Famous People Of The 4th Century

One of the most significant historical figures to emerge during the 4th century was the Roman emperor Constantine the Great. He is credited to have restructured the government, separating civil and military authorities, bringing about a major change in the Roman Empire. In the same century, Samudragupta, the fourth ruler of the Gupta Empire vastly expanded the territories under his rule in the Asian region. It was during the same period that scientists, historians, and philosophers like Hypatia, Iamblichus, and Proclus enriched the world with their inventions and discoveries. This section gives you information about the life and works of famous people of the 4th century.
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 1 
Alexander the Great
(King of Macedonia from 336 BC to 323 BC)
Alexander the Great
61
Birthdate: 0356
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Pella, Greece
Died: May 31, 0323

Counted amongst the greatest military commanders of all times, Alexander the Great successfully created one of the largest empires—from Macedonia to Persia and India—of the ancient world. The son of King of Macedonia, Philip II, he ascended the throne at the age of 20 and achieved unprecedented success before he died at the age of 33.  

 2 
Aristotle
(One of the Greatest Philosophers and the First Genuine Scientist in History)
Aristotle
21
Birthdate: 0384 BC
Birthplace: Stagira, Greece
Died: 0322 BC

Famous Greek philosopher and scientist, Aristotle, made significant contributions to various fields of science and arts of his era–logic, biology, politics, economics, ethics and aesthetics. Along with Socrates and Plato, he laid much of the foundation of Western philosophy. Student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great, he founded Lyceum, the school of philosophy, and the Aristotelian tradition.

 3 
Plato
(Greek Philosopher and Founder of Platonist School)
Plato
25
Birthdate: May 21, 0428
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Classical Athens, Greece
Died: 0348 BC

Plato was one of the most important Ancient Greek philosophers, who contributed greatly to the fields of mathematics, metaphysics, politics, art, and poetry. Along with his famous student Aristotle and equally famous teacher Socrates, Plato is considered one of the founders of spirituality and Western religion. Platonism remains one of his important contributions.

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 4 
Euclid
(Greek Mathematician Who is Considered the 'Father of Geometry')
Euclid
139
Listed In: Scientists
Birthdate: 0330 AD
Birthplace: Greece
Greek mathematician Euclid, also known as Euclid of Alexandria, is remembered as the father of geometry. One of his most significant works was his book on mathematics, Elements. He had worked extensively on conic sections, spherical geometry, and number theory.
 5 
Saint George
(One of the Most Venerated Saints and Megalomartyrs in Christianity)
Saint George
15
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthplace: Cappadocia, Turkey
Died: April 23, 0303

Saint George was a Christian soldier in the Roman army who is accepted as a saint in Christianity. He was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith and was executed by decapitation, according to Greek tradition.  Saint George's Day is celebrated in his memory on 23 April. He is one of the most venerated saints in Christianity.

 6 
Saint Nicholas
(Former Bishop of Myra and Saint)
Saint Nicholas
16
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: March 15, 0270
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Patara, Turkey
Died: December 6, 0343
Fourth-century Greek Christian bishop Saint Nicholas gave rise to the legend of "Santa Claus," associated with the tradition of gifting during Christmas. One legend states that he saved three girls from prostitution and dropped sacks of gold coins through their window to help their father pay for their dowry.
 7 
Hippocrates
(Physician)
Hippocrates
4
Listed In: Physicians
Birthdate: 0460 BC
Birthplace: Kos, Greece
Died: 0370 BC
Hippocrates, or Hippocrates II, also known as the "Father of Medicine,” founded the Hippocratic School of Medicine, which heralded the professional practice of medicine. He also laid down the Hippocratic Oath, an oath still taken by doctors all over the world. His teachings were primarily collated in the Hippocratic Corpus.
 8 
Hypatia
(Mathematician, Astronomer and Philosopher)
Hypatia
21
Listed In: Scientists
Birthdate: 0350 AD
Birthplace: Alexandria, Egypt
Died: February 29, 0415
Hypatia was a Hellenistic Neoplatonist philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer who lived during the 4th and 5th centuries. She also taught and served as a counselor. She is remembered for her commentary on Diophantus's Arithmetica. She was later murdered and became a symbol of feminism and of opposition to Catholic ideals.
 9 
Diocletian
(Roman Emperor)
Diocletian
8
Birthdate: December 22, 0244
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Salona (now Solin, Croatia)
Died: December 3, 0311
Diocletian was the Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Some of the significant policies introduced by him were the Edict on Maximum Prices and the Diocletianic Persecution of Christianity. He also established a tetrarchy, including Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius as co-emperors. He also expanded the empire’s civil and military services.
 10 
Democritus
(Ancient Greek Pre-Socratic Philosopher)
Democritus
7
Birthdate: 0460 BC
Birthplace: Abdera, Greece
Died: 0370 BC

Democritus was an Ancient Greek philosopher whose philosophies predated Socratic philosophies. He is credited with formulating one of the earliest atomic theories of the universe. Best known for his work on subjects like biology, anthropology, and cosmology, Democritus is considered by many to be the father of modern science. He was also a pioneer of geometry.

 11 
Epicurus
(Ancient Greek Philosopher Who Founded 'Epicureanism;, a Highly Influential School of Philosophy)
Epicurus
4
Birthdate: 0341
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Samos, Greece
Died: 0270 BC

Greek philosopher Epicurus is remembered for establishing a school of philosophy known as Epicureanism. He believed that people could achieve ataraxia and aponia, freedom from fear and pain, unless they indulged in amoral behavior. He established a school named The Garden in Athens, where students could discuss philosophical ideas.

 12 
Aeschylus
(Ancient Greek Tragedian Who Known as the Father of Tragedy)
Aeschylus
3
Listed In: Writers
Birthdate: 0525 BC
Birthplace: Eleusis, Greece
Died: 0456 BC
Aeschylus is credited with pioneering the trend of using multiple characters in theater, allowing them to interact among themselves, instead of the chorus. He is best remembered for his tragedies, most notably The Persians, the trilogy The Oresteia, and Prometheus Bound. His works were awarded at the City Dionysia.
 13 
Theodosius I
(Emperor)
Theodosius I
14
Birthdate: January 11, 0347
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Coca, Segovia, Spain
Died: January 17, 0395

Theodosius I, or Theodosius the Great, ruled as the Roman emperor from 379 to 395. He made Christianity the state religion of his empire and constructed architectural marvels, such as the Column of Theodosius, the Golden Gate, and the Theodosian Walls, in Constantinople. He ended conflicts with the Goths and barred pagan rituals in the Olympics.

 14 
Aristophanes
( Comic Playwright of Ancient Athens and a Poet of Old Attic Comedy.)
Aristophanes
0
Listed In: Writers
Birthdate: 0446 BC
Birthplace: Athens, Greece
Died: 0386 BC
Known widely as the Father of Comedy, Greek playwright Aristophanes had contributed to the Old Comedy genre. His works, peppered with satire, mirror the ancient Athenian life. He won the City Dionysia drama contest with his play The Babylonians. He was also in trouble for caricaturing Cleon in his plays.
 15 
Roxana
(Wife of Alexander the Great)
Roxana
16
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 0340 BC
Birthplace: Sogdia
Died: 0310 BC

Roxana was a Bactrian or a Sogdian princess who married Alexander the Great after the latter defeated Darius and invaded Persia. Roxana played a significant role in the life of Alexander. Hence, she is often included in the tales and stories that narrate Alexander's greatness and valor. In the 2004 epic historical film Alexander, Roxana is portrayed by Rosario Dawson.

 16 
Darius III
(King of Persia)
Darius III
4
Birthdate: 0380 BC
Birthplace: Iran
Died: June 30, 0330

Darius III was the last Achaemenid King of Kings of Persia. He reigned from 336 BC to his death in 330 BC. Alexander the Great began his invasion of the Persian Empire in 334 BC and subsequently defeated the Persians in several battles. He then pursued Darius III. Before Alexander could reach him, Darius was killed by his relative Bessus. 

 17 
Bindusara
(Second Maurya Emperor)
Bindusara
48
Birthdate: 0320 BC
Died: 0273 BC

Bindusara, son of Chandragupta Maurya, reigned as the second Mauryan emperor of India. He was the father of Ashoka the Great. Not much is known about his life. It is believed that much of the Deccan had been conquered by him, though there is no concrete proof of the same.

 18 
Mencius
(Chinese Confucian Philosopher)
Mencius
0
Birthdate: 0372 BC
Birthplace: Zoucheng, China
Died: 0289 BC

Mencius was a Chinese philosopher who idolized Confucius’ philosophy. Often referred to as the second Sage, after Confucius himself, Mencius is credited with further developing Confucius' ideology. Mencius is also credited with teaching many students, some of whom went on to become influential philosophers in their own right. Mencius is regarded as one of the most influential persons in history.

 19 
Jerome
(Christian Priest Best Known for His Translation of Most of the Bible into Latin)
Jerome
6
Birthdate: 0342 AD
Birthplace: Štrigova, Croatia
Died: September 30, 0420
Latin priest Jerome of Stridon, also known as Saint Jerome, is remembered for translating the Bible into Latin, which came to be known as the Vulgate. Named a Doctor of the Church, he was a secretary to Pope Damascus I and predominantly preached about how women ascetics should behave.
 20 
St. Augustine
(Theologian, Philosopher and One of the Most Important Church Fathers of the Latin Church in the Patristic Period.)
St. Augustine
28
Birthdate: November 13, 0354
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Thagaste
Died: August 28, 0430

Saint Augustine was a philosopher, theologian, and the bishop of Hippo Regius in Roman North Africa. His writings are often credited with influencing the growth of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. He is also regarded as one of the Latin Church's most important Church Fathers in the Patristic Period. Among his many important works are Confessions and On Christian Doctrine.

 21 
Martin of Tours
(Bishop)
Martin of Tours
0
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 0316 AD
Birthplace: Szombathely, Hungary
Died: November 8, 0397

Martin of Tours, the patron saint of France, had initially fought for the Roman army. Born to Pagan parents, he converted to Christianity at age 10. Legend has it that a vision of Jesus in a dream, after he shared his cloak with a beggar, had pushed Martin into religion.

 22 
Monica of Hippo
(Christian saint and the mother of Augustine of Hippo)
Monica of Hippo
4
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 0332 AD
Birthplace: Souk Ahras, Algeria
Died: August 27, 0387
 23 
Pyrrhus of Epirus
(King of Epirus from 297 BC to 272 BC)
Pyrrhus of Epirus
0
Birthdate: 0319 BC
Birthplace: Epirus
Died: 0272 BC

Greek king Pyrrhus, son of prince Aeacides, belonged to the Hellenistic period and ruled Epirus. His destructive losses in the wars that he fought gave rise to the term “Pyrrhic victory.” He fought against Rome in the Pyrrhic War and later died while fighting a street war in Argos.

 24 
Artaxerxes III
(King of Persia)
Artaxerxes III
1
Birthdate: 0425 BC
Birthplace: Achaemenid Empire, iran
Died: 0338 BC

Artaxerxes III, also known as Ochus, was King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 359/8 to 338 BC. He was the son of Artaxerxes II and his wife Stateira. As a young man, he commanded his father’s army and claimed the throne after his father and brothers died. He conquered Egypt in 340 or 339 BC. 

 25 
Stateira II
(Darius III's Daughter)
Stateira II
2
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 0346 BC
Birthplace: Persia
Died: 0323 BC
 26 
Samudragupta
(Second Emperor of the Gupta Empire of Ancient India)
Samudragupta
9
Birthdate: 0318 AD
Birthplace: Indraprastha, India
Died: 0380 AD

The son of legendary Gupta emperor ruler Chandragupta I, Samudragupta ruled from 350 to 375 CE. He was part of the golden age of Hindu history and is known to have revived the horse sacrifice or Ashvamedha ritual. A devout follower of Vishnu, he had control over almost the entire Gangetic valley.

 27 
Olympias
(Mother of Alexander the Great and Queen of Macedonia (357 - 316 BC))
Olympias
4
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 0375 BC
Birthplace: Epirus, Greece
Died: 0316 BC

Olympias served as the queen of Macedonia from 357 to 316 BC. As the mother of Alexander the Great, Olympias played an important role in Alexander's life. An extremely influential figure during Alexander's reign, Olympias was regarded as the de facto leader of Macedon during her son's conquests. Not surprisingly, Olympias is often depicted in stories that narrate Alexander's life.

 28 
Valentinian I
(Roman emperor from 364 to 375)
Valentinian I
3
Birthdate: July 3, 0321
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Vinkovci, Croatia
Died: November 17, 0375
 29 
Helena
(Empress)
Helena
1
Birthdate: 0246 AD
Birthplace: Helenopolis
Died: 0330 AD
 30 
Gregory of Nazianzus
(Theologian and the Most Accomplished Rhetorical Stylist of the Patristic Age)
Gregory of Nazianzus
1
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 0329 AD
Birthplace: Nazianzus, Cappadocia, Turkey
Died: January 24, 0390

Gregory of Nazianzus was a theologian and Archbishop of Constantinople. He is widely regarded as the most renowned and talented rhetorical stylist of the patristic age. Much of Gregory of Nazianzus' theological work continues to have a significant impact on modern theologians. 

 31 
Gregory the Illuminator
(Patron Saint of the Armenian Apostolic Church)
Gregory the Illuminator
0
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 0257 AD
Birthplace: Armenia
Died: 0331 AD

Gregory the Illuminator is the patron saint of the Armenian Apostolic Church. An important religious leader, Gregory is credited with converting Armenia from paganism to Christianity. Today, Gregory the Illuminator is venerated in the Armenian Apostolic Church, Oriental Orthodox Churches, Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, and Anglican Communion.

 32 
Galla Placidia
(Queen)
Galla Placidia
1
Birthdate: 0392 AD
Birthplace: Constantinople
Died: January 27, 0450
 33 
Gratian
(Roman emperor)
Gratian
2
Birthdate: April 18, 0359
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia
Died: August 25, 0383
 34 
Mesrop Mashtots
(Linguist)
Mesrop Mashtots
0
Birthdate: 0362 AD
Birthplace: Hatzikk, Armenia
Died: February 17, 0440
 35 
Parmenion
(Macedonian Military General Who Served Under Alexander The Great and Philip II of Macedon)
Parmenion
3
Listed In: Leaders
Birthdate: 0400 BC
Birthplace: Macedonia, Greece
Died: 0330 BC

Parmenion was a Macedonian military general who served under Alexander the Great and Philip II of Macedon. Parmenion played an important role in the expansion of Macedonia under Philip II. He also fought alongside Alexander the Great in several battles such as the Battle of the Granicus, Battle of Issus, and Battle of Gaugamela. 

 36 
Arses of Persia
(King of Kings the Achaemenid Empire)
Arses of Persia
0
Birthplace: Iran
Died: 0336 BC

The youngest son of Achaemenid king Artaxerxes III, Arses of Persia was placed on the throne by Bagoas, a eunuch who had poisoned Artaxerxes III and all of Arses’s brothers. Though Arses later revolted against Bagoas’s control, he was killed, along with his children, and the throne was given to Darius III.

 37 
Qu Yuan
(Chinese Politician and Poet)
Qu Yuan
1
Listed In: Leaders
Birthdate: 0340 BC
Birthplace: Hubei, China
Died: 0278 BC
 38 
Saint Ursula
(Saint)
Saint Ursula
0
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthplace: Great Britain, England
Died: November 21, 0383
 39 
Artaxerxes II
(King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 405/4 BC to 358 BC)
Artaxerxes II
0
Birthdate: 0436 BC
Birthplace: Persian
Died: 0358 BC

Persian king Artaxerxes II was the son of King Darius II. After he lost Egypt, he faced a strong revolt led by his brother, Cyrus the Younger, and though Cyrus was later killed, his rebellion kickstarted multiple successive revolts. Artaxerxes’s reign also saw major deviations in religion, with the worship of Anāhitā.

 40 
Nereid
(Queen)
Nereid
0
Birthplace: Greece
 41 
Tiridates III of Armenia
(King)
Tiridates III of Armenia
0
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 0250 AD
Birthplace: Armenia
Died: 0330 AD
 42 
Xun Kuang
(Philosopher)
Xun Kuang
0
Birthdate: 0310 BC
Birthplace: Zhao, China
Died: 0235 BC
 43 
Cyril of Jerusalem
(Saint and Bishop of Jerusalem)
Cyril of Jerusalem
0
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 0313 AD
Birthplace: Jerusalem, Israel
Died: March 18, 0386

Cyril of Jerusalem was a theologian of the early Church who succeeded Maximus as Bishop of Jerusalem towards the end of 350 AD. He is credited with documenting the instruction of catechumens and the order of the Liturgy in his day.  He was declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope Leo XIII in 1883. 

 44 
Saints Sergius and Bacchus
(Christian Saint)
Saints Sergius and Bacchus
4
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthplace: Syria
 45 
Epiphanius of Salamis
(Bishop of Salamis)
Epiphanius of Salamis
1
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 0310 AD
Birthplace: Eleutheropolis, Palestine
Died: April 12, 0403
 46 
Vardan Mamikonian
(Armenian Military and Spiritual Leader)
Vardan Mamikonian
0
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 0387 AD
Birthplace: Artaxata
Died: May 26, 0451

Vardan Mamikonian was an Armenian military and spiritual leader. He is best remembered for his participation in the Battle of Avarayr, where he led the Armenian army. The battle was fought to secure Armenia's right to practice Christianity. Hence, Vardan Mamikonian is considered a saint of the Armenian Apostolic Church. He is also considered a national hero by Armenians.

 47 
Crispus
(Roman Ruler)
Crispus
2
Birthdate: 0305 AD
Birthplace: Byzantine Empire
Died: 0326 AD
 48 
Demetrius I of Macedon
(The King of Macedonia (294 BC – 288 BC))
Demetrius I of Macedon
1
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 0337 BC
Birthplace: Macedonia, Greece
Died: 0283 BC

Demetrius I of Macedon was a Macedonian military leader and nobleman. He is best remembered for serving as the king of Macedonia from 294 to 288 BC. The son of Stratonice and Antigonus I Monophthalmus, Demetrius was the first member from the Antigonid dynasty to rule Macedonia.  

 49 
Ammianus Marcellinus
(Roman Historian and Soldier Who Is Known for His Work 'Res Gestae')
Ammianus Marcellinus
0
Birthdate: 0330 AD
Birthplace: Antioch, Turkey
Died: 0400 AD

Roman historian and soldier from the 4th century, Ammianus Marcellinus penned one of the last major historical accounts of the later Roman empire, Res Gestae, also known as Rerum gestarum libri. His writings charted the Roman times from the accession of Emperor Nerva to the death of Emperor Valens.

 50 
Moses the Black
(Monk)
Moses the Black
0
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 0330 AD
Birthplace: Ethiopia