Famous 20th Century Presidents

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Vote for Your Favourite 20th Century Presidents

 1 
Barack Obama
(44th President of the United States (2009-2017))

Barack Obama
68
Birthdate: August 4, 1961
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Honolulu, Hawaii, United States

Former President of the United States, Barack Obama, has the distinction of being the first African-American president of the nation. A civil rights attorney and an academic, he has been credited with bringing about a significant improvement in America’s reputation abroad. His efforts to strengthen international diplomacy was recognized with the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize.

 2 
Theodore Roosevelt
(26th President of the United States (1901-1909))

Theodore Roosevelt
10
Birthdate: October 27, 1858
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: New York, United States
Died: January 6, 1919

The 26th president of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt is generally ranked as one of the five best presidents of the country. A man of many talents, he was a politician, conservationist, naturalist, and writer. He supported  Progressive Era policies in the early 20th century and championed his "Square Deal" domestic policies.

 3 
Woodrow Wilson
(28th President of the United States)

Woodrow Wilson
10
Birthdate: December 28, 1856
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Staunton, Virginia, United States
Died: February 3, 1924

From presidential cabin of Princeton University to presidential office of the White House, Woodrow Wilson ushered a series of progressive reforms that changed the American politics forever. The 28th President of USA, Woodrow Wilson introduced several ground-breaking policies including the Federal Reserve Act. He played a key role in founding the first intergovernmental organisation—the League of Nations—for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

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 4 
John F. Kennedy
(35th President of the United States (1961 - 1963))

John F. Kennedy
11
Birthdate: May 29, 1917
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Brookline, Massachusetts, United States
Died: November 22, 1963

The 35th President of the United States, John F Kennedy was a charismatic leader who, during his tenure, ably dealt with Cuban missile crisis, proposed public service programmes and lent support to the growing civil rights movement. Before becoming one of the youngest Presidents of the country, he served in the navy, U.S. House of Representatives and the US Senate.

 5 
Ronald Reagan
(40th President of the United States (1981-1989))

Ronald Reagan
15
Birthdate: February 6, 1911
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Tampico, Illinois, United States
Died: June 5, 2004

An actor turned union leader turned politician, Ronald Wilson Reagan served as the 40th president of America. Hailed for his public speaking and communication skills, Reagan is one of the most popular Presidents of USA, mainly due to his ‘America First’ economic policies which led to a decrease in inflation and unemployment rates during his tenure.

 6 
F. D. Roosevelt
(32nd President of the United States)

F. D. Roosevelt
9
Birthdate: January 30, 1882
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Hyde Park, New York, United States
Died: April 12, 1945

F D Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States and was in the office from 1933 to1945. Qualified as a lawyer, he entered politics as an ambitious young man, inspired by his relative Theodore Roosevelt, a fellow politician. F D Roosevelt had an illustrious political career and is rated by scholars among the nation's greatest presidents.

 7 
George H. W. Bush
(President of the United States (1989-93))

George H. W. Bush
21
Birthdate: June 12, 1924
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Milton, Massachusetts, United States
Died: November 30, 2018

The 41st president of the U.S, George H.W. Bush also twice served as the vice president of the country and held various other important political positions before assuming the presidency. During his presidency, he led successful military operation against Panama and Iraq which made him popular, but domestic issues prevented him from winning a second term at the office.

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 8 
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(34th President of the United States (1953–1961))

Dwight D. Eisenhower
8
Birthdate: October 14, 1890
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Denison, Texas, United States
Died: March 28, 1969

The 34th president of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower held office from 1953 to 1961. An army officer During World War II, he was part of many successful operations. He signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957, and his two terms as president saw widespread economic prosperity in USA. He is ranked high among American presidents.

 9 
Jimmy Carter
(39th President of the United States (1977 -1981))

Jimmy Carter
10
Birthdate: October 1, 1924
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Plains, Georgia, United States

Jimmy Carter, the 39th President of USA, is one of the rare Presidents whose legacy continues even after leaving office. He is known as a champion of human rights and a mediator of peace efforts across the world. His humanitarian works earned him the prestigious Nobel Peace Prize in 2002.

 10 
Richard Nixon
(President of the United States (1969-74))

Richard Nixon
14
Birthdate: January 9, 1913
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Yorba Linda, California, United States
Died: April 22, 1994

Richard Nixon is the only American president in the history so far to resign from the office. His name is synonymous with the infamous Watergate scandal which led to his resignation. But his regime saw several positives too, such as end to the U.S involvement in the Vietnam War, improvement in the relationship with Soviet Union and China, and the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency.

 11 
A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
(Aerospace Scientist & 11th President of India)

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
16
Birthdate: October 15, 1931
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Died: July 27, 2015
A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, India’s 11th president, had earlier been an aerospace scientist at DRDO and ISRO. Known as the “People’s President” and the “Missile Man of India,” he was instrumental in India's Pokhran-II nuclear tests. He died of a cardiac arrest while delivering a lecture at IIM Shillong.

 12 
Harry S. Truman
(33rd President of the United States (1945 – 53))

Harry S. Truman
11
Birthdate: May 8, 1884
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Lamar, Missouri, United States
Died: December 26, 1972

Harry Truman was the US president from 1945 to 1953 and his administration successfully guided the US economy through the post-war challenges. He established the Truman Doctrine to contain Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War. He authorised the first and only use of nuclear weapons during a war when he sanctioned bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945.

 13 
Rodrigo Duterte
(President of Philippines)

Rodrigo Duterte
15
Birthdate: March 28, 1945
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Maasin, Philippines

The current president of the Philippines Rodrigo Duterte took office at age 71, making him the oldest president of the country. His war on drugs has had a major impact in the Philippines. Known for his straightforward attitude in public, Duterte has admitted to killing three men in 1988 in an attempt to save a girl from being raped.

 14 
Lyndon B. Johnson
(36th President of the United States (1963 - 1969))

Lyndon B. Johnson
15
Birthdate: August 27, 1908
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Stonewall, Texas, United States
Died: January 22, 1973

The era of Lyndon B Johnson, the 36th president of the United States, saw the passage of many important laws pertaining to civil rights, gun control and social security.  Also, his ‘war on poverty’ helped millions to rise above the poverty line. However, he was criticised for the escalation of the Vietnam War.

 15 
Gerald Ford
(38th President of the United States (1974 - 1977))

Gerald Ford
13
Birthdate: July 14, 1913
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Omaha, Nebraska, United States
Died: December 26, 2006

Gerald Ford Jr served as the 38th president of US from August 1974 to January 1977. His 895 day-long stint as the American president is the shortest in US history for any president who did not die in office. In a controversial act, he granted a presidential pardon to his predecessor Richard Nixon for his role in the Watergate scandal.

 16 
Herbert Hoover
(31st President of the United States)

Herbert Hoover
7
Birthdate: August 10, 1874
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: West Branch, Iowa, United States
Died: October 20, 1964

The 31st president of the United States, Herbert Hoover, was sworn into the office in 1929, the year the Great Depression struck the American economy. Earlier, Hoover was a successful mining engineer and had earned a reputation of a humanitarian who fed numerous Europeans during and after WWI. His policies during the depression, though, could not provide relief to people.

 17 
Nelson Mandela
(President of South Africa (1994-1999))

Nelson Mandela
18
Birthdate: July 18, 1918
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Mvezo, South Africa
Died: December 5, 2013
Revered as the Father of the Nation by the South Africans, Nelson Mandela was a statesman who rose to become the country’s first black head of state. He reconciled a nation divided along racial lines and dismantled the legacy of apartheid.

 18 
Mikhail Gorbachev
(President of the Soviet Union (1990-91))

Mikhail Gorbachev
12
Birthdate: March 2, 1931
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Privol'noe, Russia

Born into a poor peasant family, Mikhail Gorbachev went on to become one of the most influential figures of the Soviet Union. He served in various positions, most notably as the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. He is regarded as one of the most prominent personalities of the 20th century.

 19 
Calvin Coolidge
(30th President of the United States)

Calvin Coolidge
9
Birthdate: July 4, 1872
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Plymouth, Vermont, United States
Died: January 5, 1933

The 30th president of the United States, Calvin Coolidge started his career as a lawyer before becoming an influential American politician. A man of few words with a dry sense of humor, Calvin Coolidge represented the middle class, which worked in his favor. Despite being a reclusive politician, Coolidge gave 520 press conferences, making himself available to reporters quite often.

 20 
Grover Cleveland
(The 22nd and 24th President of the United States)

Grover Cleveland
9
Birthdate: March 18, 1837
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Caldwell, New Jersey, United States
Died: June 24, 1908

Grover Cleveland, a Democratic Party member, was the President of the United States from 1885 to 1889 and then again from 1893 to 1897. He is known for his campaign for political reform and fiscal conservatism. However, he was unable to deal with the economic depression in his second term as President, which led to massive decline in his popularity.

 21 
Donald Trump
(45th President of the United States (2017 - 2021))

Donald Trump
66
Birthdate: June 14, 1946
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: New York, United States

The former President of the United States, Donald Trump was arguably the most controversial president in the American history. He has been characterised as racist and his actions and policies divided America like never before. He lost his bid for re-election to Joe Biden in a bitterly fought election .

 22 
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
(Founder of the Republic of Turkey,)

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
11
Birthdate: May 19, 1881
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Thessaloniki
Died: November 10, 1938
Kemal Atatürk, known as the founding father of the Republic of Turkey, was its first president. He unified Turkey into a secular country and invested in education and women’s rights. He also popularized the Latin-based Turkish alphabet and made minorities speak Turkish in public. His policies are known as “Kemalism.” 

 23 
William McKinley
(25th President of the United States (1897 - 1901))

William McKinley
9
Birthdate: January 29, 1843
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Niles, Ohio, United States
Died: September 14, 1901

The 25th President of the United States, William McKinley led America to victory in the Spanish-American War. During his presidency, he played a major role in promoting American industry by raising protective tariffs, which in turn boosted the country's economic growth. He also played a key role in the American Civil War.

 24 
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
(2nd President of India (1962 – 1967), 1st Vice President of India (1952 - 1962))

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
10
Birthdate: September 5, 1888
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Thiruttani, Tamil Nadu, India
Died: April 17, 1975

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was the second President of India and served from 1962 to 1967. He is regarded as one of India’s most eminent scholars and wrote extensively on Indian philosophy and religion. Lifelong he defended Hindu traditions and culture against criticism from the West. September 5, his birthday, is observed as Teachers Day in India, in his honour.

 25 
Ferdinand Marcos
(Former President of the Philippines)

Ferdinand Marcos
13
Birthdate: September 11, 1917
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, Philippine Islands
Died: September 28, 1989

Ferdinand Marcos served as the tenth president of the Philippines. Marcos' rule was marked by brutality, extravagance, and corruption, making him the most controversial leader of his generation. Deemed a kleptocrat, Marcos' dictatorship caused an economic collapse during which the country suffered greatly. He was removed from power in 1986 after a series of protests called the People Power Revolution.

 26 
Charles de Gaulle
(Former French President & Army Officer Who Led 'Free France' against Nazi Germany in World War II)

Charles de Gaulle
8
Birthdate: November 22, 1890
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Lille, France
Died: November 9, 1970

Charles de Gaulle was a French statesman and army officer. Charles de Gaulle fought against Nazi Germany in the Second World War by leading the Free French Forces. He also worked towards re-establishing democracy in France. He founded the Fifth Republic, France's current republican system, and rewrote the Constitution of France. He then served as the president of France.

 27 
Warren G. Harding
(29th President of the United States)

Warren G. Harding
10
Birthdate: November 2, 1865
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Blooming Grove, Ohio, United States
Died: August 2, 1923

The 29th President of the United States, Warren G. Harding assumed office in 1921 shortly after the end of WWI and became very popular. He died in 1923 while still in office. Later, various scandals that occured during his presidency were uncovered and his image suffered a serious setback. His presidency is today ranked amongst the worst in the American history.

 28 
William Howard Taft
(27th President of the United States)

William Howard Taft
10
Birthdate: September 15, 1857
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
Died: March 8, 1930

The 27th president of the United States, William Howard Taft also served as the tenth Chief Justice of the US; he is the only person in the history of the US to have held both the offices. He had a great impact as chief justice and has been regarded as the greatest US chief justices of all time.

 29 
Volodymyr Zelenskiy
(6th President of Ukraine (Since 2019))

Volodymyr Zelenskiy
9
Birthdate: January 25, 1978
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Kryvyi Rih, Ukraine
Volodymyr Zelensky is the incumbent president of Ukraine. A qualified lawyer, he initially owned a production company. He also played the Ukrainian president in the series Servant of the People and was a comedian, screenwriter, director, and producer. His secret phone call with Donald Trump led to Trump’s first impeachment.

 30 
Bill Clinton
(President of the United States (1993-2001))

Bill Clinton
23
Birthdate: August 19, 1946
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Hope, Arkansas, United States

Bill Cinton was the 42nd president of the United States who served for two terms from 1993 to 2001. He was the third-youngest president in the American history and presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history. The second-term of his presidency was rocked by the infamous Monica Lewinsky sex-scandal for which he was impeached and later acquitted.

 31 
Hugo Chavez
(Former President of Venezuela)

Hugo Chavez
8
Birthdate: July 28, 1954
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Sabaneta, Venezuela
Died: March 5, 2013
Hugo Chavez was the president of Venezuela from 1999 till 2013. Though elected for another term, he died of complications due to cancer before being sworn in. He is remembered for his involvement in the MBR-200 and for establishing the Fifth Republic Movement. His policies are known as “Chavismo.”

 32 
Vladimir Putin
(President of Russia (2000 - 2008, Incumbent Since 2012))

Vladimir Putin
31
Birthdate: October 7, 1952
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia

The current President of Russia, Vladimir Putin is a popular politician, with the highest approval rating of any leader in the world as of July 2020. As a high-level politician who has the support of his citizens, he is a powerful figure in world politics. He has been accused by human rights organizations of persecuting political critics and activists.

 33 
Sun Yat-Sen
(President of the Republic of China (1912))

Sun Yat-Sen
4
Birthdate: November 12, 1866
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Cuiheng, Zhongshan, China
Died: March 12, 1925
Chinese revolutionary Sun Yat Sen, also known as the "Father of the Nation" in China, ousted the Qing Dynasty in 1911. He was the first leader of the Nationalist Party of China and laid down the Three Principles of the People, which included nationalism, democracy, and livelihood.

 34 
Karl Dönitz
(German Admiral Who Briefly Succeeded Adolf Hitler as Head of State)

Karl Dönitz
8
Birthdate: September 16, 1891
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Grünau, Berlin, Germany
Died: December 24, 1980
Karl Dönitz was the supreme commander of the German Navy and played a crucial role in World War II. Hitler made Dönitz his successor before committing suicide. Dönitz officially surrendered after Germany’s loss in World War II and was convicted as a war criminal at the 1946 Nuremberg Trials.

 35 
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
(Founding Father of Bangladesh)

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
4
Birthdate: March 17, 1920
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Tungipara, Bangladesh
Died: August 15, 1975
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, father of Bangladeshi prime minister Sheikh Hasina, is known as the "Father of the Nation" and “Bangabandhu" in Bangladesh. He was an Awami League leader and led the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War. He was the first president of Bangladesh and later also served as the Bangladeshi PM.

 36 
Augusto Pinochet
(Former President of Chile)

Augusto Pinochet
10
Birthdate: November 25, 1915
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Valparaíso
Died: December 10, 2006
Augusto Pinochet was the president of the Chilean Military Junta from 1973 to 1981. He ousted the elected government of President Salvador Allende through a U.S.-supported coup and became the Chilean President in December 1974. Following this, he persecuted all political opponents and leftists and also advocated for Operation Condor

 37 
Anwar Sadat
(Former President of Egypt)

Anwar Sadat
13
Birthdate: December 25, 1918
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Mit Abu al-Kum
Died: October 6, 1981
Anwar Sadat served as the president and prime minister of Egypt till his assassination in 1981. He was part of the Free Officers, a group that overthrew King Farouk. He became the first Muslim Nobel laureate, after winning the Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty.

 38 
Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović
(President of Croatia (2015-2020))

Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović
5
Birthdate: April 29, 1968
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Rijeka, Croatia
Best known as the first female president of her country, politician Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović also became the youngest Croatian to assume presidency, at 46. The former Fulbright scholar made headlines during the 2018 FIFA World Cup, when she went to Russia in economy class to cheer her team.

 39 
Joko Widodo
(President of Indonesia)

Joko Widodo
12
Birthdate: June 21, 1961
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Surakarta
Joko Widodo, the current president of Indonesia, has previously been the mayor of Surakarta and the governor of Jakarta. He initially owned a furniture business and later joined the Democratic Party of Struggle. He introduced universal healthcare as Jakarta’s governor. Fortune named him one of "The World's 50 Greatest Leaders."

 40 
George W. Bush
(President of the United States (2001-09))

George W. Bush
19
Birthdate: July 6, 1946
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: New Haven, Connecticut, United States

The 43rd president of the United States, George W. Bush served two consecutive term in the top office beginning 2001 and led his country post the 9/11 terrorist attacks. He later ordered the invasion of Iraq. Before this, he was twice elected as the governor of Texas and had even helped his father, George H. W. Bush—the 41st president, in his presidential campaigns.

 41 
Thomas Sankara
(1st President of Burkina Faso (1983 - 1987))

Thomas Sankara
5
Birthdate: December 21, 1949
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Yako, Burkina Faso
Died: October 15, 1987
Thomas Sankara, or “Africa's Che Guevara,” was a Burkinabé military leader and revolutionary who became the President of the Republic of Upper Volta after a coup in 1983, changing its name to Burkina Faso. He launched educational, ecological, and economic reforms and declared female genital mutilation and forced marriages illegal.

 42 
Mobutu Sese Seko
(President of Zaire (1965 - 1997))

Mobutu Sese Seko
3
Birthdate: October 14, 1930
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Lisala, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Died: September 7, 1997

Mobutu Sese Seko was a Congolese military officer and politician. From 1965 to 1997, Mobutu served as the president of Zaire. During his long reign as the president, Mobutu garnered notoriety for nepotism and corruption. His life and work inspired Belgian filmmaker, Thierry Michel, to make a three-part documentary titled Mobutu, King of Zaire.

 43 
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
(12th President of Turkey)

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
22
Birthdate: February 26, 1954
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Kasımpaşa

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is a Turkish politician and the current president of Turkey. After founding the Justice and Development Party (AKP), he played a major role in leading the party to election victories and thereby helping AKP become a force to reckon with in Turkey. Described as an authoritarian, his government has restricted access to sites like Wikipedia and YouTube.

 44 
George Weah
(25th President of Liberia)

George Weah
10
Birthdate: October 1, 1966
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Clara Town, Liberia
George Weah, who has been the president of Liberia since 2018, was once a star footballer. The striker was named the 1995 FIFA World Player of the Year, and played for clubs such as A.C. Milan and Paris Saint-Germain. Following his retirement, he established the Congress for Democratic Change.

 45 
Sukarno
(President of Indonesia)

Sukarno
6
Birthdate: June 6, 1901
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Surabaya, Indonesia
Died: June 21, 1970

Sukarno was an Indonesian politician who played a major role in the Indonesian struggle for independence. An important leader of the country's nationalist movement, Sukarno declared Indonesian independence from the Dutch Empire and became Indonesia's first president in 1945. He was successful in resisting Dutch re-colonization efforts and went on to serve as the Indonesian president until 1967.

 46 
Tsai Ing-wen
(President of Taiwan (Since 2016))

Tsai Ing-wen
4
Birthdate: August 31, 1956
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Taipei, Taiwan

Taiwanese politician and academic, Tsai Ing-wen, is currently serving as the seventh president of the Republic of China (Taiwan). She has been in office since 2016. She is a member of the Democratic Progressive Party and the first female president of Taiwan. As the president, she has taken steps to fund green energy initiatives and supports LGBTQA+ rights.

 47 
Paul Kagame
(President of Rwanda (Since 2000))

Paul Kagame
7
Birthdate: October 23, 1957
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Ruanda-Urundi
Paul Kagame has been the president of Rwanda since 2000. He has previously been the chairperson of the African Union, and the vice president and the defense minister of Rwanda. As part of the Rwandan Patriotic Front, he helped put an end to the Rwandan Genocide by the Hutu extremists.

 48 
Manuel L. Quezon
(President of the Philippines (1935-44))

Manuel L. Quezon
5
Birthdate: August 19, 1878
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Baler, Philippines
Died: August 1, 1944

Filipino statesman Manuel L. Quezon, or MLQ, was the president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944, thus becoming the first Filipino to lead a government of the whole of the Philippines. He formed a government-in-exile in the U.S. after the Japanese invasion during World War II.

 49 
Cyril Ramaphosa
(President of South Africa)

Cyril Ramaphosa
10
Birthdate: November 17, 1952
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Soweto

Cyril Ramaphosa is a politician and the current president of South Africa. Also the president of South Africa's popular political party African National Congress (ANC), Ramaphosa played a key role during the nation's transition to democracy during which he served as ANC's chief negotiator. He also played a crucial role in ending apartheid and was considered Nelson Mandela's political heir.

 50 
Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan
(2nd President of UAE (2004–2022))

Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan
11
Birthdate: January 25, 1948
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Al Ain, Trucial States
Died: May 13, 2022

Khalifa bin Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, son of the UAE’s first president, Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, is the reigning president of the UAE and the emir of Abu Dhabi. He heads the UAE Armed Forces and the Supreme Petroleum Council. In 2011, he was the world’s fourth-wealthiest monarch.