What is an emotion? Is love just a feeling? Are our emotions irrational? What is life? Is it better to have choices? Does God actually exist? If yes, then why is there so much evil? Are you propounded by such philosophical questions in your mind? If yes, then your mind and heart surely takes a philosophical route whenever free. Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. First termed by Pythagoras, philosophy encompasses a huge body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century ‘natural philosophy’, there has been a phenomenal growth in the subject. In the 20th century, philosophy increasingly became professionalized as the period witnessed the development of a number of new philosophical schools including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and post-structuralism. Interestingly, the philosophy of the 20th century is known as contemporary philosophy. The era saw some of greatest minds at work in the field of philosophy starting from Bertrand Russell, Gilbert Ryle, Alfred Tarski, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Leo Strauss, Ernst Cassirer, José Juan González, John Dewey and so on. With this segment, explore some of the famous philosophers of the 20th century.
Vladimir LeninVladimir Lenin
22 April 1870, Russian
Former Premier of the Soviet Union
Noam ChomskyNoam Chomsky
07 December 1928, American

Jaggi VasudevJaggi Vasudev
03 September 1957, Indian
Yoga Guru

Ayn RandAyn Rand
02 February 1905, American, Russian

Carl JungCarl Jung
26 July 1875, Swiss

Leon TrotskyLeon Trotsky
07 November 1879, Russian, Ukrainian, Russian
Pope John Paul IIPope John Paul II
18 May 1920, Polish
Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City

Michel FoucaultMichel Foucault
15 October 1926, French
French philosopher

Albert CamusAlbert Camus
07 November 1913, Algerian, French
L Ron HubbardL Ron Hubbard
13 March 1911, American
Founder of Church of Scientology

Hannah ArendtHannah Arendt
14 October 1906, German
Alan WattsAlan Watts
06 January 1915, British, American
Philosopher, Writer & Speaker

Deng XiaopingDeng Xiaoping
22 August 1904, Chinese

Sam HarrisSam Harris
09 April 1967, American
Philosopher, Author

Slavoj ŽižekSlavoj Žižek
21 March 1949, Slovenian

Jean-Paul SartreJean-Paul Sartre
21 June 1905, French
Cornel WestCornel West
02 June 1953, American

Simone de BeauvoirSimone de Beauvoir
09 January 1908, French

Maximilian Carl Emil WeberMax Weber
21 April 1864, German

Vinayak Damodar SavarkarVinayak Damodar Savarkar
28 May 1883, Indian
Independence Activist, Reformer
Amartya SenAmartya Sen
03 November 1933, Indian
Economist & Philosopher

Antonio GramsciAntonio Gramsci
22 January 1891, Italian
Politician, Philosopher
Judith ButlerJudith Butler
24 February 1956, American

Terence McKennaTerence McKenna
16 November 1946, American
Philosopher, Psychonaut, Ethnobotanist, Author

Karl PopperKarl Popper
28 July 1902, British
Jacques DerridaJacques Derrida
15 July 1930, Algerian, French

John DeweyJohn Dewey
20 October 1859, American
Umberto EcoUmberto Eco
05 January 1932, Italian
Italian Semiotician, Philosopher

John RawlsJohn Rawls
21 February 1921, American
American Philosopher

Herbert MarcuseHerbert Marcuse
18 July 1898, German, American
Julius EvolaJulius Evola
19 May 1898, Italian

Continue Reading Below
Marshall McLuhanMarshall McLuhan
21 July 1911, Canadian
 Peter KropotkinPeter Kropotkin
09 December 1842, Russian
Philosopher & Activist

Kurt GödelKurt Gödel
28 April 1906, American
Mathematician, Philosopher

Ramana MaharshiRamana Maharshi
30 December 1879, Indian

Peter SingerPeter Singer
06 July 1946, Australian
Albert SchweitzerAlbert Schweitzer
14 January 1875, French
Philosopher, Theologian
Roland BarthesRoland Barthes
12 November 1915, French
French Literary Theorist & Philosopher

Roger ScrutonRoger Scruton
27 February 1944, British

Erich FrommErich Fromm
23 March 1900, German

Theodor W. AdornoTheodor W. Adorno
11 September 1903, German
Carl SchmittCarl Schmitt
11 July 1888, German
Jurist, Geopolitician, Political Scientist

Alain de BottonAlain de Botton
20 December 1969, Swiss, British

Paulo FreirePaulo Freire
19 September 1921, Brazilian
Educator and Philosopher

Murray RothbardMurray Rothbard
02 March 1926, American

Ken WilberKen Wilber
31 January 1949, American
Writer, Philosopher
Daniel DennettDaniel Dennett
28 March 1942, American

Edmund HusserlEdmund Husserl
08 April 1859, Austrian, German
Louis AlthusserLouis Althusser
16 October 1918, French

George SantayanaGeorge Santayana
16 December 1863, Spanish, Italian
Philosopher, Essayist, Poet, & Novelist

Leo StraussLeo Strauss
20 September 1899, German, American
Oswald SpenglerOswald Spengler
29 May 1880, German

Emil CioranEmil Cioran
08 April 1911, Romanian
Georges BatailleGeorges Bataille
10 September 1897, French

Pierre Teilhard de ChardinPierre Teilhard de Chardin
01 May 1881, French

René GirardRené Girard
25 December 1923, French

M. N. RoyM. N. Roy
22 March 1887, Indian
Indian Revolutionary

Sir Isaiah BerlinIsaiah Berlin
06 June 1909, British
Charles Sanders PeirceCharles Sanders Peirce
10 September 1839, American
Scientist, Philosopher

Howard ThurmanHoward Thurman
18 November 1899, American

Norbert WienerNorbert Wiener
26 November 1894, American
Father of Cybernetics

Mikhail BakhtinMikhail Bakhtin
17 November 1895, Russian
Francis SchaefferFrancis Schaeffer
30 January 1912, American
Theologian, Philosopher

Martin SeligmanMartin Seligman
12 August 1942, American
Ronald DworkinRonald Dworkin
11 December 1931, American

George Herbert MeadGeorge Herbert Mead
27 February 1863, American

Abraham Joshua HeschelAbraham Joshua Heschel
11 January 1907, Polish
Christina Hoff SommersChristina Hoff Sommers
28 September 1950, American
Author, Philosopher

Robert M. PirsigRobert M. Pirsig
06 September 1928, American
Writer, Philosopher
Allan BloomAllan Bloom
14 September 1930, American

Imre LakatosImre Lakatos
09 November 1922, Hungarian

Dallas WillardDallas Willard
04 September 1935, American
Bob BlackBob Black
04 January 1951, American
American author

Abdolkarim SoroushAbdolkarim Soroush
16 December 1945, Iranian
Thinker and Reformer
Ravi ZachariasRavi Zacharias
26 March 1946, Canadian, American

Frantz FanonFrantz Fanon
20 July 1925, Algerian, French, Martiniquan

James RandiJames Randi
07 August 1928, American
Philosopher, Stage magician

Gilles DeleuzeGilles Deleuze
18 January 1925, French
Philosopher, Historian, Writer, University
Pierre BourdieuPierre Bourdieu
01 August 1930, French
Philosopher, Sociologist, Anthropologist,
Jean BaudrillardJean Baudrillard
27 July 1929, French

Javed IqbalJaved Iqbal
08 October 1956, Pakistani

Jürgen HabermasJürgen Habermas
18 June 1929, German

Vandana ShivaVandana Shiva
05 November 1952, Indian
Philosopher, Physicist, Writer, University teacher
Israr AhmedIsrar Ahmed
26 April 1932, Pakistani
Philosopher, Theologian, University teacher

Aleksandr DuginAleksandr Dugin
07 January 1962, Russian

Iris MurdochIris Murdoch
15 July 1919, Irish, British

R. C. SproulR. C. Sproul
13 February 1939, American
Theologian, Philosopher, Non-fiction writer,

Martha NussbaumMartha Nussbaum
06 May 1947, American
Philosopher, Writer, University teacher
Savitri DeviSavitri Devi
30 September 1905, French
Writer, Poet

Abul A'la MaududiAbul A'la Maududi
25 September 1903, Indian, Pakistani
Murray BookchinMurray Bookchin
14 January 1921, American
Writer, Historian, Philosopher, University

Stanisław LemStanisław Lem
12 September 1921, Polish
Michael J. SandelMichael J. Sandel
05 March 1953, American
Professor, Political philosopher, Educationist,
Hans-Hermann HoppeHans-Hermann Hoppe
02 September 1949, German
Economist, Philosopher, Academic, University