourite German Scientists

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1

Albert Einstein

(One of the Greatest Physicists of All Time, Best Known for Developing the Theory of Relativity)

Deemed as the most influential physicist of the 20th century, the German-born physicist Albert Einstein was one of the greatest minds to have ever lived. Even his name is now synonymous with the term genius. The father of Modern Physics is credited with developing the theory of relativity and explaining the photoelectric effect. The latter won him the Nobel Prize.

2

Carl F. Gauss

(One of the Greatest Mathematicians of All Tim)

German mathematician and physicist Carl Friedrich Gauss is remembered for his work in math and science. Known as the *Princeps mathematicorum*, he laid down tenets such as the *Gauss's Law*. He had exhibited his talent since an early age and had completed writing *Disquisitiones Arithmeticae* by 21.

3

Werner Heisenberg

(German Theoretical Physicist and One of the Main Pioneers of the Theory of Quantum Mechanics)

German theoretical physicist Werner Heisenberg is best known for pioneering quantum mechanics. He received the 1932 **Nobel Prize** in Physics. He had also helped Germany plan nuclear weapon strategies during **World War II **and was the director of what is now known as the **Max Planck Institute for Physics**.

4

Johannes Kepler

(Astronomer Best Known for his Laws of Plantery Motion)

This 17th-century German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer is remembered for his pathbreaking work on optics. He invented a developed version of the refracting telescope. He also laid down *Kepler's laws of planetary motion *and wrote *Astronomia Nova, Harmonices Mundi, *and *Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae*.

5

Max Planck

(German Theoretical Physicist and Originator of 'Quantum Theory')

German theoretical physicist Max Planck is remembered for originating the *quantum theory of physics*, which earned him the 1918 **Nobel Prize in Physics**. He laid down concepts such as the *Planck constant* and the *Planck postulate*. The **Kaiser Wilhelm Society** was later renamed **Max Planck Society **in his honor.

6

Max Born

(German Physicist Who Won Nobel Prize for His Contribution to Quantum Mechanics)

From being home-schooled for being too sickly to attend school, Max Born went on to win the **Nobel Prize in Physics** for his contribution to quantum mechanics. Being a Jew, with the rise of the **Nazi **power, he lost his professorship at the **University of Göttingen**, and moved to Cambridge.

7

David Hilbert

(Mathematician)

German mathematician David Hilbert was first drawn to math inspired by his mother, who was a budding math enthusiast. He contributed to a host of concepts, theories, and postulates, such as *Hilbert space*, *Hilbert's program*, and *Hilbert's problems*. He died in oblivion, with a handful of people at his funeral.

8

Fritz Haber

(Chemist)

Fritz Haber was a German chemist who was honored with the prestigious **Nobel Prize in Chemistry** for inventing the Haber-Bosch process. The process is used widely to synthesize ammonia from hydrogen gas and nitrogen gas. For his pioneering work in weaponizing poisonous gases like chlorine during World War I, Haber is referred to as the **father of chemical warfare**.

9

Georg Cantor

(Mathematician)

Georg Cantor is remembered as the man behind the set theory of mathematics. Not known to many, he was a skilled violinist, too. He was one of the first to explore infinity. His final years were riddled with mental ailments, when he believed Shakespeare’s plays were written by Francis Bacon.

10

Emmy Noether

(German Mathematician Who Made Many Important Contributions to Abstract Algebra)

Emmy Noether was a German mathematician best remembered for her contributions to abstract algebra. She is credited with discovering *Noether's theorem*, which is regarded as a fundamental theorem in mathematical physics. One of the most important mathematicians of her generation and **the most important woman in mathematics history**, Emmy Noether developed theories of algebras, fields, and rings.

11

Heinrich Hertz

(German Physicist Who Discovered the Existence of Electromagnetic Waves)

Heinrich Hertz was a German physicist best remembered for proving the existence of electromagnetic waves with conclusive evidence. For his contributions, Hertz has been honored around the world by a number of countries, including Japan, Russia, and Germany. In 1930, the *International Electrotechnical Commission* established hertz (Hz) as the SI unit for frequency.

12

William Herschel

(Astronomer Known for His Discovery of 'Uranus' and 'Infrared Radiation')

William Herschel was a German-born British astronomer and composer. He pioneered the use of astronomical spectrophotometry and discovered infrared radiation. Impressed by his work, King George III appointed him the Court Astronomer. Herschel often collaborated with his sister, Caroline Lucretia Herschel, a fellow astronomer. In 1816, he was made a Knight of the Royal Guelphic Order.

13

Bernhard Riemann

(Mathematician)

Bernhard Riemann was a German mathematician best remembered for his contributions to number theory, analysis, and differential geometry. His paper on the prime-counting function, which was published in 1859, is considered one of the most influential papers in the history of analytic number theory. Riemann is widely regarded as one of the greatest mathematicians ever.

14

Juliane Koepcke

(Lone Survivor of 1971 LANSA Plane Crash)

Juliane Koepcke is a German Peruvian mammalogist. She is well-known for being the only survivor of the *Líneas Aéreas Nacionales S.A. Flight *508 plane crash; she survived ten days in the Amazon rainforest after surviving a fall of 9843 feet while strapped to her airplane seat. Her story inspired films like *Miracles Still Happen* (1974) and* Wings of Hope* (1998).

15

Gottfried W. Leibniz

(German Mathematician Who Developed the Present Day Notation for the Differential and Integral Calculus)

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a significant logician, mathematician, and philosopher of the **Enlightenment era**. He laid down his own concepts of differential and integral calculus. He was behind the invention of the mass-produced mechanical calculator and modified the binary number system. He also laid down a separate library cataloging system.

16

Caroline Herschel

(Astronomer)

Caroline Herschel was a German astronomer who is credited with the discovery of many comets, such as *35P/Herschel-Rigollet*, which is named in her honor. In 1828, Herschel became the first woman to be honored with a *Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society*. She was also the first female scientist to receive a salary.

17

Georg Ohm

(Physicist & Mathematician)

Georg Ohm was a German mathematician and physicist. He is credited with discovering the proportionality between the voltage applied through a conductor and the subsequent electric current, which came to be known as ** Ohm's law**. His work earned him the prestigious

18

Otto Hahn

(Chemist)

19

Alfred Wegener

(German Climatologist and Geophysicist Known for His 'Continental Drift Theory')

In the early 1900s, meteorologist Alfred Wegener did not find too many takers for his theory that all the continents of the world had initially been a single mass named *Pangaea* and that continental drift had caused them to split apart. Wegener died on his fourth expedition in Greenland.

20

Hermann von Helmholtz

(Physicist and Physician)

A descendant of Pennsylvania founder William Penn through his mother, Hermann von Helmholtz studied medicine, pushed by his father, in spite of being interested in the natural sciences. Best known for his law of conservation of energy, he coalesced the fields of medicine, physiology, math, and physics in his studies.

21

Lise Meitner

(Austrian-Swedish Physicist Who Discovered the Element Protactinium)

Lise Meitner was an Austrian-Swedish physicist best remembered for her contributions that led to the discoveries of nuclear fission and the element protactinium. Nicknamed the **German Marie Curie*** *by Albert Einstein, Lise Meitner became the second woman in the world to receive a doctorate in physics in 1905. In 1997, chemical element *109 meitnerium* was named in her honor.

22

Gustav Kirchhoff

(Physicist)

Gustav Kirchhoff was a German physicist who is credited with coining the term *black-body radiation*. He is best remembered for his contribution to the basic understanding of spectroscopy, electrical circuits, and the emanation of black-body radiation. In 1862, he received the prestigious *Rumford Medal.* The *Bunsen-Kirchhoff Award* is named after Gustav Kirchhoff and German chemist Robert Bunsen.

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23

Ernst Haeckel

(Zoologist & Evolutionist Who Was a Strong Proponent of 'Darwinism')

Ernst Haeckel had initially practiced medicine before he gained an interest in Charles Darwin’s theory and began exploring zoology and related fields. He not only coined terms such as *ecology*, but also named numerous species and created a genealogical tree. He drew numerous figures of animals and sea creatures, too.

24

Theodor Schwann

(Physiologist)

Theodor Schwann was a German physiologist and physician best remembered for his important contributions to biology. He is credited with discovering the Schwann cells, which is named after him. He is also credited with discovering pepsin and the organic nature of yeast. Theodor Schwann also invented the term *metabolism*.

25

Paul Ehrlich

(Scientist)

German scientist Paul Ehrlich is remembered for his contribution to immunology, which also won him a **Nobel Prize**. Known as the pioneer of chemotherapy, he also discovered the first-known treatment of syphilis. Born into a business family, he was introduced to the method of studying cells by his pathologist uncle.

26

Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi

(German Mathematician Who Founded the Theory of Elliptic Functions)

Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi was a German mathematician best remembered for his contributions to differential equations, dynamics, number theory, determinants, and elliptic functions. He is the first Jewish mathematician to work as a professor at a German university. Jacobi has a crater on the Moon named after him in recognition of his contribution to science.

27

Robert Bunsen

(Chemist)

Chemist Robert Bunsen paved the path for spectrum analysis with his discovery that every element emits a light of a particular wavelength. He also co-developed and lent his name to the *Bunsen burner*. He almost died of arsenic poisoning and lost sight in his right eye in a laboratory explosion.

28

Justus von Liebig

(German Chemist Who is Considered One of the Principal Founders of Organic Chemistry)

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German chemist Justus von Liebig is best known for his research on organic compounds and his contribution to biochemistry and agriculture. The **Copley Medal**-winning scientist initially studied pharmacy but later switched to chemistry. As a professor, he stressed on laboratory-based teaching of chemistry and separating it from pharmacy, opposing traditional methods.

29

Karl Weierstrass

(Mathematician)

Karl Weierstrass was a German mathematician best remembered for his significant contributions to mathematics. Often referred to as the *father of modern analysis,* Weierstrass proved the *Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem* and the *intermediate value theorem*. He also authorized the definition of* continuous function*. The asteroid *14100 Weierstrass* and the lunar crater *Weierstrass *are named after him.

30

Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl

(One of the Most Famous and Skilled Mathematicians of the 20th Century)

Hermann Klaus Hugo Wey is remembered for his contribution to both physics and math. He was one of the first scientists to think of merging the concepts of electromagnetism and relativity. He moved from the **University of Göttingen** to **Princeton** in the wake of the rise of the **Nazi** reign.

31

John B. Goodenough

(Physicist Known for Pioneering Work in the Development of Lithium-Ion Battery)

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John B. Goodenough is an American solid-state physicist and materials scientist. He is credited with developing the lithium-ion battery. In 2019, he became the oldest person to receive a **Nobel Prize** when he was honored with the prestigious award for his work on lithium-ion batteries. He is also a recipient of the* Copley Medal* and the *National Medal of Science.*

32

August KekulÃ©

(German Organic Chemist Known for His Theory of Chemical Structure and the Tetravalence of Carbon)

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August Kekulé was a German organic chemist. Regarded as one of the most important chemists in Europe, Kekulé is credited with founding the theory of chemical structure, including the Kekulé structure of benzene. Kekulé is also credited with teaching future **Nobel Prize** winners, Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff Jr., Hermann Emil Louis Fischer, and Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer.

33

Otto Heinrich Warburg

(German Physiologist, Medical Doctor and Winner of the 1931 Nobel Prize in Medicine)

Otto Heinrich Warburg was a German medical doctor and physiologist. In 1931, his discovery of the nature of the respiratory enzyme earned him the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He also played an important role during World War I* *where he served as an officer in the cavalry regiment; he was honored with the *Iron Cross *for bravery.

34

Hermann Minkowski

(German Mathematician and Professor Who Created and Developed the Geometry of Numbers)

Hermann Minkowski was a mathematician who served as a professor at the *University of Göttingen*, the *University of Königsberg*, and the *University of Zurich*. He is credited with creating and developing the geometry of numbers. He is also credited with using geometrical methods to resolve problems in the theory of relativity, mathematical physics, and number theory.

35

Peter Scholze

(German Mathematician)

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36

Karl Schwarzschild

(German Physicist and Astronomer)

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Karl Schwarzschild was a German astronomer and physicist. He is remembered for his contributions to the general theory of relativity; Schwarzschild came up with the first exact solution to the Albert Einstein field equations. He also contributed immensely to the theory of black holes.

37

Friedrich WÃ¶hler

(German chemist)

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Friedrich Wöhler was a German chemist best remembered for his contribution to the field of inorganic chemistry. He was the first person to isolate the chemical elements yttrium and beryllium in pure metallic form. Friedrich Wöhler was also the first person to prepare many inorganic compounds such as silicon nitride and silane.

38

Arnold Sommerfeld

(Physicist)

German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld initially taught math and theoretical physics and later came to be known for his groundbreaking work on atomic and quantum physics and wave mechanics. He also laid down the *magnetic quantum number*. Many of the doctoral and post-doctoral students he supervised later won the **Nobel Prize**.

39

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach

(German Physician & Naturalist Considered to be a Main Founder of 'Zoology' and 'Anthropology' as Comparative, Scientific Disciplines)

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A pioneer of physical anthropology, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach laid down one of the first racial classification systems for humans after studying human skulls, dividing mankind into five racial groups. Born into a family of academics, he was a prodigy. He was against scientific racism, though his theory promoted the degenerative hypothesis.

40

Carl Zeiss

(Scientific instrument maker)

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41

Wilhelm Ostwald

(Chemist)

Wilhelm Ostwald was a Baltic German philosopher and chemist who is credited with co-founding the field of physical chemistry. A polymath, Ostwald made significant contributions to philosophy, art, and politics, especially after his retirement from academic life. His contributions to the fields of reaction velocities, chemical equilibria, and catalysis earned him the 1909 *Nobel Prize in Chemistry.*

42

Johann Georg Faust

(astrologer, astronomer)

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Johann Georg Faust was an astrologer, magician, and itinerant alchemist of the German Renaissance. Faust is the subject of a local folk legend which claims that Johann Georg Faust managed to make a deal with the devil. His story was adapted by Christopher Marlowe in his 1604 Elizabethan tragedy, *The Tragical History of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus.*

43

Matthias Jakob Schleiden

(German Botanist & Co-founder of 'Cell Theory')

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Matthias Jakob Schleiden was a German botanist who is credited with co-founding cell theory along with Rudolf Virchow and Theodor Schwann. He is also remembered for his service as a professor at the* University of Dorpat* from the mid 1860s.

44

Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet

(German Mathematician Who Made Valuable Contributions to Number Theory, Analysis and Mechanics)

German mathematician Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet is remembered for his invaluable contribution to *number theory*. He pioneered the concept of a* function*, expressed through the equation *y = f (x)*. Though his parents wanted him to become a merchant, his mastery of math made them change their minds.

45

Joachim Sauer

(German Quantum Chemist and Professor Emeritus of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry)

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Joachim Sauer is a German professor emeritus of theoretical and physical chemistry at the prestigious *Humboldt University of Berlin*. Sauer is an active research scientist in computational and quantum chemistry. His work has helped understand the structures and activities of catalysts like zeolites. Joachim Sauer has won several prestigious awards such as the *Schrödinger Medal *and *Liebig Medal.*

46

Philipp Lenard

(Physicist)

Philipp Lenard was a German physicist whose work on cathode rays earned him the 1905 Nobel Prize for Physics. He is credited with making certain discoveries that led to the understanding of the* ***Photoelectric*** *effect. An ardent supporter of the Nazi ideology, Philipp Lenard was regarded as a role model for the* Aryan Physics* movement in Nazi Germany.

47

Richard Dedekind

(German Mathematician Known for His Important Contributions to Number Theory, Abstract Algebra and Modern Set Theory)

German mathematician Richard Dedekind is best remembered for his ideas on the real number and infinity. Initially interested in subjects such as physics and chemistry, he later deviated to math. He taught at various institutes and was awarded honorary doctorates from universities of Zurich, Oslo, and Braunschweig.

48

Clara Immerwahr

(German Chemist)

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Clara Immerwahr was a German chemist who became the first German woman to receive a doctorate in chemistry. Apart from being a chemist, Clara Immerwahr was also a pacifist and a women's rights activist. Her work, marriage with the popular chemist Fritz Haber, and her suicide at the age of 44 have inspired films, novels, and TV series.

49

Friedrich Bessel

(German Astronomer, Mathematician, Physicist, and Geodesist)

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Friedrich Bessel was a German mathematician, astronomer, geodesist, and physicist. He was the first astronomer to use the method of parallax in order to determine the distance of a star from the sun. Bessel was a much-respected figure during his time. He was honored with the *Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society.*

50

Hermann Oberth

(German Physicist and Rocket Pioneer)

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Austro-Hungarian-born German physicist and engineer Hermann Oberth is regarded as one of the founding fathers of astronautics and rocketry along with Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Robert Esnault-Pelterie, and Robert Goddard. His classic book *The Rocket into Planetary Space* gained him widespread attention. Oberth garnered a patent for his rocket design and launched his first rocket near Berlin, Germany, on May 7, 1931.