Famous People Born In 1842

Discover the most famous people born in 1842. The list includes people like William James, Ambrose Bierce, Peter Kropotkin, Alfred Marshall, Mary MacKillop and many more. This list of celebrities is loosely sorted by popularity. People featured on this list, include physicists, economists, chemists and psychologists born in 1842. This list includes people from United Kingdom, United States, France and many more countries.
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 1 
William James
(Philosopher, Psychologist)
William James
13
Birthdate: 11th January
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: New York City, New York, United States
Died: August 26, 1910

William James was an American psychologist and philosopher. Widely regarded as the father of American psychology and one of the most influential American philosophers, James was the first educator in the United States to offer a course in psychology. He is also credited with co-founding a psychological school of thought called functional psychology and establishing a philosophical school called pragmatism.

 2 
Peter Kropotkin
(Anarchist, Socialist & Historian)
Peter Kropotkin
4
Birthdate: 9th December
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: February 8, 1921

Russian philosopher Peter Kropotkin was a passionate advocate of anarcho-communism. He was also an activist, revolutionary, economist, and sociologist. He was arrested and imprisoned for his activism in 1874. However, he managed to escape and lived in exile for over 40 years in different countries across Europe. He returned to Russia after the Russian Revolution in 1917. 

 3 
Ambrose Bierce
(Journalist & Writer, soldier)
Ambrose Bierce
11
Birthdate: 24th June
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Meigs County, Ohio, United States
Died: December 1, 1914
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 4 
Abdul Hamid II
(Sultan of the Ottoman Empire)
Abdul Hamid II
15
Listed In: Emperors & Kings
Birthdate: 21st September
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Istanbul Eyalet
Died: February 10, 1918
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 5 
Alfred Marshall
(Economist)
Alfred Marshall
1
Listed In: Economists
Birthdate: 26th July
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Bermondsey
Died: July 13, 1924

One of the co-founders of the English neoclassical school of economics, 19th-century economist Alfred Marshall is best remembered for his path-breaking book Principles of Economics. His studies on topics such as marginal utility, consumer’s surplus, and the elasticity of demand, enriched the field of economics for years to come.

 6 
Arthur Sullivan
(Composer)
Arthur Sullivan
7
Listed In: Composers
Birthdate: 13th May
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Lambeth, London
Died: November 22, 1900
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 7 
Karl May
(German Writer Known for His Adventure Novels Set in the American Old West)
Karl May
0
Listed In: Writers
Birthdate: 25th February
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Hohenstein-Ernstthal, Germany
Died: March 30, 1912

German author Karl May is best remembered for his travel and adventure tales, which narrate stories set in the Middle East and other lands. His best-known works include The Treasure in the Silver Lake. He developed his love for literature after reading voraciously while in prison for fraud.

 8 
Jules Massenet
(Composer)
Jules Massenet
0
Listed In: Composers
Birthdate: 12th May
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Montaud, France
Died: August 13, 1912
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 9 
Stéphane Mallarmé
(French Symbolist Poet)
Stéphane Mallarmé
2
Listed In: Poets
Birthdate: 18th March
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: September 9, 1898

Stéphane Mallarmé was a French poet whose work inspired many artistic schools of the 20th century like Surrealism, Futurism, Dadaism, and Cubism. Over the years, his poetry has also served as an inspiration for many musical pieces, including Claude Debussy's Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun. Mallarmé's work also influenced Man Ray's film, Les Mystères du Château de Dé.

 10 
Okita Sōji
(Captain of the First Unit of the 'Shinsengumi', a Special Police Force in Kyoto During Late Shogunate Period)
Okita Sōji
2
Listed In: Military Leaders
Birthdate: 30th November
Birthplace: Edo, Japan
Died: July 19, 1868

Okita Sōji was a Japanese military leader who served as the captain of the pilot batch of the Shinsengumi, Kyoto's special police force during the late shogunate period. Okita Sōji is often counted among the best swordsmen of the police force. Okita Sōji has been immortalized in various novels, manga series, and period dramas.

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 11 
Lord Rayleigh
(Discoverer of Argon)
Lord Rayleigh
1
Listed In: Physicists
Birthdate: 12th November
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Langford Grove, Maldon, Essex, England
Died: June 30, 1919

Although John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, received the Nobel Prize for his discovery and isolation of the inert gas argon, his contributions to Physics is not limited to that. Known to make extensive contributions to theoretical and practical physics, especially in the fields of acoustics and optics, his works are now considered to mark the beginning of modern acoustics.

 12 
Mahadev Govind Ranade
(Judge, Social Reformer)
Mahadev Govind Ranade
5
Listed In: Lawyers & Judges
Birthdate: 18th January
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Niphad
Died: January 16, 1901

Mahadev Govind Ranade was an Indian social reformer, scholar, author, and judge. Ranade is credited with co-founding the Indian National Congress as well as founding several organizations like the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, Widow Marriage Association, and Vaktruttvottejak Sabha. He also contributed as an editor of a nationalist publication named Induprakash.

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 13 
Josef Breuer
(Austrian Physician)
Josef Breuer
2
Birthdate: 15th January
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Vienna, Austria
Died: June 20, 1925

Psychoanalyst and physician Josef Breuer inspired what later came to be known as Sigmund Freud’s cathartic method to treat mental ailments. His experiments with his patient Anna O. proved the therapeutic effect of the talking cure. He had also conducted research on the respiratory cycle and discovered the Hering-Breuer reflex.

 14 
James Dewar
(Scottish Chemist and Physicist Best Known for His Invention of the 'Vacuum Flask')
James Dewar
0
Listed In: Scientists
Birthdate: 20th September
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Kincardine, Scotland
Died: March 27, 1923

James Dewar was a British chemist and physicist best known for his invention of the vacuum flask. He conducted considerable research into the liquefaction of gases and atomic and molecular spectroscopy. He also wrote papers on the qualities of hydrogen and organic chemistry. He was awarded the Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts and the Rumford Medal. 

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 15 
Sidney Lanier
(Musician)
Sidney Lanier
0
Listed In: Poets
Birthdate: 3rd February
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Macon, Georgia, United States
Died: September 7, 1881
 16 
Charlotte Mason
(British Educator & Reformer)
Charlotte Mason
0
Listed In: Educators
Birthdate: 1st January
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales
Died: January 16, 1923

Renowned educator of the 1800s, Charlotte Mason introduced a new way of teaching children, which included the use of books which engage the reader, or what she called “living books,” maintaining a nature journal, and using music and art as resources. She helped develop homeschooling techniques that are in use to this day.

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 17 
Sam Davis
(Confederate Soldier Who was Executed by Union Forces and Remembered for His Courage and Loyalty)
Sam Davis
1
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 6th October
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Rutherford County, Tennessee, United States
Died: November 27, 1863

Confederate soldier Sam Davis, who was captured, convicted and executed by Union forces at just 21 years of age in Pulaski, Tennessee, during the American Civil War, is remembered for his courage and loyalty and lauded as the Boy Hero of the Confederacy. A martyr to the Confederate cause, Davis was eulogized by Middle Tennesseeans for his bravery and sacrifice.

 18 
Archduke Ludwig Viktor of Austria
(Noblemen)
Archduke Ludwig Viktor of Austria
0
Listed In: Noblemen
Birthdate: 15th May
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Hofburg Palace, Vienna, Austria
Died: January 18, 1919
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 19 
Allen Allensworth
(Baptist Minister, Educator, Army Officer)
Allen Allensworth
3
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 7th April
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Louisville, Kentucky
Died: September 14, 1914

Born into slavery, Allen Allensworth successfully disguised himself in a uniform and marched to freedom, along with the Union soldiers during the Civil War. He later served the U.S. Navy and eventually became a Baptist preacher. The first Black American lieutenant colonel, he also formed the town Allensworth.

 20 
Mary MacKillop
(Australian Religious Sister Who Has Been Declared a Saint By the Catholic Church)
Mary MacKillop
26
Listed In: Saints
Birthdate: 15th January
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Fitzroy, Australia
Died: August 8, 1909

Mary MacKillop, the first Australian to be made a saint by the Catholic Church, was born to poor Scottish immigrants and had taken up the reins of her family at age 14. She got a pedophile priest dismissed and is thus revered as a patron saint of sexual abuse victims.

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 21 
Clarence King
(US Geologist and Mountaineer Who Was the 1st Director of the US Geological Survey)
Clarence King
2
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 6th January
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Newport, Rhode Island, United States
Died: December 24, 1901

US geologist, mining engineer, and mountaineer Clarence King was the 1st director of the US Geological Survey. While preparing his report, Systematic Geology, he found the first US glaciers. Mostly known for his exploration of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, he penned the iconic work Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada.

 22 
Pîhtokahanapiwiyin
(Chief)
Pîhtokahanapiwiyin
0
Birthdate: 30th November
Birthplace: Battleford, Canada
Died: July 4, 1886
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 23 
Maria Konopnicka
(Polish Poet, Novelist and Children's Writer)
Maria Konopnicka
0
Listed In: Activists
Birthdate: 23rd May
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Suwałki, Poland
Died: October 8, 1910

Maria Konopnicka was a Polish poet, children's writer, novelist, translator, critic, journalist, and activist for Polish independence and women's rights. Counted among the most prominent poets of Poland's Positivist period, Maria Konopnicka first gained prominence after the publication of her poem In the Mountains. A number of memorials and statues have been erected across Poland in her honor.

 24 
Vasily Vereshchagin
(One of the Most Famous Russian War Artists)
Vasily Vereshchagin
0
Listed In: Artists
Birthdate: 26th October
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Cherepovets, Novgorod Governorate, Russia
Died: April 13, 1904

Vasily Vereshchagin was a Russian war artist who became one of the earliest artists from Russia to be recognized internationally. Vereshchagin is best remembered for his realist war scenes which were not printed or exhibited extensively due to their graphic nature. Vasily Vereshchagin is one of the most popular Russian war artists of all time.

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 25 
William B. Cushing
(Naval officer)
William B. Cushing
0
Listed In: Military Leaders
Birthdate: 4th November
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Delafield, Wisconsin, United States
Died: December 17, 1874
 26 
Arkhip Kuindzhi
(Painter)
Arkhip Kuindzhi
0
Birthdate: 27th January
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Mariupol, Russian
Died: July 24, 1910

Arkhip Kuindzhi was a Russian painter of Greek origin. Best remembered for his landscape paintings, Kuindzhi traveled extensively throughout his life. He then went on to serve as a professor at the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts in Russia. He is credited with teaching future painters and artists like Konstantin Bogaevsky, Nicholas Roerich, and Arkady Rylov.

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 27 
Charles Alfred Pillsbury
(Industrialist)
Charles Alfred Pillsbury
0
Birthdate: 3rd December
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Warner, New Hampshire, United States
Died: September 17, 1899
 28 
Alfred de Rothschild
(Banker, Diplomat)
Alfred de Rothschild
0
Listed In: Business People
Birthdate: 20th July
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: London
Died: January 31, 1918

Part of the famous Rothschild banking family from Frankfurt, Alfred de Rothschild started his career with his family’s N.M. Rothschild Bank in London. He later had a 20-year stint as the director of the Bank of England. A passionate art collector, he later also served as a trustee of the National Gallery.

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 29 
Anna Elizabeth Dickinson
(Orator)
Anna Elizabeth Dickinson
1
Listed In: Educators
Birthdate: 28th October
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
Died: October 22, 1932
 30 
Hermann Cohen
(Philosopher)
Hermann Cohen
0
Listed In: Philosophers
Birthdate: 4th July
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Coswig, Anhalt, Germany
Died: April 4, 1918
 31 
John Fiske
(Philosopher)
John Fiske
4
Birthdate: 30th March
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Hartford, Connecticut, United States
Died: July 4, 1901
 32 
Adna Chaffee
(Army General)
Adna Chaffee
0
Listed In: Military Leaders
Birthdate: 14th April
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Orwell, Ohio, United States
Died: November 1, 1914
 33 
Arrigo Boito
(Poet)
Arrigo Boito
0
Listed In: Writers
Birthdate: 24th February
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Padua, Italy
Died: June 10, 1918
 34 
Carl von Linde
(Scientist)
Carl von Linde
1
Birthdate: 11th June
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Berndorf, Germany
Died: November 16, 1934
 35 
William D. Coleman
(Politician)
William D. Coleman
0
Birthdate: 18th July
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Fayette County, Kentucky, United States
Died: July 12, 1908
 36 
Elliott Coues
(American Ornithologist Who Advanced the Study and Classification of 'North American Birds')
Elliott Coues
0
Listed In: Ornithologists
Birthdate: 9th September
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Portsmouth, New Hampshire, United States
Died: December 25, 1899

Renowned ornithologist Elliott Coues, known for his pathbreaking written works such as Key to North American Birds, had established the American Ornithological Union. He had also previously worked as an army surgeon and later taught anatomy. He was also briefly part of the Theosophical Society, though he later lost interest.

 37 
John Gerrard Keulemans
(Illustrator)
John Gerrard Keulemans
0
Birthdate: 8th June
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Rotterdam, Netherlands
Died: March 29, 1912
 38 
Georg, Ritter von Schönerer
(Politician)
Georg, Ritter von Schönerer
0
Birthdate: 17th July
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Vienna, Austria
Died: August 14, 1921
 39 
Rikard Nordraak
(Norwegian Composer, Who Has Composed the Norwegian National Anthem)
Rikard Nordraak
0
Listed In: Composers
Birthdate: 12th June
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Oslo, Norway
Died: March 20, 1866

Legendary Norwegian composer Rikard Nordraak was a child when he began composing music. Best known for composing his country’s national anthem, Ja, vi elsker dette landet, he was also part of the New Norwegian Society and the nationalistic art movement in Norway. Folk music inspired many of his compositions.

 40 
Gaston, Count of Eu
(Prince)
Gaston, Count of Eu
0
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 28th April
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Neuilly-sur-Seine, France
Died: August 28, 1922
 41 
Karl Robert Eduard von Hartmann
(Philosopher)
Karl Robert Eduard von Hartmann
0
Listed In: Philosophers
Birthdate: 23rd February
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Berlin, Germany
Died: June 5, 1906
 42 
Annie Louise Cary
(One of the Most Famous Singers in America in Mid-1880s)
Annie Louise Cary
0
Listed In: Opera Singers
Birthdate: 22nd October
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Wayne, Maine, United States
Died: April 3, 1921

Annie Louise Cary was an American singer who made her debut as a profundo contralto in Italian opera in 1868. She went on to become one of the most popular singers in America and frequently collaborated with other famous singers like Carlotta Patti. At the time of her retirement in the mid-1880s, Annie was the most famous singer in America.

 43 
George Trumbull Ladd
(Philosopher)
George Trumbull Ladd
0
Birthdate: 19th January
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Painesville, Ohio, United States
Died: August 8, 1921
 44 
Helen Blackburn
(American Feminist and Women Activist)
Helen Blackburn
0
Listed In: Activists
Birthdate: 25th May
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Valentia Island, Ireland
Died: January 11, 1903

Women’s rights activist Helen Blackburn was one of the first to campaign for women’s employment in her country and also co-authored the book Women under the Factory Act with author Nora Vynne. She was the editor of The Englishwoman’s Review and was associated with the National Society for Women’s Suffrage, too.

 45 
Olive Soulouque
(Princess)
Olive Soulouque
1
Birthdate: 29th November
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Second Empire of Haiti
Died: July 23, 1883
 46 
Henry Hyndman
(English Writer, Politician and Socialist)
Henry Hyndman
0
Listed In: Writers
Birthdate: 7th March
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: London, England
Died: November 20, 1921
 47 
Marie-Charles David de Mayrena
(Adventurer)
Marie-Charles David de Mayrena
0
Listed In: Miscellaneous
Birthdate: 31st January
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Toulon, France
Died: November 11, 1890
 48 
Charles Cros
(Poet)
Charles Cros
0
Listed In: Writers
Birthdate: 1st October
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Aude, France
Died: August 9, 1888
 49 
Stojan Novaković
(Politician)
Stojan Novaković
0
Listed In: Leaders
Birthdate: 1st November
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Šabac, Serbia
Died: February 18, 1915
 50 
Antero de Quental
(Portuguese Poet, Philosopher, and Writer)
Antero de Quental
0
Listed In: Writers
Birthdate: 18th April
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Ponta Delgada, Portugal
Died: September 11, 1891

Antero Tarquínio de Quental was a Portuguese philosopher, writer, and poet. Widely regarded as one of the most influential and prominent Portuguese language writers of all time, De Quental is also often counted among the greatest poets of his generation. His works are often compared to that of Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage, Luís Vaz de Camões, and Fernando Pessoa.