Famous People Born In 1844

Discover the most famous people born in 1844. The list includes people like Friedrich Nietzsche, Mary Cassatt, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Bernadette Soubirous, Sarah Bernhardt and many more. This list of celebrities is loosely sorted by popularity. People featured on this list, include political leaders, poets, emperors & kings and lawyers born in 1844. This list includes people from United States, France, Germany & United Kingdom and many more countries.
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 1 
Friedrich Nietzsche
(German Philosopher, Cultural Critic and Philologist)
Friedrich Nietzsche
48
Birthdate: 15th October
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Röcken, Lützen, Germany
Died: August 25, 1900

German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, and poet Friedrich Nietzsche has had a profound influence on modern intellectual history. He held the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel. His work spanned philosophical polemics, poetry, cultural criticism, and fiction. He suffered from numerous health problems from a young age and died at the age of 55.

 2 
Alexandra of Denmark
(Former Queen Consort of the United Kingdom and British Dominions (1901 - 1910))
Alexandra of Denmark
15
Birthdate: 1st December
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Copenhagen, Denmark
Died: November 20, 1925
Alexandra of Denmark was the queen of the U.K. and the empress of India from 1901 to 1910, as the wife of King Edward VII. Her style of dressing inspired English fashion back then. She supported her son George V’s campaign against Germany, with the Allies, during World War I.
 3 
Louis Riel
(Canadian Political Leader and Founder of the Province of 'Manitoba')
Louis Riel
33
Listed In: Leaders
Birthdate: 22nd October
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Red River Colony, Canada
Died: November 16, 1885

Louis Riel was a Canadian politician. He is credited with founding the province of Manitoba. He holds a significant place in the history of the Métis people as he served as their political leader in pre-Manitoba Northwest Territories. Louis Riel is regarded as a folk hero by the Métis and other Canadian minorities for his efforts to defend their rights.

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 4 
Sarah Bernhardt
(One of the Most Popular French Actresses of the Late 19th and Early 20th Century)
Sarah Bernhardt
4
Listed In: Actresses
Birthdate: 23rd October
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: March 26, 1923

Sarah Bernhardt was a French actress known for playing important roles in popular French plays of the early-20th century.  Her decision to play Hamlet inspired Theresa Rebeck's play Bernhardt/Hamlet, in which Janet McTeer portrayed Sarah Bernhardt. In 1960, Bernhardt became the earliest born person to be honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

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 5 
Menelik II
(Emperor of Ethiopia from 1889 to 1913)
Menelik II
8
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Birthdate: 17th August
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Angolalla Tera
Died: December 12, 1913

Menelik II reigned as the emperor of Ethiopia from 1889 to 1913 after ruling as the king of Shewa from 1866 to 1889. He is credited with transforming the Ethiopian Empire by expanding his kingdom into Wolayta, Sidama, and Kaffa kingdoms. Fascinated by modernity, Menelik II played a major role in modernizing Ethiopia.

 6 
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
(Russian Composer Known for His Operas: ‘Sadko’ and ‘The Tale of Tsar Saltan’)
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
7
Listed In: Composers
Birthdate: 18th March
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Tikhvin, Russia
Died: June 21, 1908

While he grew up listening to Russian folk songs and church music, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov later joined the navy with his brother. One of the legendary Russian composers known as The Mighty Handful, he is remembered for his pieces such as Flight of the Bumblebee from the opera Tsar Saltan.

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 7 
Mary Cassatt
(Painter)
Mary Cassatt
10
Listed In: Artists
Birthdate: 22nd May
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Allegheny
Died: June 14, 1926
 8 
Ludwig Boltzmann
(Physicist)
Ludwig Boltzmann
4
Listed In: Physicists
Birthdate: 20th February
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Vienna
Died: September 5, 1906

Austrian physicist and philosopher, Ludwig Boltzmann, played a key role in the development of statistical mechanics. As a young man, he was appointed a professor of mathematical physics at the University of Graz. He worked extensively with other physicists over the course of his brilliant academic career. He suffered from bipolar disorder and died by suicide in 1906. 

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 9 
Henri Rousseau
(Painter)
Henri Rousseau
0
Listed In: Artists
Birthdate: 21st May
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Laval, France
Died: September 2, 1910
 10 
Karl Benz
(Entrepreneur)
Karl Benz
9
Listed In: Engineers
Birthdate: 25th November
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Mühlburg, Karlsruhe, Germany
Died: April 4, 1929

Karl Benz was a German engine designer, automotive engineer, and entrepreneur.  He designed the Benz Patent Motorcar, for which he received a patent in 1886. He studied mechanical engineering at the University of Karlsruhe before venturing into developing motorcars. His Benz Patent Motorcar is widely regarded as the world's first production automobile. 

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 11 
Henry J. Heinz
(Businessperson)
Henry J. Heinz
2
Listed In: Business People
Birthdate: 11th October
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: South Side (Pittsburgh) Birmingham, Pennsylvania, United States
Died: May 14, 1919
 12 
Paul Verlaine
(One of the Greatest French Poets of the 19th Century)
Paul Verlaine
1
Listed In: Poets
Birthdate: 30th March
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Metz, France
Died: January 8, 1896

Paul Verlaine was a French poet best remembered for his association with the Decadent movement and the Symbolist movement. He is regarded as one of the most important representatives of the fin de siècle in French and international poetry. His poetry served as an inspiration for composers like Gabriel Fauré, who composed several mélodies based on Verlaine's poems.

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 13 
Elijah McCoy
(Canadian-American Engineer Best Remembered for Inventing Lubrication Systems for Steam Engines)
Elijah McCoy
3
Listed In: Inventors
Birthdate: 2nd May
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Colchester, Ontario, Canada
Died: October 10, 1929
 14 
Mehmed V
(Ottoman King)
Mehmed V
5
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Birthdate: 2nd November
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Topkapi Palace Museum, İstanbul, Turkey
Died: July 3, 1918

Mehmed V was the 35th and penultimate Ottoman Sultan who reigned from 1909 to 1918. One of the sons of Sultan Abdulmejid I, he succeeded his brother Abdul Hamid II after the Young Turk revolution. His reign was marked by the loss of the empire’s many territories and witnessed the Ottoman Empire’s entry into World War I.

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 15 
Ilya Repin
(Russian Painter Who was One of the Most Renowned Artists in Russia During the 19th Century)
Ilya Repin
0
Birthdate: 5th August
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Chuhuiv, Ukraine
Died: September 29, 1930

Born amid poverty in Ukraine, Ilya Repin earned himself an art scholarship and later devoted his life to historical painting. A major figure of the realist movement in painting, he had also been the subject of controversies, such as the withdrawal of his painting of Ivan the Terrible murdering his own son.

 16 
Edmonia Lewis
(First African-American and Native American Sculptor to Achieve International Prominence)
Edmonia Lewis
4
Listed In: Sculptors
Birthdate: 4th July
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Rensselaer County, New York, United States
Died: September 17, 1907

Edmonia Lewis was an American sculptor who worked in Rome for most of her career. The first African-American sculptor to gain international prominence, Lewis was also the only Black female artist to have participated and recognized by the American artistic mainstream until the end of the 19th century. Molefi Kete Asante included Lewis in his 100 Greatest African Americans list.

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 17 
Peter I of Yugoslavia
(King)
Peter I of Yugoslavia
3
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Birthdate: 29th June
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Belgrade, Serbia
Died: August 16, 1921
 18 
Thomas Eakins
(American Photographer, Realist Painter, Fine Arts Educator, and Sculptor)
Thomas Eakins
1
Birthdate: 25th July
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
Died: June 25, 1916

Thomas Eakins was an American photographer, realist painter, fine arts educator, and sculptor. Often counted among the most prominent American artists of all time, Eakins painted several hundred portraits during his lifetime. As an educator, Thomas Eakins played an important role in influencing the American art during his generation.

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 19 
Anatole France
(One of the Best-Selling French Poet and Novelist)
Anatole France
2
Listed In: Writers
Birthdate: 16th April
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: October 12, 1924

Anatole France was a French poet, novelist, and journalist. Renowned for writing many best-sellers, Anatole France was one of the most respected French writers of his generation. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1921 for his brilliant literary achievements.

 20 
Andrew Lang
(Poet, Novelist, Literary Critic)
Andrew Lang
3
Birthdate: 31st March
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Selkirk
Died: July 20, 1912

Best known for his collections of folklore, fairy tales, and legends, Scottish author and Merton College fellow Andrew Lang was also an avid historian and anthropologist who coined the term psychical research. His The World of Homer and his translations of Homer’s works remain invaluable to Homerian students.

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 21 
Belle Boyd
(Confederate Spy in the American Civil War)
Belle Boyd
9
Listed In: Spies
Birthdate: 9th May
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Martinsburg, Virginia
Died: June 11, 1900

Belle Boyd was a Confederate spy who was active during the American Civil War. Operating from her father's hotel in Virginia, Boyd provided key information to Confederate Commander Stonewall Jackson in 1862. Belle Boyd's life and career inspired a series of silent films called The Girl Spy.

 22 
Abdur Rahman Khan
(Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901)
Abdur Rahman Khan
7
Birthdate: 30th November
Birthplace: Kabul, Afghanistan
Died: October 1, 1901
Abdur Rahman Khan reigned as the Emir of Afghanistan from 31 May 1880 until his demise on 1 October 1901. He is credited with uniting Afghanistan after years of internal fighting. The greatest Afghan military genius of all time, Abdur Rahman Khan fought more than 40 rebellions throughout his rule. 
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 23 
Joshua Slocum
(First Person in Recorded History to Sail Around the World Single-handedly)
Joshua Slocum
2
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 20th February
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Mount Hanley, Canada
Died: November 14, 1909

Joshua Slocum was a seaman who became the first person to sail single-handedly around the world. He was also a noted writer and wrote a book about his journey, Sailing Alone Around the World; the book became an international bestseller. He disappeared in November 1909, during one of his sailing adventures. He was declared legally dead after a few years. 

 24 
G. Stanley Hall
(Psychologist, Science writer)
G. Stanley Hall
0
Listed In: Psychologists
Birthdate: 1st February
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Massachusetts
Died: April 24, 1924
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 25 
Friedrich Miescher
(First Scientist to Isolate Nucleic Acid in 1869)
Friedrich Miescher
2
Listed In: Scientists
Birthdate: 13th August
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Basel, Switzerland
Died: August 26, 1895

Apart from being the first to discover nucleic acid, Swiss biochemist Friedrich Miescher also isolated protamine, a protein associated with nucleic acid. Born to a scientifically rich family, he initially wished to become a doctor, but rendered partially deaf due to typhoid, he later chose physiological chemistry.

 26 
Minna Canth
(Finnish Social Activist and Writer Best Known for Her Plays, 'The Pastor's Family' and 'The Worker's Wife')
Minna Canth
2
Listed In: Activists
Birthdate: 19th March
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Tampere, Finland
Died: May 12, 1897

Minna Canth was a Finnish social activist and writer best remembered for her plays, The Pastor's Family and The Worker's Wife. Among her plays, Anna-Liisa has been adapted into films and operas for the most number of times. Minna Canth, who was ahead of her time, addressed issues of women's rights in her work.

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 27 
Bernadette Soubirous
(French Saint Who Received Visions from the Virgin Mary in a Cave Near Lourdes)
Bernadette Soubirous
6
Listed In: Saints
Birthdate: 7th January
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Lourdes, France
Died: April 16, 1879
Bernadette Soubirous grew up amidst poverty, which contributed to her ill health and her stunted frame of just over 4 feet. At 14, she had visions of the Virgin Mary, which led to the formation of the Marian shrine of Lourdes. She was declared a saint by Pope Pius XI.
 28 
Gerard Manley Hopkins
(Poet, Writer)
Gerard Manley Hopkins
0
Listed In: Poets
Birthdate: 28th July
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: London
Died: June 8, 1889
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 29 
Edward Carpenter
(English Poet and Philosopher)
Edward Carpenter
1
Listed In: Activists
Birthdate: 29th August
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Hove, Sussex, England
Died: June 28, 1929
 30 
Sarah Winnemucca
(Former writer known for Activist and Spokeswoman for Northern Paiute)
Sarah Winnemucca
0
Birthdate: 30th November
Birthplace: Nevada, United States
Died: October 17, 1891
 31 
Friedrich Ratzel
(Biologist, Geopolitician, Geographer, Zoologist, Political scientist, University teacher)
Friedrich Ratzel
1
Listed In: Leaders
Birthdate: 30th August
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Karlsruhe
Died: August 9, 1904

Friedrich Ratzel was a German ethnographer and geographer. He was the first person to use the term Lebensraum, which would later become an important and popular word among the National Socialists. Also an influential writer, Friedrich Ratzel's works served as a justification for imperial expansion. 

 32 
Sophia Tolstaya
(Writer)
Sophia Tolstaya
0
Listed In: Family Members
Birthdate: 22nd August
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Northwestern Administrative Okrug, Russia
Died: November 4, 1919
 33 
Garret Hobart
(Vice President of the United States (1897-99))
Garret Hobart
1
Listed In: Leaders
Birthdate: 3rd June
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Long Branch, New Jersey, United States
Died: November 21, 1899
 34 
Harvey Washington Wiley
(Chemist)
Harvey Washington Wiley
0
Listed In: Chemists
Birthdate: 18th October
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Kent, Indiana, United States
Died: June 30, 1930
 35 
Richard Theodore Greener
(Educator)
Richard Theodore Greener
0
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 30th January
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
Died: May 2, 1922
 36 
Muhammad Ahmad
(Ruler of Sudan from 1881 to 1885)
Muhammad Ahmad
10
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Birthdate: 12th August
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Dongola, Sudan
Died: June 22, 1885

Born to a Sudanese shipbuilder, Muhammad Ahmad grew up to become a Sufi religious leader. His war against the Ottoman-Egyptian rule and his capture of Khartoum led him to establish a vast Islamic state. Named the first Mahdi, he was one of the rare African rulers to defeat the British.

 37 
Jenny Longuet
(French Political Journalist & Daughter of Karl Marx)
Jenny Longuet
2
Listed In: Journalists
Birthdate: 1st May
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Paris, Kingdom of France
Died: January 11, 1883
 38 
Mihály Munkácsy
(Former Painter who earned international reputation with his genre pictures and large-scale biblical paintings)
Mihály Munkácsy
0
Listed In: Artists
Birthdate: 20th February
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Mukachevo, Ukraine
Died: May 1, 1900
 39 
Lewis Powell
(Soldier, Murder)
Lewis Powell
3
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 22nd April
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Randolph County, Alabama, United States
Died: July 7, 1865
 40 
Vasily Polenov
(Painter)
Vasily Polenov
0
Birthdate: 1st June
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died: July 18, 1927

Vasily Polenov was a Russian painter best remembered for his association with a group of realist artists called The Wanderers. Polenov believed that art could play a major role in promoting joy and happiness. He was also a humanist and worked towards improving the living conditions of those around him.

 41 
Robert Bridges
(Poet)
Robert Bridges
1
Listed In: Poets
Birthdate: 23rd October
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Walmer, Kent, England
Died: April 21, 1930
 42 
James Henry Greathead
(British Mechanical and Civil Engineer Who Improved the Tunneling Shield and the Basic Tool of Underwater Tunneling)
James Henry Greathead
0
Listed In: Engineers
Birthdate: 6th August
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Grahamstown, South Africa
Died: October 21, 1896

James Henry Greathead was a civil and mechanical engineer best remembered for his work on the Liverpool overhead railway, Winchester Cathedral, and the London Underground railways. He is also credited with inventing the Greathead Shield, Greathead Injector Hydrant, and Greathead Grouting Machine.

 43 
Arthur O'Shaughnessy
(Poet)
Arthur O'Shaughnessy
1
Listed In: Poets
Birthdate: 14th March
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: London, England
Died: January 30, 1881
 44 
Manuel González Prada
(Peruvian Anarchist, Politician, and Literary Critic)
Manuel González Prada
0
Listed In: Leaders
Birthdate: 5th January
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Lima, Peru
Died: July 22, 1918

Manuel González Prada was a Peruvian anarchist, politician, and literary critic. A social critic, González Prada helped develop Peruvian intellectual thought and the academic style called modernismo in the early 20th century. Manuel González Prada is also remembered for his service as the director of the National Library of Peru.

 45 
Carl Hagenbeck
(Merchant)
Carl Hagenbeck
0
Birthdate: 10th June
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Hamburg, Germany
Died: April 14, 1913
 46 
Albert Salomon Anselm von Rothschild
(Austrian Chess Player and Businesspeople)
Albert Salomon Anselm von Rothschild
0
Listed In: Sportspersons
Birthdate: 29th October
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Vienna, Austria
Died: February 11, 1911

Austrian-Hungarian banker Albert Salomon Anselm von Rothschild was part of the famous Rothschild banking family. He didn’t just bring in important monetary reforms in Austria but also established himself as a chess player and patron, who even sponsored various chess tournaments. An asteroid was named in his memory.

 47 
Edouard Drumont
(Journalist)
Edouard Drumont
0
Birthdate: 3rd May
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: February 5, 1917
 48 
Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Alençon
(Prince)
Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Alençon
0
Birthdate: 12th July
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Neuilly-sur-Seine, France
Died: June 29, 1910
 49 
Ada Cambridge
(Australian-English writer)
Ada Cambridge
0
Listed In: Poets
Birthdate: 21st November
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: St Germans
Died: July 19, 1926

Ada Cambridge was an English-born Australian writer best known for her novels Materfamilias and Path and Goal. She wrote three volumes of poetry and more than 25 works of fiction. Several of her novels were serialized in newspapers. She became a famous writer and was chosen to be the first president of the Women Writers Club. 

 50 
Wu Changshuo
(Chinese Painter, Calligrapher, and Seal Artist)
Wu Changshuo
0
Listed In: Artists
Birthdate: 12th September
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Anji County, Huzhou, China
Died: November 29, 1927