18th Century Intellectuals & Academics
Find out more about the greatest 18th Century Intellectuals & Academics, including Immanuel Kant, Adam Smith, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, David Hume and Jeremy Bentham.
Immanuel KantImmanuel Kant
22 April 1724, German
Philosopher
VoltaireVoltaire
21 November 1694, French
Writer

Adam SmithAdam Smith
16 June 1723, Scottish
Economist and Philosopher

Jean-Jacques RousseauJean-Jacques Rousseau
28 June 1712, Swiss, French
Philosopher, Writer, & Composer

David HumeDavid Hume
26 April 1711, Scottish
Philosopher & Historian

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
27 August 1770, German
Philosopher, Philosophy Historian
Arthur SchopenhauerArthur Schopenhauer
22 February 1788, German
Philosopher

Mary WollstonecraftMary Wollstonecraft
27 April 1759, British
Writer

Jeremy BenthamJeremy Bentham
15 February 1748, British
Philosopher

Edmund BurkeEdmund Burke
12 January 1729, Irish, British
Statesman
Baron de MontesquieuMontesquieu
18 January 1689, French
Philosopher

Thomas Robert MalthusThomas Robert Malthus
13 February 1766, British
Political Economist
Alexander von HumboldtAlexander von Humboldt
14 September 1769, German
Geographer

George BerkeleyGeorge Berkeley
12 March 1685, Irish, British
philosopher

Friedrich SchillerFriedrich Schiller
10 November 1759, German
Poet, Playwright, Historian & Philosopher
Denis DiderotDenis Diderot
05 October 1713, French
Philosopher

David RicardoDavid Ricardo
18 April 1772, British
Economist
Thomas CarlyleThomas Carlyle
04 December 1795, Scottish
Philosopher

Joseph PriestleyJoseph Priestley
24 March 1733, British
Discoverer of Oxygen

Ethan AllenEthan Allen
21 January 1738, American
Revolutionary War Hero
Adam WeishauptAdam Weishaupt
06 February 1748, German
Philosopher

Jean-Baptiste LamarckJean-Baptiste Lamarck
01 August 1744, French
Naturalist
William GodwinWilliam Godwin
03 March 1756, British
Journalist

Noah WebsterNoah Webster
16 October 1758, American
Lexicographer

Charles WesleyCharles Wesley
18 December 1707, British
Poet

Marquis de CondorcetMarquis de Condorcet
17 September 1743, French
Mathematician, Philosopher
Mikhail LomonosovMikhail Lomonosov
19 November 1711, Russian
Scientist, Poet, Geologist, Astronomer
Charles LyellCharles Lyell
14 November 1797, British
Lawyer

Jean-François ChampollionJean-François Champollion
23 December 1790, French
Philologist

NovalisNovalis
02 May 1772, German
Philosopher & Poet

Edward EverettEdward Everett
11 April 1794, American
Former American senator
Maria Gaetana AgnesiMaria Gaetana Agnesi
16 May 1718, Italian
Mathematician, Philosopher, Theologian

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Carl RitterCarl Ritter
07 August 1779, German
Co-founder of Modern Geography

Peter Mark RogetPeter Mark Roget
18 January 1779, British
Lexicographer

Jonathan EdwardsJonathan Edwards
05 October 1703, American
American preacher

William HopkinsWilliam Hopkins
02 February 1793, British
Mathematician, Geologist
Samuel ColeridgeSamuel Coleridge
21 October 1772, British
Poet

Gottfried W. LeibnizGottfried W. Leibniz
01 July 1646, German
Philosopher, Mathematician
Jean Le Rond d’AlembertJean Le Rond d’Alembert
16 November 1717, French
Mathematician, Physicist, Philosopher And Musical

Percy Bysshe ShelleyPercy Bysshe Shelley
04 August 1792, British
Linguist, Poet, Translator, Writer, Playwright,

Ram Mohan RoyRam Mohan Roy
22 May 1772, Indian
Philosopher, Social reformer
Carl von ClausewitzCarl von Clausewitz
01 July 1780, German
Military person

Edward GibbonEdward Gibbon
27 April 1737, British
Historian
George WhitefieldGeorge Whitefield
16 December 1714, British
Minister, Theologian

Johann Gottlieb FichteJohann Gottlieb Fichte
19 May 1762, German
Philosopher, University teacher

Charles FourierCharles Fourier
07 April 1772, French
Economist, Sociologist, Philosopher

Horace WalpoleHorace Walpole
24 September 1717
Writer, Novelist, Autobiographer, Politician

John WitherspoonJohn Witherspoon
05 February 1723, American
Politician, Theologian
Georges CuvierGeorges Cuvier
23 August 1769, French
Geologist, Anatomist, Paleontologist, Politician,

Johann Gottfried HerderJohann Gottfried Herder
25 August 1744, German, Polish
philosopher, theologian, poet, translator

Wilhelm von HumboldtWilhelm von Humboldt
22 June 1767, German
Linguist, Diplomat, Anthropologist, Teacher,

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph SchellingFriedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling
27 January 1775, German
Philosopher, University teacher
James MillJames Mill
06 April 1773, American, Scottish
Historian

Thomas GrayThomas Gray
26 December 1716, British
Poet, Writer, Literary critic
François-René de ChateaubriandFrançois-René de Chateaubriand
04 September 1768, French
Writer, Politician, Diplomat, Historian, Poet,

Friedrich SchleiermacherFriedrich Schleiermacher
21 November 1768, German, Polish
Philosopher, Theologian, Translator, University

Thomas BayesThomas Bayes
1702 AD, British
Mathematician, Statistician
Moses MendelssohnMoses Mendelssohn
06 September 1729, German
Philosopher, Translator, Writer, Bible translator

Mary SomervilleMary Somerville
26 December 1780, British, Scottish
Mathematician, Linguist, Translator, Astronomer,
Giacomo LeopardiGiacomo Leopardi
29 June 1798, Italian
Writer, Poet, Philosopher, Philologist

Gotthold Ephraim LessingGotthold Ephraim Lessing
22 January 1729, German
Writer, Philosopher, Playwright, Poet, Librarian,

Leopold von RankeLeopold von Ranke
21 December 1795, German
Historian, Academic, University teacher, Writer
Isaac WattsIsaac Watts
17 July 1674, British
Theologian

Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de MirabeauHonoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau
09 March 1749, French
Journalist, Politician, Diplomat, Writer,
Johann Friedrich BlumenbachJohann Friedrich Blumenbach
11 May 1752, German
Physician

Giambattista VicoGiambattista Vico
Italian
 

Adolphe ThiersAdolphe Thiers
15 April 1797, French
Lawyer, Politician, Journalist, Historian, Writer

Germaine de StaëlGermaine de Staël
22 April 1766, French
Philosopher
Joseph de MaistreJoseph de Maistre
French
 
François QuesnayFrançois Quesnay
04 June 1694, French
Philosopher, Economist, Physician,

Jean-Baptiste SayJean-Baptiste Say
05 January 1767, French
Economist, Politician, Writer, Professor,

Benjamin ConstantBenjamin Constant
25 October 1767, Swiss, French
Philosopher, Politician, Writer, Diarist

George EverestGeorge Everest
04 July 1790, British
Explorer, Geographer
Jules MicheletJules Michelet
21 August 1798, French
Historian, Archivist, Writer, Diarist, Professor,

William PlayfairWilliam Playfair
22 September 1759, British
Economist, Mathematician, Engineer, Statistician

Nicolas MalebrancheNicolas Malebranche
06 August 1638, French
Philosopher, Writer, Theologian

William PaleyWilliam Paley
14 July 1743, British
Philosopher, Theologian, University teacher

Friedrich ListFriedrich List
06 August 1789, German, American
Economist, University teacher, Journalist
William WhewellWilliam Whewell
24 May 1794, British
Economist, Physicist, Historian, Philosopher,

James Mayer de RothschildJames Mayer de Rothschild
15 May 1792, French
Banker, Art collector, Economist, Businessperson
Lazzaro SpallanzaniLazzaro Spallanzani
10 January 1729, Italian
Biologist, Zoologist, Scientist, Naturalist,

William BucklandWilliam Buckland
12 March 1784, British
Geologist

Wilhelm GrimmWilhelm Grimm
24 February 1786, German
Lexicographer, Anthropologist, Librarian, Writer,
David BrewsterDavid Brewster
11 December 1781, British, Scottish
Botanist, Civil engineer, Physicist, Engineer,

François GuizotFrançois Guizot
04 October 1787, French
Politician, Diplomat, Historian, Translator,
Johann Heinrich von ThünenJohann Heinrich von Thünen
24 June 1783, German
Economist

Giovanni Battista BelzoniGiovanni Battista Belzoni
05 November 1778, Italian
Explorer, Antiquarian, Egyptologist,

Constantine Samuel RafinesqueConstantine Samuel Rafinesque
22 October 1783, French, Turkish
Polymath

Pierre Samuel du Pont de NemoursPierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours
14 December 1739, French
Economist, Politician, Entrepreneur
William Ellery ChanningWilliam Ellery Channing
07 April 1780, American
Preacher

Thomas ReidThomas Reid
Scottish
 
Johann Georg HamannJohann Georg Hamann
27 August 1730, German
Philosopher

François FénelonFrançois Fénelon
06 August 1651, French
Theologian
Roger Joseph BoscovichRoger Joseph Boscovich
Croatian
 

Manuel BelgranoManuel Belgrano
03 June 1770, Argentinian
Lawyer, Journalist, Economist, Politician,
Antoine GallandAntoine Galland
04 April 1646, French
Archaeologist