18th Century Intellectuals & Academics
Find out more about the greatest 18th Century Intellectuals & Academics, including Immanuel Kant, Adam Smith, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, David Hume and Jeremy Bentham.
Immanuel KantImmanuel Kant
22 April 1724, German
Philosopher
VoltaireVoltaire
21 November 1694, French
Writer

Adam SmithAdam Smith
16 June 1723, Scottish
Economist and Philosopher

Jean-Jacques RousseauJean-Jacques Rousseau
28 June 1712, Swiss, French
Philosopher, Writer, & Composer

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
27 August 1770, German
Philosopher, Philosophy Historian

Arthur SchopenhauerArthur Schopenhauer
22 February 1788, German
Philosopher
Edmund BurkeEdmund Burke
12 January 1729, Irish, British
Statesman

David HumeDavid Hume
26 April 1711, Scottish
Philosopher & Historian

Mary WollstonecraftMary Wollstonecraft
27 April 1759, British
Writer
Jeremy BenthamJeremy Bentham
15 February 1748, British
Philosopher

Thomas Robert MalthusThomas Robert Malthus
13 February 1766, British
Political Economist
Alexander von HumboldtAlexander von Humboldt
14 September 1769, German
Geographer

Baron de MontesquieuMontesquieu
18 January 1689, French
Philosopher

Thomas CarlyleThomas Carlyle
04 December 1795, Scottish
Philosopher

Adam WeishauptAdam Weishaupt
06 February 1748, German
Philosopher

Friedrich SchillerFriedrich Schiller
10 November 1759, German
Poet, Playwright, Historian & Philosopher
George BerkeleyGeorge Berkeley
12 March 1685, Irish, British
philosopher

David RicardoDavid Ricardo
18 April 1772, British
Economist

Denis DiderotDenis Diderot
05 October 1713, French
Philosopher

Joseph PriestleyJoseph Priestley
24 March 1733, British
Discoverer of Oxygen
Edward GibbonEdward Gibbon
08 April 1737, British
Historian

William GodwinWilliam Godwin
03 March 1756, British
Journalist
Jean-Baptiste LamarckJean-Baptiste Lamarck
01 August 1744, French
Naturalist

Ethan AllenEthan Allen
21 January 1738, American
Revolutionary War Hero

Noah WebsterNoah Webster
16 October 1758, American
Lexicographer
Charles WesleyCharles Wesley
18 December 1707, British
Poet

Georges CuvierGeorges Cuvier
23 August 1769, French
Naturalist
Jean-François ChampollionJean-François Champollion
23 December 1790, French
Philologist

Marquis de CondorcetMarquis de Condorcet
17 September 1743, French
Mathematician, Philosopher

Mikhail LomonosovMikhail Lomonosov
19 November 1711, Russian
Scientist, Poet, Geologist, Astronomer
NovalisNovalis
02 May 1772, German
Philosopher & Poet

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Charles LyellCharles Lyell
14 November 1797, British
Lawyer
Edward EverettEdward Everett
11 April 1794, American
Former American senator

Maria Gaetana AgnesiMaria Gaetana Agnesi
16 May 1718, Italian
Mathematician, Philosopher, Theologian

Carl RitterCarl Ritter
07 August 1779, German
Co-founder of Modern Geography

Peter Mark RogetPeter Mark Roget
18 January 1779, British
Lexicographer
Jonathan EdwardsJonathan Edwards
05 October 1703, American
American preacher
William HopkinsWilliam Hopkins
02 February 1793, British
Mathematician, Geologist

Samuel ColeridgeSamuel Coleridge
21 October 1772, British
Poet

Gottfried W. LeibnizGottfried W. Leibniz
01 July 1646, German
Philosopher, Mathematician

Jean Le Rond d’AlembertJean Le Rond d’Alembert
16 November 1717, French
Mathematician, Physicist, Philosopher And Musical
Percy Bysshe ShelleyPercy Bysshe Shelley
04 August 1792, British
Linguist, Poet, Translator, Writer, Playwright,

Carl von ClausewitzCarl von Clausewitz
01 June 1780, German
Military person

Émilie du ChâteletÉmilie du Châtelet
17 December 1706, French
Philosopher

Charles FourierCharles Fourier
07 April 1772, French
Economist, Sociologist, Philosopher

Johann Gottlieb FichteJohann Gottlieb Fichte
19 May 1762, German
Philosopher, University teacher
Horace WalpoleHorace Walpole
24 September 1717
Writer, Novelist, Autobiographer, Politician

Joseph de MaistreJoseph de Maistre
01 April 1753, French
Philosopher
Johann Friedrich BlumenbachJohann Friedrich Blumenbach
11 May 1752, German
Physician

John WitherspoonJohn Witherspoon
05 February 1723, American
Politician, Theologian

James MillJames Mill
06 April 1773, American, Scottish
Historian
Johann Gottfried HerderJohann Gottfried Herder
25 August 1744, German, Polish
Philosopher

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph SchellingFriedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling
27 January 1775, German
Philosopher, University teacher
Manuel BelgranoManuel Belgrano
03 June 1770, Argentinian
Lawyer, Journalist, Economist, Politician,

Germaine de StaëlGermaine de Staël
22 April 1766, French
Philosopher

Giambattista VicoGiambattista Vico
23 June 1668, Italian
Philosopher

Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de MirabeauHonoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau
09 March 1749, French
Journalist, Politician, Diplomat, Writer,

François-René de ChateaubriandFrançois-René de Chateaubriand
04 September 1768, French
Writer, Politician, Diplomat, Historian, Poet,
Wilhelm von HumboldtWilhelm von Humboldt
22 June 1767, German
Linguist, Diplomat, Anthropologist, Teacher,

Giacomo LeopardiGiacomo Leopardi
29 June 1798, Italian
Writer, Poet, Philosopher, Philologist

Isaac WattsIsaac Watts
17 July 1674, British
Theologian

Thomas BayesThomas Bayes
1702 AD, British
Mathematician, Statistician
Henri de Saint-SimonHenri de Saint-Simon
17 October 1760, French
Political Theorist

Thomas GrayThomas Gray
26 December 1716, British
Poet, Writer, Literary critic
Friedrich SchleiermacherFriedrich Schleiermacher
21 November 1768, German, Polish
Philosopher, Theologian, Translator, University

Moses MendelssohnMoses Mendelssohn
06 September 1729, German
Philosopher, Translator, Writer, Bible translator

Emmanuel Joseph SieyèsEmmanuel Joseph Sieyès
03 May 1748, French
Writer
Gotthold Ephraim LessingGotthold Ephraim Lessing
22 January 1729, German
Writer, Philosopher, Playwright, Poet, Librarian,

James Mayer de RothschildJames Mayer de Rothschild
15 May 1792, French
Banker, Art collector, Economist, Businessperson
Johann Joachim WinckelmannJohann Joachim Winckelmann
09 December 1717, German
Art historian

Mary SomervilleMary Somerville
26 December 1780, British, Scottish
Mathematician, Linguist, Translator, Astronomer,

Leopold von RankeLeopold von Ranke
21 December 1795, German
Historian, Academic, University teacher, Writer
William BucklandWilliam Buckland
12 March 1784, British
Geologist

Benjamin ConstantBenjamin Constant
25 October 1767, Swiss, French
Philosopher, Politician, Writer, Diarist
Jean-Baptiste SayJean-Baptiste Say
05 January 1767, French
Economist, Politician, Writer, Professor,

Friedrich SchlegelFriedrich Schlegel
10 March 1772, German
Poet

Jules MicheletJules Michelet
21 August 1798, French
Historian, Archivist, Writer, Diarist, Professor,

François QuesnayFrançois Quesnay
04 June 1694, French
Philosopher, Economist, Physician,
Friedrich ListFriedrich List
06 August 1789, German, American
Economist, University teacher, Journalist
Wilhelm GrimmWilhelm Grimm
24 February 1786, German
Lexicographer, Anthropologist, Librarian, Writer,

Thomas ReidThomas Reid
07 May 1710, Scottish
Philosopher

Roger Joseph BoscovichRoger Joseph Boscovich
18 May 1711, Croatian, Italian
Physicist

Giovanni Battista BelzoniGiovanni Battista Belzoni
05 November 1778, Italian
Explorer, Antiquarian, Egyptologist,
Nicolaus ZinzendorfNicolaus Zinzendorf
26 May 1700, German
Priest, Translator, Theologian, Poet, Hymnwriter

François GuizotFrançois Guizot
04 October 1787, French
Politician, Diplomat, Historian, Translator,

William WhewellWilliam Whewell
24 May 1794, British
Economist, Physicist, Historian, Philosopher,

Pierre Samuel du Pont de NemoursPierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours
14 December 1739, French, American
Economist

Johann Heinrich von ThünenJohann Heinrich von Thünen
24 June 1783, German
Economist
William PaleyWilliam Paley
14 July 1743, British
Philosopher, Theologian, University teacher

Nicolas MalebrancheNicolas Malebranche
06 August 1638, French
Philosopher, Writer, Theologian
Constantine Samuel RafinesqueConstantine Samuel Rafinesque
22 October 1783, French, Turkish
Polymath

Bernard BolzanoBernard Bolzano
05 October 1781, Czech
Mathematician
François FénelonFrançois Fénelon
06 August 1651, French
Theologian
David BrewsterDavid Brewster
11 December 1781, British, Scottish
Botanist, Civil engineer, Physicist, Engineer,