Famous 18th Century Theologians

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 1 
Charles Wesley
4
Birthdate: December 18, 1707
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Epworth, Lincolnshire, England
Died: March 29, 1788

One of the leaders of the Methodist revival movement, Charles Wesley is better known as the author numerous hymns and carols. Love Divine, All Loves Excelling and Christ the Lord Is Risen Today being some of his more popular works.  Averaging ten poetic lines per day for fifty years, he published more than 4,500 hymns, leaving some 3,000 in manuscript.

 2 
Johann Gottfried Herder
(Philosopher, Theologian, Poet, and Literary Critic)
Johann Gottfried Herder
4
Birthdate: August 25, 1744
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Morąg, Poland
Died: December 18, 1803

German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder is best remembered as a significant figure of the Sturm und Drang literary movement. Born into poverty and largely self-educated till 17, he later became a disciple of Immanuel Kant and was associated with Enlightenment and Weimar Classicism. He was eventually ennobled.

 3 
George Whitefield
(Evangelist, Theologian)
George Whitefield
5
Birthdate: December 16, 1714
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Gloucester, England
Died: September 30, 1770

George Whitefield was an Anglican evangelist and cleric. He is credited with co-founding the evangelical movement and Methodism. Whitefield's teachings of a series of revivals in North America became an important component of the First Great Awakening. Thanks to his ability to captivate large audiences, George Whitefield preached to millions of listeners during his ministry.

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 4 
Swedenborg
(Swedish Christian Scientist, Philosopher and Theologian Best Known for His Book ‘Heaven and Hell’)
Swedenborg
4
Birthdate: January 29, 1688
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Stockholm, Sweden
Died: March 29, 1772

Emanuel Swedenborg was a Swedish pluralistic-Christian philosopher, mystic, theologian, and scientist. Swedenborg started hogging the limelight after writing a book on the afterlife titled Heaven and Hell, which released in 1758. A prolific scientist and inventor, Swedenborg experienced spiritual awakening after which he started working on reforming Christianity. He even claimed that he could converse with angels and demons.

 5 
John Wesley
(English Clergyman, Theologian, Evangelist and Co-Founder of the Methodist Movement in the Church of England)
John Wesley
4
Birthdate: June 28, 1703
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Epworth, England
Died: March 2, 1791

John Wesley was an English cleric, evangelist, and theologian. He is best remembered for leading a revival movement called Methodism within the Church of England. He is credited with founding societies that eventually became the dominant form of the Methodist movement, which remains relevant today. He continues to be the main theological influence on Methodists all over the world.

 6 
Isaac Watts
(Theologian)
Isaac Watts
3
Birthdate: July 17, 1674
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Southampton, Kingdom of England
Died: November 25, 1748
 7 
Friedrich Schleiermacher
(German Theologian, Philosopher and an Early Leader in Liberal Christianity)
Friedrich Schleiermacher
6
Birthdate: November 21, 1768
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Wrocław, Poland
Died: February 12, 1834

Hailed as an early leader of liberal Christianity, Lutheran philosopher Friedrich Schleiermacher was also an eminent biblical scholar and theologian. Best remembered for his works on hermeneutics and theory of translation, he also had a great impact on the evolution of higher criticism and became known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity.

 8 
Jonathan Edwards
(Preacher, Theologian, Philosopher)
Jonathan Edwards
4
Birthdate: October 5, 1703
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: East Windsor, Connecticut, United States
Died: March 22, 1758

Jonathan Edwards was an American philosopher, revivalist preacher, and Congregationalist Protestant theologian. Considered one of America's most prominent and influential philosophical theologians, Jonathan Edwards played a major role in shaping the Evangelical Revival of the 1730s and 1740s. His theological work is credited with paving the way for a new school of theology called the New England theology.

 9 
Richard Allen
(American Clergyman Who was the First Bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Church)
Richard Allen
3
Birthdate: February 14, 1760
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
Died: March 26, 1831

Born to slave parents, American clergyman Richard Allen became a Methodist convert at 22. He later founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church and served as its first bishop. Apart from establishing the first church for Blacks in the U.S., he worked on various aspects to improve the lives of Blacks.

 10 
Maria Gaetana Agnesi
(First Woman to Write a Mathematics Handbook and the First Woman Appointed as a University Mathematics Professor)
Maria Gaetana Agnesi
3
Birthdate: May 16, 1718
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Milan, Italy
Died: January 9, 1799

Italian mathematician Maria Gaetana Agnesi, daughter of an affluent silk trader, was well-versed in a number of languages as a child. Most of her work was regarding algebra, calculus, and the Witch of Agnesi. She was also the first female academic to write a math book and to teach math.

 11 
Edward Everett
(Former American senator)
Edward Everett
4
Birthdate: April 11, 1794
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Boston, Massachusetts
Died: January 15, 1865

Edward Everett was an American politician, diplomat, educator, pastor, and orator. Widely regarded as one of the great orators of the Civil War and antebellum eras, Everett is remembered for his two-hour speech at the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg in 1863, where Abraham Lincoln delivered his popular Gettysburg Address. Edward Everett also taught ancient Greek literature at Harvard University.

 12 
William Paley
(Christian apologist, philosopher, and utilitarian)
William Paley
3
Birthdate: 1743
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Peterborough, England
Died: May 25, 1805
 13 
Bernard Bolzano
(Mathematician)
Bernard Bolzano
3
Birthdate: October 5, 1781
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Prague, Czechoslovakia
Died: December 18, 1848
 14 
François Fénelon
(Catholic Archbishop and the Author of 'The Adventures of Telemachus')
François Fénelon
3
Birthdate: August 6, 1651
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Sainte-Mondane, France
Died: January 7, 1715

François Fénelon was a French writer, poet, theologian, and Catholic archbishop. He is best remembered for his book The Adventures of Telemachus, which was published in 1699. François Fénelon also served as a tutor of Louis, Duke of Burgundy, guiding the character formation of Louis, Grand Dauphin's eldest son.

 15 
Ahmad al-Tijani
(Theologian)
Ahmad al-Tijani
3
Birthdate: 1735 AD
Birthplace: Aïn Madhi, Algeria
Died: 1815 AD
 16 
Francis Asbury
(American Bishop)
Francis Asbury
3
Birthdate: August 20, 1745
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Hamstead Bridge, Staffordshire, England
Died: March 31, 1816

Francis Asbury was a bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He played an important role during the Second Great Awakening, popularizing Methodism in British colonial America. He is credited with establishing many schools and his journal is deemed important by scholars due to its account of frontier society; his journal has descriptions of the functioning of towns in Colonial America.

 17 
John Keble
(Poet)
John Keble
3
Birthdate: April 25, 1792
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Fairford, Gloucestershire, England
Died: March 29, 1866
 18 
Johann Kaspar Lavater
(Poet, Philosopher, Physiognomist and Theologian)
Johann Kaspar Lavater
3
Birthdate: November 15, 1741
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Zürich, Switzerland
Died: January 2, 1801

Best known for his research on physiognomy, Johann Kaspar Lavater was also a theologian and an author. He had penned books such as Aussichten in die Ewigkeit and several epic and lyric poems. He died of a grenade wound during the French occupation of Switzerland.

 19 
Albert Barnes
(Theologian)
Albert Barnes
4
Birthdate: December 1, 1798
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Rome, New York, United States
Died: December 24, 1870
 20 
Richard Bentley
(Theologian)
Richard Bentley
2
Birthdate: January 27, 1662
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Oulton, England
Died: July 14, 1742
 21 
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
(Theologian)
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
5
Birthdate: 1703 AD
Birthplace: Al Uyaynah, Saudi Arabia
Died: June 22, 1792
 22 
Al-Shawkani
(Islamic jurist, Theologian)
Al-Shawkani
0
Birthdate: 1759 AD
Birthplace: Yemen
Died: 1839 AD
 23 
Ferdinand Christian Baur
(Theologian)
Ferdinand Christian Baur
2
Birthdate: June 21, 1792
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Schmiden, Germany
Died: December 2, 1860
 24 
Elias Hicks
(Quaker minister)
Elias Hicks
2
Birthdate: March 19, 1748
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Hempstead, New York, United States
Died: February 27, 1830
 25 
İbrahim Müteferrika
(Diplomat)
İbrahim Müteferrika
2
Birthdate: 1674 AD
Birthplace: Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Died: 1745 AD
 26 
Thomas Ken
(British Cleric and Former Bishop of Bath and Wells)
Thomas Ken
2
Birthdate: 1637
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Little Berkhampstead, Hertfordshire, England
Died: March 19, 1711

Anglican bishop and hymn writer Thomas Ken had also been King Charles II’s chaplain. He was one of the seven bishops who opposed King James II’s Declaration of Indulgence that was focused on promoting Roman Catholicism. He was eventually forced to retire due to his opposition to William and Mary.

 27 
Timothy Dwight IV
(Theologian)
Timothy Dwight IV
4
Birthdate: May 14, 1752
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Northampton, Massachusetts, United States
Died: January 11, 1817
 28 
William Prout
(Chemist)
William Prout
2
Birthdate: January 15, 1785
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Horton, England
Died: April 9, 1850
 29 
Johann Konrad Dippel
(Theologian)
Johann Konrad Dippel
1
Birthdate: August 10, 1673
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Mühltal, Germany
Died: April 25, 1734

Remembered as the “mad scientist,” Johann Konrad Dippel is considered by many as the person who had inspired Mary Shelley to write Frankenstein. He used the pseudonym Christianus Democritus to write various scientific texts and claimed his concoction Dippel's oil was the "elixir of life" that promised immortality.

 30 
August Hermann Francke
(German Theologian)
August Hermann Francke
2
Birthdate: March 22, 1663
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Lübeck, Germany
Died: June 8, 1727

Remembered as one of the chief figures of German Pietism, August Hermann Francke had also been a professor of theology at the University of Halle. Though criticized by radical Lutherans, his social activism saw him providing education and essentials for the poor at his Francke Foundations.  

 31 
Ignaz von Döllinger
(Theologian)
Ignaz von Döllinger
2
Birthdate: February 28, 1799
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Bamberg, Germany
Died: January 10, 1890
 32 
Johann Albrecht Bengel
(German Priest and Theologian Known for His Edition of the 'Greek New Testament')
Johann Albrecht Bengel
2
Birthdate: June 24, 1687
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Winnenden, Germany
Died: November 2, 1752

It is unfortunate that German Lutheran clergyman Johann Albrecht Bengel is only remembered for his work on Greek New Testament. One of the greatest biblical scholars, he was also a devout Christian, who founded Swabian Pietism. He was also a pioneer in the modern textual criticism, in scientific exegesis and in modern eschatological study.

 33 
Hosea Ballou
(Former Universalist clergyman, theological writer)
Hosea Ballou
2
Birthdate: April 30, 1771
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Richmond, New Hampshire, United States
Died: June 6, 1852
 34 
Archibald Alexander
(American Presbyterian Theologian and Professor)
Archibald Alexander
2
Birthdate: April 17, 1772
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Rockbridge County, Virginia, United States
Died: October 22, 1851
 35 
Jeremy Collier
(British Theatre Critic, Non-juror Bishop and Theologian)
Jeremy Collier
2
Birthdate: September 23, 1650
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Stow cum Quy, England
Died: April 26, 1726

A non-juror bishop, theologian, celebrated author and theatre critic, Jeremy Collier refused to take oath of allegiance to King William III and was sent twice to prison for supporting James II. Despite that, he publicly gave absolution on the scaffold to King’s enemies and suffered reprisal for it. He published several works, some which became quite controversial.

 36 
Hermann Samuel Reimarus
(Philosopher)
Hermann Samuel Reimarus
2
Birthdate: December 22, 1694
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Hamburg, Germany
Died: March 1, 1768
 37 
Saint Nicodemus the Hagiorite
(Monk)
Saint Nicodemus the Hagiorite
2
Birthdate: 1749 AD
Birthplace: Náxos, Greece
Died: July 14, 1809
 38 
Shaykh Ahmad
(Religious leader)
Shaykh Ahmad
2
Birthdate: 1753
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia
Died: June 27, 1826
 39 
Joseph von Görres
(Writer)
Joseph von Görres
2
Birthdate: January 25, 1776
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Koblenz, Germany
Died: January 29, 1848
 40 
John Witherspoon
(Scottish-American Presbyterian Minister, Educator and a Founding Father of the United States)
John Witherspoon
4
Birthdate: February 5, 1723
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Gifford, Scotland
Died: November 15, 1794

John Witherspoon was a Scottish American slaveholder, Presbyterian minister, and Founding Father of the United States. A signatory to the Declaration of Independence, Witherspoon also signed the Articles of Confederation. He also played a crucial role in shaping public policy in the United States of America.

 41 
Wilhelm Gesenius
(Biblical critic)
Wilhelm Gesenius
2
Birthdate: February 3, 1786
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Nordhausen, Germany
Died: October 23, 1842
 42 
Samuel Hopkins
(Theologian)
Samuel Hopkins
1
Birthdate: September 17, 1721
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Waterbury, Connecticut, United States
Died: December 20, 1803
 43 
Franz Xaver von Baader
(German Philosopher and Theologian)
Franz Xaver von Baader
2
Birthdate: March 27, 1765
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Munich, Germany
Died: May 23, 1841

Roman Catholic philosopher Franz Xaver von Baader followed in his doctor father’s footsteps to study medicine initially but soon switched to mining engineering. He later deviated permanently to politics and religion. Rejecting Western philosophy, he propagated the Scholastic school and penned his thoughts in journals and short essays, using mystical symbols.

 44 
Samuel Simon Schmucker
(Theologian)
Samuel Simon Schmucker
1
Birthdate: February 28, 1799
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Hagerstown, Maryland, United States
Died: July 26, 1873

Samuel Simon Schmucker was a theologian and Lutheran pastor. He played a key role in the founding of the Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg as well as Gettysburg College. He also played a major role in the founding of the Evangelical Lutheran General Synod of the United States of America. He was also well-known for his efforts as an abolitionist.

 45 
Firmin Abauzit
(Scholar)
Firmin Abauzit
1
Birthdate: November 11, 1679
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Uzes, France
Died: March 20, 1767
 46 
Robert Sandeman
(Theologian)
Robert Sandeman
1
Birthdate: April 29, 1718
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Perth, Scotland
Died: April 2, 1771
 47 
Joseph Blanco White
(Theologian)
Joseph Blanco White
1
Birthdate: July 11, 1775
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Sevilla, Spain
Died: May 20, 1841
 48 
Eugenios Voulgaris
(Theologian)
Eugenios Voulgaris
1
Birthdate: August 10, 1716
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Corfu, Greece
Died: June 12, 1806
 49 
Johann Salomo Semler
(Historian)
Johann Salomo Semler
1
Birthdate: December 18, 1725
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Saalfeld, Germany
Died: March 14, 1791
 50 
Carl Friedrich Bahrdt
(Theologian)
Carl Friedrich Bahrdt
1
Birthdate: August 25, 1741
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Bischofswerda, Germany
Died: April 23, 1792