William Herschel was a German-born British astronomer and composer. He pioneered the use of astronomical spectrophotometry and discovered infrared radiation. Impressed by his work, King George III appointed him the Court Astronomer. Herschel often collaborated with his sister, Caroline Lucretia Herschel, a fellow astronomer. In 1816, he was made a Knight of the Royal Guelphic Order.
British composer Hubert Parry was a major figure behind the 19th-century revival of British music. Educated at Eton and Oxford, he later produced gems such as Songs of Farewell and Jerusalem, with the latter becoming an anthem of sorts during World War I. He was also a passionate sailor.
Ethel Smyth was an English composer whose compositions include songs, chamber music, works for piano, orchestral works, operas, and choral works. She was the first female composer to be granted a damehood. Ethel Smyth was also involved in the women's suffrage movement and is credited with composing The March of the Women, which became the anthem of the movement.
Johann Baptist Cramer was an English pianist, music publisher, and composer of German origin. The son of Wilhelm Cramer, Johann studied under Muzio Clementi and went on to become one of the greatest pianists of his time. Renowned for its technical perfection, Johann Cramer's playing style earned praises from popular pianists around the world, including Ludwig van Beethoven.
The founder of the Tonic Sol-fa technique of teaching music, John Curwen was initially a Congregational minister. He modified Sarah Glover’s Norwich Sol-fa system and developed hand signs representing the solfege syllables, such as "do, re, mi." He also set up a music publishing house, Curwen & Sons, Ltd.