Archaeologists

Archaeologists study ancient societies to explore the people and culture of those societies. They generally work for museums, universities and government agencies. They recover and examine ancient buildings, graves and other evidences that they have found during excavation. These materials testify to the existence of previous civilizations. The remnants of artefacts and buildings of ancient civilizations provide clear picture about the culture, food habit, religion and literature of ancient people. Archaeologists follow a systematic method when they are excavating an area where, they believe, an ancient civilisation may have existed. In order to determine their sites for excavation, they employ procedures like aerial photography and field walking and sometimes even information gathered from the local populous if they are well acquainted with the area and have found ancient artefacts in the past. Methods like drawings, written information, measurements and computer aided designs play significant roles in the profession of an archaeologist. The in-depth analysis of the drawings, designs and other data play vital role for the publication of archaeological findings. Preservation of archaeological sites in collaboration with museums is also considered the responsibility of archaeologists. There are many archaeologists who work as directors of excavation and historical research programmes. Some archaeologists also choose teaching as their profession. This section provides information, in the form of a biography, about the life and works of renowned archaeologists from all over the world.
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 1 T. E. Lawrence

T. E. Lawrence.
6
Famous As: Archaeologist
Birthdate: August 16, 1888
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Tremadog, Wales
Died: May 19, 1935
T. E. Lawrence was a British army officer who participated in the Arab Revolt, against the Ottoman regime, during World War I. Nicknamed Lawrence of Arabia, he inspired a movie of the same name. His treatise of his war experiences was published as Seven Pillars of Wisdom, his best-known work.

 2 Howard Carter

Howard Carter.
4
Famous As: Archaeologist
Birthdate: May 9, 1874
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Kensington, England, United Kingdom
Died: March 2, 1939
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 3 Zahi Hawass

Zahi Hawass.
4
Famous As: Egyptian archaeologist
Birthdate: May 28, 1947
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Damietta

 4 Heinrich Schliemann

Heinrich Schliemann.
4
Famous As: Archaeologist
Birthdate: January 6, 1822
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Neubukow, Germany
Died: December 26, 1890

German businessman Heinrich Schliemann didn’t let his poverty or lack of education hinder his growth and learned several languages moving from place to place for trade. A pioneer in the field of archaeology, he is now remembered as the man who discovered Troy in his bid to unearth “Priam's Treasure."

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 5 Neil Oliver

Neil Oliver.
4
Famous As: TV Presenter
Birthdate: February 21, 1967
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Renfrewshire, Scotland, UK

 6 Max Mallowan

Max Mallowan
4
Famous As: Archaeologist
Birthdate: May 6, 1904
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Wandsworth, London, England
Died: August 19, 1978
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 7 Ron Wyatt

Ron Wyatt
4
Famous As: Archaeologist
Birthdate: June 2, 1933
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Hamilton, Ohio, United States
Died: August 4, 1999
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 8 Nicholas Roerich

Nicholas Roerich
4
Famous As: Painter
Birthdate: October 9, 1874
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died: December 13, 1947

Russian painter, writer, philosopher, theosophist and archaeologist, Nicholas Roerich, counted among the greatest Russian painters, is noted for initiating the modern movement for the defense of cultural objects. One of the greatest feats that he achieved during his lifetime was the Roerich Pact that was signed into law by the US and most nations of the Pan-American Union.

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 9 Giovanni Battista Piranesi

Giovanni Battista Piranesi
4
Famous As: Archaeologist
Birthdate: October 4, 1720
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Venice, Italy
Died: November 9, 1778

 10 Robert Adam

Robert Adam
4
Famous As: Architect, Archaeologist, Politician
Birthdate: July 3, 1728
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Kirkcaldy
Died: March 3, 1792
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 11 Gustave Le Bon

Gustave Le Bon
4
Famous As: Physician, Anthropologist, Archaeologist, Psychologist, Philosopher, Historian, Sociologist
Birthdate: May 7, 1841
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Nogent-le-Rotrou
Died: December 13, 1931

French social psychologist Gustave Le Bon is best remembered for his research on crowd psychology. In his iconic work La psychologie des foules, or The Crowd, he stated that people are driven by their emotions and not by their intellect when they act as part of a crowd.

 12 Maria Reiche

Maria Reiche
4
Famous As: Mathematician
Birthdate: May 15, 1903
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Dresden, Germany
Died: June 8, 1998

 13 Arthur Evans

Arthur Evans
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Famous As: Archaeologist
Birthdate: July 8, 1851
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Nash Mills, England
Died: July 11, 1941

 14 Johann Joachim Winckelmann

Johann Joachim Winckelmann
4
Famous As: Art historian
Birthdate: December 9, 1717
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Stendal, Germany
Died: June 8, 1768

German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann is often referred to as the father of modern archaeology. Born to a cobbler, he studied Greek, theology, and even medicine. He later specialized in Greek and Neoclassical art and had a prominent influence on Western painting, sculpture, and literature.

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 15 Marija Gimbutas

Marija Gimbutas
4
Famous As: Archaeologist
Birthdate: January 23, 1921
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Vilnius
Died: February 2, 1994

 16 Mary Leakey

Mary Leakey
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Famous As: Paleoanthropologist
Birthdate: February 6, 1913
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: London, England
Died: December 9, 1996

British paleoanthropologist Mary Leakey had exhibited her interest in drawing and archaeology as a kid. Most of her career was spent working alongside her husband, Louis Leakey. She was in charge of many excavation projects in Kenya. Her discoveries include the first Proconsul skull fossil and 15 new animal species.

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 17 Sir Flinders Petrie

Sir Flinders Petrie
4
Famous As: Egyptologist
Birthdate: June 3, 1853
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: London, England
Died: July 28, 1942

 18 Edward Drinker Cope

Edward Drinker Cope
4
Famous As: American paleontologist
Birthdate: July 28, 1840
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Philadelphia
Died: April 12, 1897

 19 Margaret Murray

Margaret Murray
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Famous As: Anthropologist, Archaeologist, Egyptologist
Birthdate: July 13, 1863
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Kolkata
Died: November 13, 1963

British Egyptologist and anthropologist Margaret Murray was also a scholar of witchcraft. Her best-known work is her 1921 book The Witch Cult in Western Europe, which inspired later witchcraft scholars such as Gerald B. Gardner. The University College London professor had worked in places such as Egypt, Malta, and Petra.

 20 Sir Mortimer Wheeler

Sir Mortimer Wheeler
4
Famous As: Archaeologist
Birthdate: September 10, 1890
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Glasgow, Scotland
Died: July 22, 1976

 21 John Soane

John Soane
4
Famous As: Architect, Archaeologist
Birthdate: September 10, 1753
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Reading
Died: January 20, 1837

 22 Giovanni Battista Belzoni

Giovanni Battista Belzoni
4
Famous As: Explorer, Antiquarian, Egyptologist, Archaeologist, Novelist, Travel writer
Birthdate: November 5, 1778
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Padua
Died: December 3, 1823

 23 R. G. Collingwood

R. G. Collingwood
3
Famous As: Philosopher
Birthdate: February 22, 1889
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Cartmel Fell, England
Died: January 9, 1943

 24 Theodor Mommsen

Theodor Mommsen
3
Famous As: Historian
Birthdate: November 30, 1817
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Garding
Died: November 1, 1903

One of the most influential 19th-century classicists, Theodor Mommsen donned many hats and was at the same time a historian, a philologist, a legal scholar, and an archaeologist. His legendary A History of Rome won him a Nobel Prize in Literature. He had also fathered 16 children.

 25 Othniel Charles Marsh

Othniel Charles Marsh
3
Famous As: Paleontologist
Birthdate: October 29, 1831
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Lockport
Died: March 18, 1899

 26 Prosper Mérimée

Prosper Mérimée
3
Famous As: Anthropologist, Archaeologist, Historian, Translator, Politician, Writer, Novelist, Painter, Playwright
Birthdate: September 28, 1803
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Paris
Died: September 23, 1870

Prosper Mérimée was a French writer and one of the pioneers of narrative prose, which came to be known as a novella. A multi-talented personality, Mérimée was also a historian and archaeologist; he played a key role in the development of the process of architectural preservation. He was responsible for safeguarding several historic sites, such as the Cité de Carcassonne. 

 27 Fred Vargas

Fred Vargas
3
Famous As: Writer, Archaeologist, Novelist, Historian
Birthdate: June 7, 1957
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Paris

Fred Vargas is a French archaeologist, historian, and novelist. She is best known for her work on the bubonic plague, the Black Death. In 2009, she became the first author to win three International Dagger Awards for three consecutive novels, having won the award in 2006 and 2008. In 2018, she was honored with the prestigious Princess of Asturias Prize.

 28 Yosef Ben-Jochannan

Yosef Ben-Jochannan
3
Famous As: Historian, Archaeologist
Birthdate: December 31, 1918
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Gondar
Died: March 19, 2015

 29 E.F. Benson

E.F. Benson
3
Famous As: Novelist
Birthdate: July 24, 1867
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Wellington College, England
Died: February 29, 1940

Chiefly known as a novelist, biographer, and memoirist, Edward Frederic Benson began his career with the British School of Archaeology in Athens, publishing his first successful novel, Dodo: A Detail of the Day, during this period. Its popularity encouraged him to continue publishing, the most significant works among them being Mapp and Lucia series, and the biography of Queen Victoria.

 30 Carleton S. Coon

Carleton S. Coon
3
Famous As: Anthropologist, Archaeologist, Prehistorian
Birthdate: June 23, 1904
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Wakefield
Died: June 3, 1981

Carleton S. Coon was an anthropologist who originated several theories on race. He had a successful academic career and served as the president of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. He was awarded the Viking Medal in Physical Anthropology. Even though he was a famous anthropologist of his time, his racial theories are dismissed as pseudoscientific in modern anthropology. 

 31 Sir Leonard Woolley

Sir Leonard Woolley
3
Famous As: Archaeologist
Birthdate: April 17, 1880
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: London, England
Died: February 20, 1960

 32 Antoine Galland

Antoine Galland
3
Famous As: Archaeologist
Birthdate: April 4, 1646
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Rollot, France
Died: February 17, 1715

 33 Donald Johanson

Donald Johanson
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Famous As: Anthropologist, Archaeologist, Prehistorian, Paleoanthropologist, University teacher
Birthdate: June 28, 1943
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Chicago

Donald Johanson is a paleoanthropologist. He collaborated with Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb to discover the fossil of a female hominin australopithecine in the Afar Triangle region of Hadar, Ethiopia. This fossil was named “Lucy". As an academician, he established the Institute of Human Origins in Berkeley. He is the recipient of several awards and honors. 

 34 Johann Ludwig Burckhardt

Johann Ludwig Burckhardt
3
Famous As: Explorer, Writer, Art historian, Archaeologist
Birthdate: November 24, 1784
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Lausanne
Died: October 15, 1817

 35 John Hubert Marshall

John Hubert Marshall
3
Famous As: Archaeologist
Birthdate: March 19, 1876
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Chester, England
Died: August 17, 1958

 36 Walter Alvarez

Walter Alvarez
3
Famous As: Geologist, Scientist, Archaeologist, University teacher
Birthdate: October 3, 1940
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Berkeley

 37 Michael Ventris

Michael Ventris
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Famous As: Linguist, Architect, Historian, Archaeologist
Birthdate: July 12, 1922
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Wheathampstead
Died: September 6, 1956

 38 John Aubrey

John Aubrey
3
Famous As: Antiquary
Birthdate: March 12, 1626
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Kington St Michael, Wiltshire, England
Died: June 7, 1697

 39 Sir Aurel Stein

Sir Aurel Stein
3
Famous As: Archaeologist
Birthdate: November 26, 1862
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Budapest, Hungary
Died: October 26, 1943

 40 David Rohl

David Rohl
3
Famous As: Egyptologist, Archaeologist, Engineer, Historian, Audio engineer, Musician
Birthdate: September 12, 1950
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Manchester

 41 Osman Hamdi Bey

Osman Hamdi Bey
3
Famous As: Painter
Birthdate: December 30, 1842
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: İstanbul, Turkey
Died: February 24, 1910

 42 Raymond Dart

Raymond Dart
3
Famous As: Anatomist
Birthdate: February 4, 1893
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Brisbane, Australia
Died: November 22, 1988

Born to a farmer in Australia, Raymond Dart initially wished to become a medical missionary to China. However, he was later pushed by his father to study science. He later grew up to be a renowned anatomist and anthropologist, best known for discovering the first fossil of the Australopithecus africanus.

 43 Yigael Yadin

Yigael Yadin
3
Famous As: Anthropologist, Archaeologist, Politician, Military personnel
Birthdate: March 20, 1917
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Jerusalem
Died: June 28, 1984

Yigael Yadin was an Israeli archeologist, soldier, and politician. From 1977 to 1981, he served as the second chief of staff of the Israel Defense Forces and deputy prime minister. He had an extensive career in the army, following which he joined politics. He was also a brilliant archeologist and received the Israel Prize in Jewish studies. 

 44 Austen Henry Layard

Austen Henry Layard
3
Famous As: Archaeologist
Birthdate: March 5, 1817
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: July 5, 1894

 45 James Bruce

James Bruce
3
Famous As: Explorer, Archaeologist, Film editor, Botanist
Birthdate: December 14, 1730
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Stirling
Died: April 27, 1794

 46 Jan Assmann

Jan Assmann
3
Famous As: Egyptologist
Birthdate: July 7, 1938
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Langelsheim, Germany

 47 William F. Albright

William F. Albright
3
Famous As: Archaeologist
Birthdate: May 24, 1891
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Coquimbo, Chile
Died: September 19, 1971

 48 Christian Jürgensen Thomsen

Christian Jürgensen Thomsen
3
Famous As: Antiquarian
Birthdate: December 29, 1788
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Copenhagen, Denmark
Died: May 21, 1865

 49 Marcelino de Sautuola

Marcelino de Sautuola
3
Famous As: Jurist
Birthdate: June 2, 1831
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Santander, Cantabria Santander, Spain
Died: March 30, 1888

Spanish jurist and amateur archaeologist Marcelino de Sautuola was the owner of the land where the Altamira cave was found. Led by his eight-year-old daughter María, Sautuola discovered drawings of the cave that are earliest known examples of Stone Age painting. Sautuola and archaeologist Juan Vilanova y Piera excavated the cave that was later declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO.

 50 Lewis Binford

Lewis Binford
3
Famous As: Archaeologist
Birthdate: November 21, 1931
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Norfolk, Virginia, United States
Died: April 11, 2011
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