18th Century Philosophers
Find out more about the greatest 18th Century Philosophers, including Immanuel Kant, Voltaire, Adam Smith, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Olympe de Gouges.
Immanuel KantImmanuel Kant
22 April 1724, German
Philosopher
VoltaireVoltaire
21 November 1694, French
Writer

Adam SmithAdam Smith
16 June 1723, Scottish
Economist and Philosopher

Jean-Jacques RousseauJean-Jacques Rousseau
28 June 1712, Swiss, French
Philosopher, Writer, & Composer

David HumeDavid Hume
26 April 1711, Scottish
Philosopher & Historian

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
27 August 1770, German
Philosopher, Philosophy Historian
Arthur SchopenhauerArthur Schopenhauer
22 February 1788, German
Philosopher

Mary WollstonecraftMary Wollstonecraft
27 April 1759, British
Writer

Edmund BurkeEdmund Burke
12 January 1729, Irish, British
Statesman
Jeremy BenthamJeremy Bentham
15 February 1748, British
Philosopher

Baron de MontesquieuMontesquieu
18 January 1689, French
Philosopher
Thomas CarlyleThomas Carlyle
04 December 1795, Scottish
Philosopher

Denis DiderotDenis Diderot
05 October 1713, French
Philosopher

Friedrich SchillerFriedrich Schiller
10 November 1759, German
Poet, Playwright, Historian & Philosopher

George BerkeleyGeorge Berkeley
12 March 1685, Irish, British
philosopher

Adam WeishauptAdam Weishaupt
06 February 1748, German
Philosopher
William GodwinWilliam Godwin
03 March 1756, British
Journalist

Joseph PriestleyJoseph Priestley
24 March 1733, British
Discoverer of Oxygen

Ethan AllenEthan Allen
21 January 1738, American
Revolutionary War Hero

NovalisNovalis
02 May 1772, German
Philosopher & Poet
Marquis de CondorcetMarquis de Condorcet
17 September 1743, French
Mathematician, Philosopher

Maria Gaetana AgnesiMaria Gaetana Agnesi
16 May 1718, Italian
Mathematician, Philosopher, Theologian
Jonathan EdwardsJonathan Edwards
05 October 1703, American
American preacher

Samuel ColeridgeSamuel Coleridge
21 October 1772, British
Poet

Gottfried W. LeibnizGottfried W. Leibniz
01 July 1646, German
Philosopher, Mathematician
Jean Le Rond d’AlembertJean Le Rond d’Alembert
16 November 1717, French
Mathematician, Physicist, Philosopher And Musical

Gottfried Wilhelm LeibnizGottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
01 July 1646, German
Philosopher
Carl von ClausewitzCarl von Clausewitz
01 June 1780, German
Military person

Shah Waliullah DehlawiShah Waliullah Dehlawi
21 February 1703, Indian
Muslim Scholar

Charles FourierCharles Fourier
07 April 1772, French
Economist, Sociologist, Philosopher
Johann Gottlieb FichteJohann Gottlieb Fichte
19 May 1762, German
Philosopher, University teacher

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Émilie du ChâteletÉmilie du Châtelet
17 December 1706, French
Philosopher
Johann Gottfried HerderJohann Gottfried Herder
25 August 1744, German, Polish
Philosopher

Joseph de MaistreJoseph de Maistre
01 April 1753, French
Philosopher

Wilhelm von HumboldtWilhelm von Humboldt
22 June 1767, German
Linguist, Diplomat, Anthropologist, Teacher,

James MillJames Mill
06 April 1773, American, Scottish
Historian
Germaine de StaëlGermaine de Staël
22 April 1766, French
Philosopher
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph SchellingFriedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling
27 January 1775, German
Philosopher, University teacher

Giambattista VicoGiambattista Vico
23 June 1668, Italian
Philosopher

Friedrich SchleiermacherFriedrich Schleiermacher
21 November 1768, German, Polish
Philosopher, Theologian, Translator, University

Giacomo LeopardiGiacomo Leopardi
29 June 1798, Italian
Writer, Poet, Philosopher, Philologist
Moses MendelssohnMoses Mendelssohn
06 September 1729, German
Philosopher, Translator, Writer, Bible translator

Gotthold Ephraim LessingGotthold Ephraim Lessing
22 January 1729, German
Writer, Philosopher, Playwright, Poet, Librarian,

François QuesnayFrançois Quesnay
04 June 1694, French
Philosopher, Economist, Physician,

Benjamin ConstantBenjamin Constant
25 October 1767, Swiss, French
Philosopher, Politician, Writer, Diarist

William PaleyWilliam Paley
14 July 1743, British
Philosopher, Theologian, University teacher
Bernard BolzanoBernard Bolzano
05 October 1781, Czech
Mathematician

William WhewellWilliam Whewell
24 May 1794, British
Economist, Physicist, Historian, Philosopher,
Roger Joseph BoscovichRoger Joseph Boscovich
18 May 1711, Croatian, Italian
Physicist

Nicolas MalebrancheNicolas Malebranche
06 August 1638, French
Philosopher, Writer, Theologian

Thomas ReidThomas Reid
07 May 1710, Scottish
Philosopher
Richard PriceRichard Price
23 February 1723, British, Welsh
Philosopher

Johann Georg HamannJohann Georg Hamann
27 August 1730, German
Philosopher
David BrewsterDavid Brewster
11 December 1781, British, Scottish
Botanist, Civil engineer, Physicist, Engineer,

Dimitrie CantemirDimitrie Cantemir
26 October 1673, Romanian
Soldier

Henry St John, 1st Viscount BolingbrokeHenry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke
16 September 1678, British
Politician

Friedrich SchlegelFriedrich Schlegel
10 March 1772, German
Poet

Andrés BelloAndrés Bello
29 November 1781, Chilean, Venezuelan
Poet, Legislator, Philosopher, Educator,
Alexander Gottlieb BaumgartenAlexander Gottlieb Baumgarten
17 July 1714, German
philosopher, professor

Bernard MandevilleBernard Mandeville
15 November 1670, Dutch
Philosopher

August Wilhelm SchlegelAugust Wilhelm Schlegel
08 September 1767, German
Linguist, Translator, Sanskrit scholar,

Hakuin EkakuHakuin Ekaku
19 January 1686, Japanese
Buddhist priest
Frances WrightFrances Wright
06 September 1795, British
Writer, Philosopher

Pierre Louis MaupertuisPierre Louis Maupertuis
28 September 1698, French
Mathematician
Friedrich Heinrich JacobiFriedrich Heinrich Jacobi
25 January 1743, German
Philosopher

Claude Adrien HelvétiusClaude Adrien Helvétius
26 January 1715, French
Philosopher, Writer, French moralists

Johann Friedrich HerbartJohann Friedrich Herbart
04 April 1776, German
philosopher, psychologist, educationist,
N. F. S. GrundtvigN. F. S. Grundtvig
08 September 1783, Danish
Author

Adam FergusonAdam Ferguson
20 June 1723, British
Philosopher, Librarian, Historian, Soldier,
Julien Offray de La MettrieJulien Offray de La Mettrie
French
 

Étienne Bonnot de CondillacÉtienne Bonnot de Condillac
30 September 1715, French
philosopher, economist, writer, psychologist

Antoine Destutt de TracyAntoine Destutt de Tracy
20 July 1754, French
Philosopher
Ludvig HolbergLudvig Holberg
03 December 1684, Danish, Norwegian
Writer

Hugues Felicité Robert de LamennaisHugues Felicité Robert de Lamennais
09 June 1782, French
philosopher
Louis de BonaldLouis de Bonald
02 October 1754, French
Philosopher

Étienne CabetÉtienne Cabet
01 January 1788, French
Philosopher

Joseph ButlerJoseph Butler
18 May 1692, British
Philosopher

Dugald StewartDugald Stewart
22 November 1753, British, Scottish
Philosopher
Antonio SolerAntonio Soler
03 December 1729, Spanish
Composer, Organist, Musicologist, Music theorist,
Antonio RosminiAntonio Rosmini
25 March 1797, Italian
Philosopher

Georg Ernst StahlGeorg Ernst Stahl
22 October 1659, German
Chemist

Victor CousinVictor Cousin
28 November 1792, French
Philosopher

James Burnett, Lord MonboddoJames Burnett, Lord Monboddo
25 October 1714, Scottish
Judge
Judith Sargent MurrayJudith Sargent Murray
 

Constantin François de Chassebœuf, comte de VolneyConstantin François de Chassebœuf, comte de Volney
03 February 1757, French
Philosopher

Sir William Hamilton, 9th BaronetSir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet
08 March 1788, Scottish
Metaphysician

Gaspar Melchor de JovellanosGaspar Melchor de Jovellanos
05 January 1744, Spanish
Statesman

Francesco AlgarottiFrancesco Algarotti
11 December 1712, Italian
Polymath
Philip MazzeiPhilip Mazzei
25 December 1730, Italian
Physician

Motoori NorinagaMotoori Norinaga
21 June 1730, Japanese
Scholar
Joseph JoubertJoseph Joubert
07 May 1754, French
Philosopher, Essayist, Writer

Karl Christian Friedrich KrauseKarl Christian Friedrich Krause
06 May 1781, German
Philosopher, University teacher
Pyotr ChaadayevPyotr Chaadayev
07 June 1794, Russian
Russian author
Sylvain MaréchalSylvain Maréchal
15 August 1750, French
Essayist