Famous 4th Century Historical Personalities

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 1 
Alexander the Great
(King of Macedonia)

Alexander the Great
97
Birthdate: 0356
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Pella, Greece
Died: May 31, 0323

Counted amongst the greatest military commanders of all times, Alexander the Great successfully created one of the largest empires—from Macedonia to Persia and India—of the ancient world. The son of King of Macedonia, Philip II, he ascended the throne at the age of 20 and achieved unprecedented success before he died at the age of 33.  

 2 
Chandragupta Maurya
(Founder of the Maurya Empire)

Chandragupta Maurya
43
Birthdate: 0000 BC
Birthplace: Pataliputra

Chandragupta Maurya established the Maurya Empire in India. He was mostly advised by philosopher Chanakya. He conquered the Nanda Empire and fought the Seleucid-Mauryan War, too. His reign was marked by religious tolerance, and cultural and economic prosperity. He later relinquished his throne and became a Jain monk.

 3 
Samudragupta
(Ruler of the Gupta Empire (335-375))

Samudragupta
7
Birthdate: 0335 AD
Birthplace: Indraprastha, India

The son of legendary Gupta emperor ruler Chandragupta I, Samudragupta ruled from 350 to 375 CE. He was part of the golden age of Hindu history and is known to have revived the horse sacrifice or Ashvamedha ritual. A devout follower of Vishnu, he had control over almost the entire Gangetic valley.

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 4 
Diocletian
(Roman Emperor)

Diocletian
9
Birthdate: December 22, 0244
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Salona (now Solin, Croatia)
Died: December 3, 0311
Diocletian was the Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Some of the significant policies introduced by him were the Edict on Maximum Prices and the Diocletianic Persecution of Christianity. He also established a tetrarchy, including Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius as co-emperors. He also expanded the empire’s civil and military services.

 5 
Theodosius I
(Emperor)

Theodosius I
9
Birthdate: January 11, 0347
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Coca, Segovia, Spain
Died: January 17, 0395

Theodosius I, or Theodosius the Great, ruled as the Roman emperor from 379 to 395. He made Christianity the state religion of his empire and constructed architectural marvels, such as the Column of Theodosius, the Golden Gate, and the Theodosian Walls, in Constantinople. He ended conflicts with the Goths and barred pagan rituals in the Olympics.

 6 
Pyrrhus of Epirus
(King of Epirus (297-272))

Pyrrhus of Epirus
4
Birthdate: 0319 BC
Birthplace: Epirus
Died: 0272 BC

Greek king Pyrrhus, son of prince Aeacides, belonged to the Hellenistic period and ruled Epirus. His destructive losses in the wars that he fought gave rise to the term “Pyrrhic victory.” He fought against Rome in the Pyrrhic War and later died while fighting a street war in Argos.

 7 
Julian
(Roman emperor)

Julian
4
Birthdate: 0331 AD
Birthplace: Istanbul, Turkey
Died: June 26, 0363
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 8 
Alaric I
(King of the Visigoths (395-410))

Alaric I
4
Birthdate: 0370 AD
Birthplace: Peuce Island
Died: 0410 AD

Alaric I reigned as the first king of the Visigoths. Alaric, who operated against the Western Roman regimes, is best remembered for playing a crucial role in the sack of Rome in 410, which was one of the major events leading up to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. After Rome's sack, Alaric fell ill and died in Bruttium.

 9 
Olympias
(Mother of Alexander the Great, Queen of Macedonia (357-316 BC))

Olympias
3
Birthdate: 0375 BC
Birthplace: Epirus, Greece
Died: 0316 BC

Olympias served as the queen of Macedonia from 357 to 316 BC. As the mother of Alexander the Great, Olympias played an important role in Alexander's life. An extremely influential figure during Alexander's reign, Olympias was regarded as the de facto leader of Macedon during her son's conquests. Not surprisingly, Olympias is often depicted in stories that narrate Alexander's life.

 10 
Porus
(King)

Porus
20
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Birthplace: Punjab, India
Died: 0321 AD

Fourth century BC Indian prince Porus only finds mention in Greek texts but is said to have ruled over a vast land in what is present-day Punjab in the Indian subcontinent. He fought and lost against the legendary Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great in the Battle of the Hydaspes.

 11 
Vortigern
(Warlord)

Vortigern
3
Birthdate: 0394 AD
Birthplace: Unknown

 12 
Khufu
(Second king of the 4th dynasty of Egypt (c. 2575–c. 2465 BCE))

Khufu
4
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Birthplace: Egypt
Died: 2566 BC

Best remembered as the creator of the Great Pyramid at Giza, Egyptian pharaoh Khufu was the second king of the fourth dynasty. The son of King Snefru and Queen Hetephere, Khufu was projected as a oppressor by Greek historian Herodotus, though many sources claim he was a wise ruler.

 13 
Bindusara
(Second Maurya Emperor)

Bindusara
14
Birthdate: 0320 BC
Died: 0273 BC

Bindusara, son of Chandragupta Maurya, reigned as the second Mauryan emperor of India. He was the father of Ashoka the Great. Not much is known about his life. It is believed that much of the Deccan had been conquered by him, though there is no concrete proof of the same.

 14 
Nereid
(Queen)

Nereid
3
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Birthplace: Greece

 15 
Valentinian I
(Roman emperor from 364 to 375)

Valentinian I
3
Birthdate: July 3, 0321
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Vinkovci, Croatia
Died: November 17, 0375

 16 
Helena
(Empress)

Helena
5
Birthdate: 0246 AD
Birthplace: Helenopolis
Died: 0330 AD

 17 
Cassander
(King of Macedonia (305 – 297 BC))

Cassander
3
Birthdate: 0355 AD
Birthplace: Macedonia
Died: 0297 AD

 18 
Maxentius
(Emperor)

Maxentius
3
Birthdate: 0283 AD
Birthplace: not known
Died: October 28, 0312

 19 

Artaxerxes III
5
Birthdate: 0425 AD
Birthplace: Achaemenid Empire, iran
Died: November 30, 0338

Artaxerxes III, also known as Ochus, was King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 359/8 to 338 BC. He was the son of Artaxerxes II and his wife Stateira. As a young man, he commanded his father’s army and claimed the throne after his father and brothers died. He conquered Egypt in 340 or 339 BC. 

 20 

Cleopatra of Macedon
3
Birthdate: 0355 AD
Birthplace: Macedonia
Died: 0308 AD

 21 

Galla Placidia
2
Birthdate: 0392 AD
Birthplace: Constantinople
Died: January 27, 0450

 22 
Gratian
(Roman emperor)

Gratian
3
Birthdate: April 18, 0359
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia
Died: August 25, 0383

 23 
Antipater
(Regent of Macedonia (334–23))

Antipater
2
Birthdate: 0400 AD
Birthplace: Macedonia
Died: 0319 AD

 24 
Marcian
(Former Roman emperor)

Marcian
3
Birthdate: 0392 AD
Birthplace: Thrace, Greece
Died: January 7, 0457

Eastern Roman emperor Marcian is said to have a peaceful “golden age.” He was initially a soldier and contributed to his kingdom’s finances as an emperor, by staying away from wars and refusing to pay an annual tribute to the Huns. He held the Fourth Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon.

 25 

Chandragupta II
3
Birthdate: 0380 AD
Birthplace: India
Died: 0410 AD

 26 
Avitus
(Emperor)

Avitus
2
Birthdate: 0390 AD
Birthplace: Clermont-Ferrand, France
Died: 0457 AD

 27 
Demetrius I of Macedon
(The King of Macedonia (294 BC – 288 BC))

Demetrius I of Macedon
2
Birthdate: 0337 BC
Birthplace: Macedonia, Greece
Died: 0283 BC

Demetrius I of Macedon was a Macedonian military leader and nobleman. He is best remembered for serving as the king of Macedonia from 294 to 288 BC. The son of Stratonice and Antigonus I Monophthalmus, Demetrius was the first member from the Antigonid dynasty to rule Macedonia.  

 28 
Nectanebo II
(King of Egypt)

Nectanebo II
2
Birthdate: 0380 AD
Birthplace: Ancient Egypt
Died: 0340 AD

 29 
Valentinian II
(Roman Emperor in the western part of the Roman empire between AD 375 and 392)

Valentinian II
3
Birthdate: 0371 AD
Birthplace: Trier, Germany
Died: May 15, 0392

 30 
Constans
(Emperor)

Constans
2
Birthdate: 0320 AD
Birthplace: Constantinople
Died: January 18, 0350

 31 
Emperor Ōjin
(Emperor of Japan)

Emperor Ōjin
2
Birthdate: 0201 AD
Birthplace: Umi, Fukuoka, Japan

Remembered for spearheading land reforms and promoting cultural exchanges with the neighboring countries, Ōjin Tennō is a semi-legendary Japanese emperor, deified as the divine spirit of Hachiman, the god of war. Believed to be the fifteenth emperor of Japan, he might have reigned sometime in third or-fourth century AD. His mausoleum at Habikino is the second largest in Japan.

 32 
Crispus
(Roman Ruler)

Crispus
2
Birthdate: 0305 AD
Birthplace: Byzantine Empire
Died: 0326 AD

 33 
Chlodio
(King)

Chlodio
2
Birthdate: 0390 AD
Birthplace: North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
Died: 0450 AD

 34 
Khasekhemwy
(Last Pharaoh of the Second Dynasty of Egypt)

Khasekhemwy
2
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: 2686 BC

The last king of the 2nd dynasty of Egypt, Khasekhemwy was the only ruler to have used a royal name that referred to both Horus and Seth. He is also remembered for building huge structures at places such as el-Kab, Abydos, and Hierakonpolis, signifying the unification of Egypt.

 35 
Theodoric I
(King of the Visigoths from 418 to 451)

Theodoric I
2
Birthdate: 0390 AD
Birthplace: Peuce Island, Dobruja
Died: June 20, 0451

 36 
Mausolus
(Ruler of Caria (377–353 BC))

Mausolus
2
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Birthplace: Caria, Turkey
Died: 0353 AD

Dionysius I of Syracuse
2
Birthdate: 0432 AD
Birthplace: Syracuse, Italy
Died: 0367 AD

 38 

Chandra Gupta I
2
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Birthplace: India
Died: 0335 AD

 39 
Antigonus II Gonatas
(King of Macedonia)

Antigonus II Gonatas
2
Birthdate: 0320 AD
Birthplace: Thessalia, Greece
Died: 0239 AD

 40 
Artemisia II
(Naval strategist)

Artemisia II
2
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Birthplace: Greece
Died: 0350 AD

 41 
Geiseric
(King)

Geiseric
2
Birthdate: 0389 AD
Birthplace: Lake Balaton, Hungary
Died: January 5, 0477

Amyntas III of Macedon
2
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Birthplace: Macedonia
Died: 0370 AD

 43 
Ermanaric
(King)

Ermanaric
2
Birthdate: 0291 AD
Birthplace: Unknown
Died: 0376 AD

Tiridates III of Armenia
1
Birthdate: 0250 AD
Birthplace: Armenia
Died: 0330 AD

 45 
Constantius III
(Roman emperor of the West)

Constantius III
1
Birthdate: 0370 AD
Birthplace: Niš, Serbia
Died: September 2, 0421

 46 
Agathocles of Syracuse
(Greek tyrant of Syracuse (317–289 BC) and self-styled king of Sicily (304–289 BC).)

Agathocles of Syracuse
1
Birthdate: 0361 AD
Birthplace: Himera, Italy
Died: 0290 AD

 47 

Berenice I of Egypt
1
Birthdate: 0340 AD
Birthplace: Macedonia
Died: 0268 AD

Berenice I was the 2nd queen of the Egyptian Ptolemaic dynasty and the wife of Ptolemy I Soter. Her first marriage was to a nobleman named Philip and a fake genealogy was made before her 2nd marriage, since she was of non-royal birth. She was also the mother of pharaoh Ptolemy II Philadelphus.

 48 
Nectanebo I
(Pharaoh)

Nectanebo I
1
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Birthplace: Ancient
Died: 0362 AD

 49 
Gallus Caesar
(Emperor)

Gallus Caesar
1
Birthdate: 0326 AD
Birthplace: Etruria, Italy
Died: 0354 AD

 50 
Agis III
(King of Sparta)

Agis III
1
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Birthplace: Greece
Died: 0331 AD