18th Century Philosophers
Find out more about the greatest 18th Century Philosophers, including Immanuel Kant, Voltaire, Adam Smith, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Olympe de Gouges.
Immanuel KantImmanuel Kant
22 April 1724, German
Philosopher
VoltaireVoltaire
21 November 1694, French
Writer

Mary WollstonecraftMary Wollstonecraft
27 April 1759, British
Writer

Adam SmithAdam Smith
16 June 1723, Scottish
Economist and Philosopher

Jean-Jacques RousseauJean-Jacques Rousseau
28 June 1712, Swiss, French
Philosopher, Writer, & Composer

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
27 August 1770, German
Philosopher, Philosophy Historian
Arthur SchopenhauerArthur Schopenhauer
22 February 1788, German
Philosopher

David HumeDavid Hume
26 April 1711, Scottish
Philosopher & Historian

Edmund BurkeEdmund Burke
12 January 1729, Irish, British
Statesman
Gottfried W. LeibnizGottfried W. Leibniz
01 July 1646, German
Philosopher, Mathematician

Jeremy BenthamJeremy Bentham
15 February 1748, British
Philosopher
Samuel ColeridgeSamuel Coleridge
21 October 1772, British
Poet

Thomas CarlyleThomas Carlyle
04 December 1795, Scottish
Philosopher

Denis DiderotDenis Diderot
05 October 1713, French
Philosopher

Jonathan EdwardsJonathan Edwards
05 October 1703, American
American preacher

Adam WeishauptAdam Weishaupt
06 February 1748, German
Philosopher
Friedrich SchillerFriedrich Schiller
10 November 1759, German
Poet, Playwright, Historian & Philosopher

William GodwinWilliam Godwin
03 March 1756, British
Journalist

George BerkeleyGeorge Berkeley
12 March 1685, Irish, British
philosopher

Ethan AllenEthan Allen
21 January 1738, American
Revolutionary War Hero
Joseph PriestleyJoseph Priestley
24 March 1733, British
Discoverer of Oxygen

Marquis de CondorcetMarquis de Condorcet
17 September 1743, French
Mathematician, Philosopher
NovalisNovalis
02 May 1772, German
Philosopher & Poet

Jean Le Rond d’AlembertJean Le Rond d’Alembert
16 November 1717, French
Mathematician, Physicist, Philosopher And Musical

Maria Gaetana AgnesiMaria Gaetana Agnesi
16 May 1718, Italian
Mathematician, Philosopher, Theologian
Baron de MontesquieuMontesquieu
18 January 1689, French
Philosopher

Gottfried Wilhelm LeibnizGottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
01 July 1646, German
Philosopher
Carl von ClausewitzCarl von Clausewitz
01 June 1780, German
Military person

Comte de Saint-GermainComte de Saint-Germain
1691 AD, Hungarian
Adventurer

Emmanuel SwedenborgEmmanuel Swedenborg
29 January 1688, Swedish
Scientist
Shah Waliullah DehlawiShah Waliullah Dehlawi
21 February 1703, Indian
Muslim Scholar

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Charles FourierCharles Fourier
07 April 1772, French
Economist, Sociologist, Philosopher
Émilie du ChâteletÉmilie du Châtelet
17 December 1706, French
Philosopher

Johann Gottlieb FichteJohann Gottlieb Fichte
19 May 1762, German
Philosopher, University teacher

Joseph de MaistreJoseph de Maistre
01 April 1753, French
Philosopher

Johann Gottfried HerderJohann Gottfried Herder
25 August 1744, German, Polish
Philosopher
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph SchellingFriedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling
27 January 1775, German
Philosopher, University teacher
Wilhelm von HumboldtWilhelm von Humboldt
22 June 1767, German
Linguist, Diplomat, Anthropologist, Teacher,

Giacomo LeopardiGiacomo Leopardi
29 June 1798, Italian
Writer, Poet, Philosopher, Philologist

John AustinJohn Austin
03 March 1790, British
jurist, philosopher

Germaine de StaëlGermaine de Staël
22 April 1766, French
Philosopher
Friedrich SchleiermacherFriedrich Schleiermacher
21 November 1768, German, Polish
Philosopher, Theologian, Translator, University

Giambattista VicoGiambattista Vico
23 June 1668, Italian
Philosopher

Moses MendelssohnMoses Mendelssohn
06 September 1729, German
Philosopher, Translator, Writer, Bible translator

James MillJames Mill
06 April 1773, American, Scottish
Historian

Gotthold Ephraim LessingGotthold Ephraim Lessing
22 January 1729, German
Writer, Philosopher, Playwright, Poet, Librarian,
Jean Le Rond d'AlembertJean Le Rond d'Alembert
16 November 1717, French
Mathematician

Christian WolffChristian Wolff
24 January 1679, German, Polish
jurist, mathematician, philosopher, university
Bernard BolzanoBernard Bolzano
05 October 1781, Czech
Mathematician

Henry St John, 1st Viscount BolingbrokeHenry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke
16 September 1678, British
Politician

Benjamin ConstantBenjamin Constant
25 October 1767, Swiss, French
Philosopher, Politician, Writer, Diarist
Dimitrie CantemirDimitrie Cantemir
26 October 1673, Romanian
Soldier

William PaleyWilliam Paley
14 July 1743, British
Philosopher, Theologian, University teacher
Baron d'HolbachBaron d'Holbach
08 December 1723, German, French
Author

William WhewellWilliam Whewell
24 May 1794, British
Economist, Physicist, Historian, Philosopher,

Roger Joseph BoscovichRoger Joseph Boscovich
18 May 1711, Croatian, Italian
Physicist

François QuesnayFrançois Quesnay
04 June 1694, French
Philosopher, Economist, Physician,

Friedrich SchlegelFriedrich Schlegel
10 March 1772, German
Poet
Thomas ReidThomas Reid
07 May 1710, Scottish
Philosopher

Bernard MandevilleBernard Mandeville
15 November 1670, Dutch
Philosopher

Nicolas MalebrancheNicolas Malebranche
06 August 1638, French
Philosopher, Writer, Theologian

Francis HutchesonFrancis Hutcheson
08 August 1694, Irish, British
philosopher, economist
Richard PriceRichard Price
23 February 1723, British, Welsh
Philosopher

Johann Georg HamannJohann Georg Hamann
27 August 1730, German
Philosopher
Hakuin EkakuHakuin Ekaku
19 January 1686, Japanese
Buddhist priest

Andrés BelloAndrés Bello
29 November 1781, Chilean, Venezuelan
Poet, Legislator, Philosopher, Educator,

Johann Friedrich HerbartJohann Friedrich Herbart
04 April 1776, German
philosopher, psychologist, educationist,
Alexander Gottlieb BaumgartenAlexander Gottlieb Baumgarten
17 July 1714, German
philosopher, professor

Ludvig HolbergLudvig Holberg
03 December 1684, Danish, Norwegian
Writer
Friedrich Heinrich JacobiFriedrich Heinrich Jacobi
25 January 1743, German
Philosopher

Claude Adrien HelvétiusClaude Adrien Helvétius
26 January 1715, French
Philosopher, Writer, French moralists

N. F. S. GrundtvigN. F. S. Grundtvig
08 September 1783, Danish
Author
Julien Offray de La MettrieJulien Offray de La Mettrie
French
 

August Wilhelm SchlegelAugust Wilhelm Schlegel
08 September 1767, German
Linguist, Translator, Sanskrit scholar,
Pierre Louis MaupertuisPierre Louis Maupertuis
28 September 1698, French
Mathematician

Frances WrightFrances Wright
06 September 1795, British
Writer, Philosopher

Antonio SolerAntonio Soler
03 December 1729, Spanish
Composer, Organist, Musicologist, Music theorist,

Antoine Destutt de TracyAntoine Destutt de Tracy
20 July 1754, French
Philosopher
Salomon MaimonSalomon Maimon
1753 AD, Lithuanian
Philosopher
Motoori NorinagaMotoori Norinaga
21 June 1730, Japanese
Scholar

Francesco AlgarottiFrancesco Algarotti
11 December 1712, Italian
Polymath

Étienne Bonnot de CondillacÉtienne Bonnot de Condillac
30 September 1715, French
philosopher, economist, writer, psychologist

Hugues Felicité Robert de LamennaisHugues Felicité Robert de Lamennais
09 June 1782, French
philosopher
Joseph ButlerJoseph Butler
18 May 1692, British
Philosopher

Judith Sargent MurrayJudith Sargent Murray
 

Constantin François de Chassebœuf, comte de VolneyConstantin François de Chassebœuf, comte de Volney
03 February 1757, French
Philosopher

Victor CousinVictor Cousin
28 November 1792, French
Philosopher

Louis de BonaldLouis de Bonald
02 October 1754, French
Philosopher
Étienne CabetÉtienne Cabet
01 January 1788, French
Philosopher

Joseph JoubertJoseph Joubert
07 May 1754, French
Philosopher, Essayist, Writer
Ninomiya SontokuNinomiya Sontoku
04 September 1787, Japanese
Philosopher

Catharine MacaulayCatharine Macaulay
02 April 1731, British
Historian
James Burnett, Lord MonboddoJames Burnett, Lord Monboddo
25 October 1714, Scottish
Judge
Dugald StewartDugald Stewart
22 November 1753, British, Scottish
Philosopher