Birthday: June 26, 1866
Died At Age: 56
Sun Sign: Cancer
Also Known As: George Edward Stanhope Molyneux Herbert
Born Country: England
Born in: Highclere Castle, Hampshire, England, United Kingdom
Famous as: Egyptologist
Spouse/Ex-: Almina Herbert, Countess of Carnarvon (m. 1895)
father: Henry Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon
mother: Lady Evelyn Stanhope
children: 6th Earl of Carnarvon, Evelyn Beauchamp, Henry Herbert
Died on: April 5, 1923
place of death: Cairo, Kingdom of Egypt
Cause of Death: Septecemia
Who was George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon?
George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon, was an English Peer best known for financing the search for and later the excavation of Tutankhamun’s tomb. He was the eldest son of Tory statesman, Henry Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon. Around the age of 35, he had a car accident, which left him partially disabled. Thereafter, he began spending the winters in Egypt, where he developed a passion for Egyptian antiques, eventually becoming an enthusiastic amateur Egyptologist, beginning to excavate on his own from the age of 41. Later, he appointed archaeologist, Howard Carter, working together with him from 1907 to 1911 and again from 1917 until they stumbled upon the tomb of Tutankhamen in November 1922. Although he was present during the opening of the tomb and its inner burial chamber, he did not live to complete the work, dying shortly after that.
Childhood & Early Years
George Edward Stanhope Molyneux Herbert was born on 28 June 1866 at Highclere Castle, Hampshire, England. His father, Henry Howard Molyneux Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon, was a distinguished statesman and a leading Tory politician. His mother, Lady Evelyn Stanhope, was the daughter of George Stanhope, 6th Earl of Chesterfield.
Born eldest of his parents’ four children, he had three younger sisters; Lady Winifred Herbert, Lady Margaret Herbert, and Lady Victoria Herbert. From his father’s second marriage, he had two half-brothers; Honorable Aubrey Nigel Henry Molyneux Herbert and Honorable Mervyn Robert Howard Molyneux Herbert.
Little is known about his childhood except that he was enrolled at the prestigious Eton College in 1879 and studied there till 1882. Thereafter, he entered Trinity College, University of Cambridge, from where he graduated in 1886.
In 1885, while he was still a student at Trinity College, he inherited the Bretby Hall estate in Derbyshire from his maternal grandmother. In the following year, he was styled Baron Porchester, a title he held until he succeeded his father in 1890.
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In June 1890, Henry Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon, passed away and with that George Herbert became the 5th Earl of Carnarvon. He also inherited four big estates, spreading over 6,000 acres. Also in the same year, he was appointed High Steward of Newbury.
Like many young men of his class, he soon began leading an exorbitant life style. Very soon, he incurred a debt of £150,000 and marrying a heiress remained an only way out for him.
In 1895, he married Almina Victoria Maria Alexandra Wombwell, possibly the illegitimate daughter of Alfred de Rothschild, a Jewish millionaire banker belonging to the well-known Rothschild family. His would-be father-in-law not only paid off his debts, but also provided a marriage settlement of £500,000.
Apart from racehorses, Lord Carnarvon was also passionate about cars. In 1901, while motoring through Germany, he had a serious accident, which left him disabled. He never fully recovered from it.
In 1902, he started breeding thoroughbred racehorses and established Highclere Stud for that purpose. In 1905, he was appointed one of the stewards at the new Newbury Racecourse.
From early 1900s, Lord Carnarvon and his wife began spending their winters in Egypt, since it had warmer climate than England. Quickly, they developed an interest in Egyptian antiques, acquiring number of such pieces to be added to their collection at home.
Over the time, Lord Carnarvon acquired fame as an amateur Egyptologist. In 1906, he started excavating near Thebes (modern day Luxor). But very soon, he realized that it needed expertise and sought the help of Howard Carter, a British archaeologist and former employee at Egyptian government’s antiquities department.
In 1907, he signed a contact with Carter, who agreed to supervise excavation for him. Very soon, they began searching for the tombs of the Egyptian noblemen in Deir el-Bahri, near Thebes, often without any reward.
After working for a long time, they were able to find tombs belonging to the 12th and 18th dynasties. In 1912, they published an account of their work in a book entitled ‘Five Years’ Explorations at Thebes’.
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Excavating Valley of Kings
In 1914, Lord Carnarvon received permission to excavate the Valley of the Kings. Located opposite to Thebes on the west bank of the Nile, the area contained many rock cut tombs belonging to ancient pharaohs and nobles.
Shortly after receiving permission, he began the excavation under the supervision of Howard Carter. But the First World War set off soon after that; forcing him to halt the work.
They resumed the excavation towards the end of 1917; but for a long time it yielded no significant result. Eventually in 1922, Lord Carnarvon decided to abandon the project if nothing significant is found within that year. ,
On 4 November 1922, he received a telegram from Carter, which read "At last we have made wonderful discovery in Valley; a magnificent tomb with seals intact; re-covered same for your arrival; congratulations". It was the tomb of Tutankhamun, who ruled over Egypt from 1334 to 1325 BC.
Opening the Tomb of Tutankhamun
By 24 November 1922, Lord Carnarvon was back in Egypt, this time accompanied by his daughter, Lady Evelyn Herbert. Although it was decided that the tomb would be officially opened under the supervision of the Egyptian Department of Antiquities on 29 November they could not wait that long.
On 26 and 27 November, they made several unauthorized visits. Initially, they peeped into the tomb through a tiny breach made in one corner of its doorway. Later they entered the tomb, where they found two more sealed doorways, one of which led the inner burial chamber.
On 29 November, 1922, the tomb was officially opened in the presence of Egyptian authorities. In December, he went back to England for a short visit, returning to Egypt in January 1923. During this trip he had possibly sold the exclusive newspaper rights to report the excavation to The Times.
On 16 February, 1923, the inner burial chamber was opened in presence of Egyptian officer. But very soon, a rift arose between Carnarvon, Carter and the Egyptian authorities, leading to temporary suspension of the work. Although the matter was later resolved, Carnarvon did not live to complete the excavation.
Personal Life & Legacy
In 1895, Lord Carnarvon married Almina Victoria Maria Alexandra Wombwell, officially the daughter of Marie and Fred Wombwell. However, according to available sources, she was born out of a liaison between Alfred de Rothschild and Marie.
The couple had two children. Their, son Henry George Alfred Marius Victor Francis Herbert, later inherited his estate as the Sixth Earl of Carnarvon. Younger to him, was a daughter called Lady Evelyn Leonora Almina, who later married Sir Brograve Beauchamp.
On 19 March 1923, while in Egypt, Carnarvon suffered a severe mosquito bite which later became infected. On 5 April, he died of complications arising out of it in the Continental-Savoy Hotel in Cairo. His remains were later interred near his family seat in England.
After Carnarvon’s sudden death in April 1923, the Egyptian government took ownership of the artifacts found inside Tutankhamun’s tomb. Later however, his heirs were provided with a grant of £35,000.