Born In: Athens, Greece
Born In: Athens, Greece
Aristophanes was a playwright in ancient Greek best known as a writer of comedies. While most of his plays have been lost or partially destroyed, eleven of them survive almost intact to this day. Much respected as a playwright, he was also known as The Father of Comedy and The Prince of Ancient Comedy. Not much is known about him; whatever is known about him is known only through his own works. What is known is that he was an Athenian citizen hailing from a clan named Pandionis. He began his career as a playwright probably around 427 BCE. Society and politics are recurring themes in his plays and it is believed he generally wrote for an educated and mature audience. He was known for his witty dialogues, parodies, and imaginative fantasies. He was a regular participant in competitions and the recipient of numerous awards, including the first prize at the City Dionysia for his second play, The Babylonians. Many of his plays were directed by Callistratus and Philoneides. Aristophanes wasn’t directly involved in politics despite writing highly political plays. Like many other playwrights of his time, he was also a teacher with numerous pupils under his tutelage.
Died At Age: -60
children: Araros, Nicostratus, Philippus
Born Country: Greece
Died on: 386
place of death: Delphi, Greece
City: Athens, Greece
Not much is known about Aristophanes’ childhood or early life. It is known that he was born around 446 BCE in Greece. He was an Athenian citizen though his exact place of birth is disputed.
His father’s name was Philippus, and the family belonged to a clan called Pandionis. It is believed that Philippus owned property on the island of Aegina, and young Aristophanes spent some time there.
Aristophanes started staging his plays around 427 BCE. His first play, directed by Callistratus and Philoneides, was The Banqueters. The play won the second prize at the City Dionysia. His second play, The Babylonians, won the first prize there.
His third play, The Acharnians or Acharnians, was produced in 425 BCE. It is the earliest of his eleven surviving plays. The play became popular owing to its absurd humor and went on to win the first prize at the Lenaia festival.
Produced in 424 BCE, his play The Knights is considered a masterpiece in the Old Comedy genre. It was a satirical take on the socio-political scene in classical Athens during the Peloponnesian War. It won the first prize at the Lenaia festival.
Aristophanes condemned rhetoric on both political and moral grounds. In his fourth play, The Clouds, originally produced at the City Dionysia in 423 BCE, he lampooned the intellectual fashions prevalent in classical Athens. This play is considered a fine example of the Old Comedy genre.
His play The Wasps was produced at the Lenaia festival in 422 BCE. Athens was experiencing a short-lived respite from the Peloponnesian War during the play’s original production. He ridiculed the law courts and satirized the Athenian general Cleon in this work.
Staged a few days before the Peace of Nicias was validated in 421 BCE, his play Peace emerged as the winner of the second prize at the City Dionysia. The play showcases the citizens’ joyous anticipation of peace following the ending of a major war.
He produced the plays The Birds in 414 BCE. The play tells the story of an Athenian, Pisthetaerus, who convinces the birds to create a great city in the sky. Eventually, he transforms into a bird-like god himself and goes on to replace Zeus as the king of the gods.
This was followed by Lysistrata (411 BCE) and The Poet & The Women or Thesmophoriazusae (411 BCE). Both these plays focused on gender-based issues and the role of women in a male-dominant society.
His comedy The Frogs was performed at the Lenaia in 405 BCE. It was a story about the god Dionysus who travels to Hades (the underworld) to bring the deceased playwright Euripides back from the dead.
The last of his surviving plays is Wealth. It was first produced in 408 BCE and was revised and performed again in c. 388 BCE. It is a satire featuring an elderly Athenian citizen, Chremylos, and his slave Cario.
Aristophanes’ play The Birds is considered by modern critics to be a “perfectly realized fantasy.” It is one of the playwright’s longest surviving plays and has many allusions to Athenian political life. The play won the second prize at the City Dionysia.
In his play Lysistrata, he presented a comic account of a woman's outlandishly ambitious mission to end the Peloponnesian War by denying the men of the land any sex. While the original play wasn’t feminist, the modern adaptations of the same often are.
There is hardly any information available about Aristophanes’ wife. However, it is known that he was married and had at least three sons. One of his sons, Araros, was also a comic poet and is believed to have been involved in the staging of the play Wealth. Aristophanes also had at least two other sons called Philippus and Nicostratus or Philetaerus.
He died around 386 BCE, at the age of around 60.
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