Famous 4th Century Historical Personalities

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 1 
Alexander the Great
(King of Macedonia from 336 BC to 323 BC)
Alexander the Great
100
Birthdate: 0356
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Pella, Greece
Died: May 31, 0323

Counted amongst the greatest military commanders of all times, Alexander the Great successfully created one of the largest empires—from Macedonia to Persia and India—of the ancient world. The son of King of Macedonia, Philip II, he ascended the throne at the age of 20 and achieved unprecedented success before he died at the age of 33.  

 2 
Chandragupta Maurya
(Emperor of India and Founder of the Mauryan Dynasty)
Chandragupta Maurya
45
Birthdate: 0340 BC
Birthplace: Pataliputra
Died: 0297 BC

Chandragupta Maurya established the Maurya Empire in India. He was mostly advised by philosopher Chanakya. He conquered the Nanda Empire and fought the Seleucid-Mauryan War, too. His reign was marked by religious tolerance, and cultural and economic prosperity. He later relinquished his throne and became a Jain monk.

 3 
Samudragupta
(Second Emperor of the Gupta Empire of Ancient India)
Samudragupta
7
Birthdate: 0318 AD
Birthplace: Indraprastha, India
Died: 0380 AD

The son of legendary Gupta emperor ruler Chandragupta I, Samudragupta ruled from 350 to 375 CE. He was part of the golden age of Hindu history and is known to have revived the horse sacrifice or Ashvamedha ritual. A devout follower of Vishnu, he had control over almost the entire Gangetic valley.

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 4 
Diocletian
(Roman Emperor)
Diocletian
9
Birthdate: December 22, 0244
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Salona (now Solin, Croatia)
Died: December 3, 0311
Diocletian was the Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Some of the significant policies introduced by him were the Edict on Maximum Prices and the Diocletianic Persecution of Christianity. He also established a tetrarchy, including Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius as co-emperors. He also expanded the empire’s civil and military services.
 5 
Theodosius I
(Emperor)
Theodosius I
9
Birthdate: January 11, 0347
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Coca, Segovia, Spain
Died: January 17, 0395

Theodosius I, or Theodosius the Great, ruled as the Roman emperor from 379 to 395. He made Christianity the state religion of his empire and constructed architectural marvels, such as the Column of Theodosius, the Golden Gate, and the Theodosian Walls, in Constantinople. He ended conflicts with the Goths and barred pagan rituals in the Olympics.

 6 
Pyrrhus of Epirus
(King of Epirus from 297 BC to 272 BC)
Pyrrhus of Epirus
4
Birthdate: 0319 AD
Birthplace: Epirus
Died: 0272 AD

Greek king Pyrrhus, son of prince Aeacides, belonged to the Hellenistic period and ruled Epirus. His destructive losses in the wars that he fought gave rise to the term “Pyrrhic victory.” He fought against Rome in the Pyrrhic War and later died while fighting a street war in Argos.

 7 
Darius III
(King of Persia)
Darius III
4
Birthdate: 0380 BC
Birthplace: Iran
Died: June 30, 0330

Darius III was the last Achaemenid King of Kings of Persia. He reigned from 336 BC to his death in 330 BC. Alexander the Great began his invasion of the Persian Empire in 334 BC and subsequently defeated the Persians in several battles. He then pursued Darius III. Before Alexander could reach him, Darius was killed by his relative Bessus. 

 8 
Alaric I
(King of the Visigoths from 395 to 410)
Alaric I
4
Birthdate: 0370 AD
Birthplace: Peuce Island
Died: 0410 AD

Alaric I reigned as the first king of the Visigoths. Alaric, who operated against the Western Roman regimes, is best remembered for playing a crucial role in the sack of Rome in 410, which was one of the major events leading up to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. After Rome's sack, Alaric fell ill and died in Bruttium.

 9 
Julian
(Roman emperor)
Julian
4
Birthdate: 0331 AD
Birthplace: Istanbul, Turkey
Died: June 26, 0363
 10 
Olympias
(Mother of Alexander the Great and Queen of Macedonia (357 - 316 BC))
Olympias
3
Birthdate: 0375 AD
Birthplace: Epirus, Greece
Died: 0316 AD

Olympias served as the queen of Macedonia from 357 to 316 BC. As the mother of Alexander the Great, Olympias played an important role in Alexander's life. An extremely influential figure during Alexander's reign, Olympias was regarded as the de facto leader of Macedon during her son's conquests. Not surprisingly, Olympias is often depicted in stories that narrate Alexander's life.

 11 
Porus
(King)
Porus
20
Birthplace: Punjab, India
Died: 0321 AD

Fourth century BC Indian prince Porus only finds mention in Greek texts but is said to have ruled over a vast land in what is present-day Punjab in the Indian subcontinent. He fought and lost against the legendary Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great in the Battle of the Hydaspes.

 12 
Bindusara
(Second Maurya Emperor)
Bindusara
14
Birthdate: 0320 BC
Died: 0273 BC

Bindusara, son of Chandragupta Maurya, reigned as the second Mauryan emperor of India. He was the father of Ashoka the Great. Not much is known about his life. It is believed that much of the Deccan had been conquered by him, though there is no concrete proof of the same.

 13 
Vortigern
(Warlord)
Vortigern
3
Birthdate: 0394 AD
Birthplace: Unknown
 14 
Helena
(Empress)
Helena
5
Birthdate: 0246 AD
Birthplace: Helenopolis
Died: 0330 AD
 15 
Valentinian I
(Roman emperor from 364 to 375)
Valentinian I
3
Birthdate: July 3, 0321
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Vinkovci, Croatia
Died: November 17, 0375
 16 
Nereid
(Queen)
Nereid
3
Birthplace: Greece
 17 
Maxentius
(Roman Emperor Who Reigned in the 4th Century)
Maxentius
3
Birthdate: 0283 AD
Birthplace: not known
Died: October 28, 0312

Roman emperor of the 4th century, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius was the son of Maximian. He spent most of his later rule dealing with civil wars. He also invested in building religious structures. He was eventually beaten and killed at Battle of the Milvian Bridge.

 18 
Cassander
(King of Macedonia (305 – 297 BC))
Cassander
3
Birthdate: 0355 AD
Birthplace: Macedonia
Died: 0297 AD
 19 
Artaxerxes III
(King of Persia)
Artaxerxes III
5
Birthdate: 0425 BC
Birthplace: Achaemenid Empire, iran
Died: 0338 BC

Artaxerxes III, also known as Ochus, was King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 359/8 to 338 BC. He was the son of Artaxerxes II and his wife Stateira. As a young man, he commanded his father’s army and claimed the throne after his father and brothers died. He conquered Egypt in 340 or 339 BC. 

 20 
Galla Placidia
2
Birthdate: 0392 AD
Birthplace: Constantinople
Died: January 27, 0450
 21 
Gratian
(Roman emperor)
Gratian
3
Birthdate: April 18, 0359
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia
Died: August 25, 0383
 22 
Marcian
(Former Roman emperor)
Marcian
3
Birthdate: 0392 AD
Birthplace: Thrace, Greece
Died: January 7, 0457

Eastern Roman emperor Marcian is said to have a peaceful “golden age.” He was initially a soldier and contributed to his kingdom’s finances as an emperor, by staying away from wars and refusing to pay an annual tribute to the Huns. He held the Fourth Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon.

 23 
Cleopatra of Macedon
3
Birthdate: 0355 AD
Birthplace: Macedonia
Died: 0308 AD
 24 
Avitus
(Emperor)
Avitus
2
Birthdate: 0390 AD
Birthplace: Clermont-Ferrand, France
Died: 0457 AD
 25 
Chandragupta II
4
Birthdate: 0380 AD
Birthplace: India
Died: 0410 AD
 26 
Nectanebo II
(King of Egypt)
Nectanebo II
2
Birthdate: 0380 AD
Birthplace: Ancient Egypt
Died: 0340 AD
 27 
Valentinian II
(Roman Emperor in the western part of the Roman empire between AD 375 and 392)
Valentinian II
3
Birthdate: 0371 AD
Birthplace: Trier, Germany
Died: May 15, 0392
 28 
Constans
(Emperor)
Constans
2
Birthdate: 0320 AD
Birthplace: Constantinople
Died: January 18, 0350
 29 
Antipater
(Regent of Macedonia (334–23))
Antipater
2
Birthdate: 0400 AD
Birthplace: Macedonia
Died: 0319 AD
 30 
Demetrius I of Macedon
(The King of Macedonia (294 BC – 288 BC))
Demetrius I of Macedon
2
Birthdate: 0337 BC
Birthplace: Macedonia, Greece
Died: 0283 BC

Demetrius I of Macedon was a Macedonian military leader and nobleman. He is best remembered for serving as the king of Macedonia from 294 to 288 BC. The son of Stratonice and Antigonus I Monophthalmus, Demetrius was the first member from the Antigonid dynasty to rule Macedonia.  

 31 
Emperor Ōjin
(Emperor of Japan)
Emperor Ōjin
2
Birthdate: 0201 AD
Birthplace: Umi, Fukuoka, Japan

Remembered for spearheading land reforms and promoting cultural exchanges with the neighboring countries, Ōjin Tennō is a semi-legendary Japanese emperor, deified as the divine spirit of Hachiman, the god of war. Believed to be the fifteenth emperor of Japan, he might have reigned sometime in third or-fourth century AD. His mausoleum at Habikino is the second largest in Japan.

 32 
Crispus
(Roman Ruler)
Crispus
2
Birthdate: 0305 AD
Birthplace: Byzantine Empire
Died: 0326 AD
 33 
Chlodio
(King)
Chlodio
2
Birthdate: 0390 AD
Birthplace: North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
Died: 0450 AD
 34 
Khasekhemwy
(Last Pharaoh of the Second Dynasty of Egypt)
Khasekhemwy
2
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: 2686 BC

The last king of the 2nd dynasty of Egypt, Khasekhemwy was the only ruler to have used a royal name that referred to both Horus and Seth. He is also remembered for building huge structures at places such as el-Kab, Abydos, and Hierakonpolis, signifying the unification of Egypt.

 35 
Theodoric I
(King of the Visigoths from 418 to 451)
Theodoric I
2
Birthdate: 0390 AD
Birthplace: Peuce Island, Dobruja
Died: June 20, 0451
 36 
Mausolus
(Ruler of Caria (377–353 BC))
Mausolus
2
Birthplace: Caria, Turkey
Died: 0353 AD
Dionysius I of Syracuse
2
Birthdate: 0432 AD
Birthplace: Syracuse, Italy
Died: 0367 AD
 38 
Chandra Gupta I
2
Birthplace: India
Died: 0335 AD
 39 
Antigonus II Gonatas
(King of Macedonia)
Antigonus II Gonatas
2
Birthdate: 0320 AD
Birthplace: Thessalia, Greece
Died: 0239 AD
 40 
Geiseric
(Ruler of the Vandal Kingdom (428 - 477))
Geiseric
2
Birthdate: 0389 AD
Birthplace: Lake Balaton, Hungary
Died: January 5, 0477
 41 
Artemisia II
(Naval strategist)
Artemisia II
2
Birthplace: Greece
Died: 0350 AD
Amyntas III of Macedon
2
Birthplace: Macedonia
Died: 0370 AD
Tiridates III of Armenia
1
Birthdate: 0250 AD
Birthplace: Armenia
Died: 0330 AD
 44 
Constantius III
(Roman emperor of the West)
Constantius III
1
Birthdate: 0370 AD
Birthplace: Niš, Serbia
Died: September 2, 0421
 45 
Agathocles of Syracuse
(Greek tyrant of Syracuse (317–289 BC) and self-styled king of Sicily (304–289 BC).)
Agathocles of Syracuse
1
Birthdate: 0361 AD
Birthplace: Himera, Italy
Died: 0290 AD
 46 
Ermanaric
(King)
Ermanaric
2
Birthdate: 0291 AD
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: 0376 AD
 47 
Nectanebo I
(Pharaoh)
Nectanebo I
1
Birthplace: Ancient
Died: 0362 AD
 48 
Berenice I of Egypt
1
Birthdate: 0340 AD
Birthplace: Macedonia
Died: 0268 AD

Berenice I was the 2nd queen of the Egyptian Ptolemaic dynasty and the wife of Ptolemy I Soter. Her first marriage was to a nobleman named Philip and a fake genealogy was made before her 2nd marriage, since she was of non-royal birth. She was also the mother of pharaoh Ptolemy II Philadelphus.

 49 
Gallus Caesar
(Emperor)
Gallus Caesar
1
Birthdate: 0326 AD
Birthplace: Etruria, Italy
Died: 0354 AD
 50 
Agis III
(King of Sparta)
Agis III
1
Birthplace: Greece
Died: 0331 AD