Gemini Scientists

This ranking is based on an algorithm that combines various factors, including the votes of our users and search trends on the internet.

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 1 
John Forbes Nash Jr.
(Mathematician)

John Forbes Nash Jr.
22
Birthdate: June 13, 1928
Birthplace: Bluefield, West Virginia, United States
Died: May 23, 2015
The inspiration behind the movie A Beautiful Mind, John F. Nash was a legendary mathematician whose work in the area of game theory earned him the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. In his later years, he was riddled with mental illness. He later died in a car crash.

 2 
Carl Linnaeus
(Botanist)

Carl Linnaeus
20
Birthdate: May 23, 1707
Birthplace: Linnés Råshults Stiftelse, Älmhult Municipality, Sweden
Died: January 10, 1778

Swedish botanist and lecturer Carl Linnaeus, who established the concept of binomial nomenclature, or the system of naming organisms, is also known as the father of modern taxonomy. His system of classification is known as Linnaean taxonomy. He was the first to include humans and apes under the header Anthropomorpha.

 3 
Blaise Pascal
(One of the Greatest Mathematicians of All Time Who Invented the Mechanical Calculator)

Blaise Pascal
23
Birthdate: June 19, 1623
Birthplace: Clermont-Ferrand, France
Died: August 19, 1662

Blaise Pascal was a French physicist, mathematician, philosopher, and inventor. A child prodigy, Pascal's work on projective geometry, at the age of 16 is commendable. He is one of the earliest inventors of the mechanical calculator, which he did when he was still a teenager. His work on probability theory influenced the development of social science and modern economics.

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 4 
James Maxwell
(Mathematician & Physicist)

James Maxwell
6
Birthdate: June 13, 1831
Birthplace: Edinburgh, Scotland
Died: November 5, 1879

Scottish physicist James Maxwell’s contributions included the formulation of the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation and the production of the first light-fast color photograph. His Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution explored the kinetic theory of gases. He has also written poems and was an Elder of the Church of Scotland.

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 5 
Grigori Perelman
(Mathematician)

Grigori Perelman
11
Birthdate: June 13, 1966
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia
Russian mathematician Grigori Perelman is best known for his work on geometry, especially Riemannian geometry, geometric analysis, and geometric topology. He declined many prizes, such as the Fields Medal and the Millennium Prize. His proof of the Poincaré conjecture was named the Breakthrough of the Year by Science magazine.

 6 
Rachel Carson
(Marine biologist)

Rachel Carson
4
Birthdate: May 27, 1907
Birthplace: Springdale
Died: April 14, 1964

Rachel Carson was a conservationist, marine biologist, and author. She is credited with authoring an influential book titled Silent Spring, which played a significant role in advancing the global environmental movement. Carson is also remembered for her book, The Sea Around Us, which earned her a U.S. National Book Award. She was posthumously honored with the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

 7 
Francis Crick
(Co-discoverer of the Structure of the DNA Molecule, Nobel Prize Winner)

Francis Crick
9
Birthdate: June 8, 1916
Birthplace: Weston Favell, Northamptonshire, England
Died: July 28, 2004

Nobel Prize-winning British biophysicist Francis Crick is best known for his ground-breaking work to determine the structure of the DNA, along with James Watson, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalind Franklin. He taught at various institutes, such as the Salk Institute, and was also awarded the Order of Merit.

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 8 
E. O. Wilson
(Biologist)

E. O. Wilson
7
Birthdate: June 10, 1929
Birthplace: Birmingham, Alabama, U.S.
Died: December 26, 2021

E. O. Wilson is an American naturalist, biologist, and writer. An influential biologist, Wilson has earned several nicknames, such as The Darwin of the 21st century. He has also been referred to as the father of biodiversity and the father of sociobiology. In 1995, he was ranked among the most influential American personalities by Time magazine.

 9 
Tim Berners-Lee
(Inventor of the World Wide Web)

Tim Berners-Lee
25
Birthdate: June 8, 1955
Birthplace: London, England

Widely known as ten inventor of the world wide web, Tim Berners-Lee made the first communication between an HTTP client and server through the internet in 1989. He is associated with various organizations, such as the W3C and the World Wide Web Foundation, and has received the knighthood, too.

 10 
Peter Higgs
(Physicist)

Peter Higgs
6
Birthdate: May 29, 1929
Birthplace: Newcastle upon Tyne, England

Peter Higgs is a British theoretical physicist. He studied at King's College London and was awarded a Ph.D. in 1954. He went on to have a brilliant academic career and was elected Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1983. In 2013, he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Belgian physicist François Englert.  

 11 
Thomas Young
(Physician)

Thomas Young
4
Birthdate: June 13, 1773
Birthplace: Milverton
Died: May 10, 1829

Often referred as The Last Man Who Knew Everything, British polymath Thomas Young made significant contributions to a wide range of subjects like vision, light, energy, musical harmony etc. Especially famous for Wave Theory of Light, he also made significant contribution in deciphering of Egyptian hieroglyphs. Young-Helmholtz theory, Young temperament and Young's Modulus carry his legacy to these days.

 12 
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
(Physicist, Inventor)

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
7
Birthdate: May 24, 1686
Birthplace: Gdańsk
Died: September 16, 1736

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit was a scientific instrument maker, inventor, and physicist. One of the most prominent and influential personalities of the Dutch Golden Age of science and technology, Fahrenheit is credited with many important inventions, including the mercury-in-glass thermometer and Fahrenheit scale. His inventions helped shape the history of thermometry. 

 13 
Louis Agassiz
(Geologist)

Louis Agassiz
8
Birthdate: May 28, 1807
Birthplace: Montier
Died: December 14, 1873

Louis Agassiz was a biologist and geologist. He was famous as a scholar of Earth's natural history. Born in Switzerland, he completed his education in Europe and emigrated to USA. He was appointed a professor of zoology and geology at Harvard University. He later founded the Museum of Comparative Zoology at the Lawrence Scientific School.  

 14 
Jacques Cousteau
(Co-Inventor of the First Open-Circuit, Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus 'Aqua-Lung')

Jacques Cousteau
4
Birthdate: June 11, 1910
Birthplace: Saint-André-de-Cubzac, France
Died: June 25, 1997

Jacques Cousteau was a French explorer, naval officer, filmmaker, conservationist, scientist, photographer, researcher, and author. Renowned for his exploration of various forms of life in water, Jacques Cousteau is credited with pioneering marine conservation and co-developing the Aqua-Lung, the first underwater breathing apparatus to achieve popularity and commercial success.

 15 
Karl Landsteiner
(Physician)

Karl Landsteiner
19
Birthdate: June 14, 1868
Birthplace: Vienna
Died: June 26, 1943

Karl Landsteiner was a physician, biologist, and immunologist. He is credited with distinguishing the main blood groups as well as identifying the Rhesus factor. He is also credited with discovering the polio virus along with Erwin Popper and Constantin Levaditi. He won the Aronson Prize in 1926. In 1930, Landsteiner was honored with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

 16 
Giovanni Domenico Cassini
(Astronomer and Mathematician)

Giovanni Domenico Cassini
3
Birthdate: June 8, 1625
Birthplace: Perinaldo, Italy
Died: September 14, 1712
Italian-French mathematician and astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini is best remembered for his discovery of four moons of Saturn, the computation of Jupiter’s rotational period, and the observation of the Cassini Division, or the gap between Saturn’s rings. King Louis XIV made him a member of the Académie des Sciences

 17 
Kip Thorne
(Physicist)

Kip Thorne
5
Birthdate: June 1, 1940
Birthplace: Logan

American theoretical-physicist Kip Thorne, who is noted for his contributions in gravitational physics and astrophysics, is known for Thorne-Żytkow object, Thorne-Hawking-Preskill bet, LIGO, gravitational waves and the book Gravitation. Thorne along with Rainer Weiss and Barry C. Barish received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2017 for their contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves.

 18 
Andrei Sakharov
(Nuclear physicist)

Andrei Sakharov
4
Birthdate: May 21, 1921
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: December 14, 1989

Andrei Sakharov was a Russian dissident and nuclear physicist best remembered for designing RDS-37, Soviet Union's first two-stage hydrogen bomb. Also an activist for peace and human rights, Andrei Sakharov was honored with the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975. The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, which is awarded by the European Parliament, is named in his honor.

 19 
Sally Ride
(First American Woman To Go in Space, Physicist)

Sally Ride
19
Birthdate: May 26, 1951
Birthplace: Encino, Los Angeles, California, United States
Died: July 23, 2012
Astronaut and physicist Sally Ride was the first American woman and the youngest American astronaut to enter space. Following her death, it was revealed that she had been in a 27-year lesbian relationship with tennis player and professor Tam O'Shaughnessy. Sally herself was a ranked junior tennis player, too.

 20 
Frank Drake
(American astronomer)

Frank Drake
3
Birthdate: May 28, 1930
Birthplace: Chicago, Illinois

American astronomer and astrophysicist Frank Drake is best-known for developing Drake equation and for his involvement in search for extraterrestrial intelligence, including founding of modern SETI. He performed Project Ozma, the first SETI experiment for searching signs of life in distant planetary systems. He also designed content of Arecibo message, an interstellar radio message, sent to globular star cluster M13.

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 21 
John Bardeen
(Engineer and Physicist)

John Bardeen
4
Birthdate: May 23, 1908
Birthplace: Madison, Wisconsin, United States
Died: January 30, 1991

American engineer, physicist and Nobel laureate John Bardeen is the only person who received the Nobel Prize in Physics twice. He shared the first Nobel with William Shockley and Walter Brattain in 1956 for inventing the transistor, and the second with Leon N Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer in 1972 for proposing the BCS theory, a microscopic theory of superconductivity.

 22 
Donna Strickland
(Optical physicist)

Donna Strickland
4
Birthdate: May 27, 1959
Birthplace: Guelph, Canada

Donna Strickland is a Canadian optical physicist who is considered a pioneer in the field of pulsed lasers. In recognition of her research on the practical implementation of chirped pulse amplification, she was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2018, together with Gérard Mourou. She is currently a professor at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. 

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 23 
Whitfield Diffie
(Cryptographer and one of the pioneers of public-key cryptography along with Martin Hellman and Ralph Merkle)

Whitfield Diffie
5
Birthdate: June 5, 1944
Birthplace: Washington, D.C., United States

James Robertson Justice
4
Birthdate: June 15, 1907
Birthplace: Lewisham, England
Died: July 2, 1975

 25 

Luis Walter Alvarez
4
Birthdate: June 13, 1911
Birthplace: San Francisco
Died: September 1, 1988

Experimental physicist and Nobel laureate Luis Walter Alvarez is best remembered for inventing the liquid hydrogen bubble chamber, which enabled the discovery of countless short-lived resonance particles. The University of California, Berkeley professor and MIT scientist had also been part of the development of the atomic bomb.

 26 
James Hutton
(Geologist)

James Hutton
4
Birthdate: June 3, 1726
Birthplace: Edinburgh
Died: March 26, 1797

The pioneer of modern geology, James Hutton laid down the principle of uniformitarianism in geology. While he was initially interested in chemistry, he had later also studied law and had then moved on to medicine. His iconic Theory of the Earth explained the science behind rock formations.

 27 

Barbara McClintock
8
Birthdate: June 16, 1902
Birthplace: Hartford, Connecticut, United States
Died: September 2, 1992

Barbara McClintock was a scientist and cytogeneticist who received the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. She earned her Ph.D. in botany from Cornell University and began her lifelong work in the development of maize cytogenetics. She eventually gained recognition as among the best in the field and was honored with several prestigious awards.  

 28 
Helen Sharman
(Chemist)

Helen Sharman
4
Birthdate: May 30, 1963
Birthplace: Sheffield,England

The first British person to fly into space, Helen Sharman also became the first female astronaut to visit the Mir space station. She was selected from over 13,000 applicants to be part of the Project Juno program. She was also as a chemist for the chocolate manufacturer Mars.

 29 
Charles Augustin De Coulomb
(Physicist, Eponymous discoverer of Coulomb's law)

Charles Augustin De Coulomb
3
Birthdate: June 14, 1736
Birthplace: Angoulême, France
Died: August 23, 1806

French physicist Charles Augustin De Coulomb, remembered for laying down the Coulomb’s law, had previously been a military engineer in the West Indies. At the onset of the French Revolution, Coulomb, struggling with failing health, devoted himself to research. The unit of electric charge, coulomb, was named after him.

 30 
John Edensor Littlewood
(Mathematician, University teacher)

John Edensor Littlewood
3
Birthdate: June 9, 1885
Birthplace: Rochester
Died: September 6, 1977

 31 
Lawrence Lessig
(Jurist, Activist, Lawyer, Non-fiction writer, Computer scientist, Politician, Professor)

Lawrence Lessig
9
Birthdate: June 3, 1961
Birthplace: Rapid City

Harvard Law School professor Lawrence Lessig established Creative Commons, a non-profit geared at reducing copyright restrictions, thus helping artists and creative professional share their works legally. A Democrat, he also co-founded Rootstrikers, aimed at combating corruption in Congress. He is also a TED speaker and has penned books such as Lesterland.

 32 
Chien-Shiung Wu
(Physicist)

Chien-Shiung Wu
3
Birthdate: May 31, 1912
Birthplace: Liuhe, Taicang, China
Died: February 16, 1997

 33 
Alonzo Church
(Mathematician, Philosopher, University teacher, Computer scientist)

Alonzo Church
5
Birthdate: June 14, 1903
Birthplace: Washington, D.C.
Died: August 11, 1995

 34 
Lisa Randall
(Physicist, University teacher)

Lisa Randall
3
Birthdate: June 18, 1962
Birthplace: Queens, New York, United States

Apart from teaching at Harvard, theoretical physicist Lisa Randall has also held professorships at MIT and Princeton. She has also written several popular books, such as Warped Passages and Knocking on Heaven’s Door. One of Time’s 100 Most Influential People of 2007, she has also written a libretto for an opera.

 35 
Ward Cunningham
(Programmer, Computer scientist)

Ward Cunningham
6
Birthdate: May 26, 1949
Birthplace: United States of America

 36 
Sadi Carnot
(Physicist and Father of Thermodynamics)

Sadi Carnot
3
Birthdate: June 1, 1796
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: August 24, 1832

Son of French Revolutionary leader and mathematician Lazare Carnot, Sadi Carnot was an engineer in the French army. He later laid down the Carnot cycle of heat engines. Much of his works were buried with him when he died of cholera at 36, due to the contagiousness of the disease.

 37 
William Gilbert
(Physician)

William Gilbert
4
Birthdate: May 24, 1544
Birthplace: Colchester , England
Died: November 30, 1603

William Gilbert was a 16th-century English physician, physicist, astronomer, and natural philosopher. He earned his MD from Cambridge and practiced medicine in London. He was a much-respected figure and was made the president of the Royal College of Physicians. He served as Queen Elizabeth I's and King James VI and I’s personal physician. 

 38 

Joseph-Ignace Guillotin
3
Birthdate: May 28, 1738
Birthplace: Saintes, France
Died: March 26, 1814

 39 
Pieter Zeeman
(Discovered the 'Zeeman Effect')

Pieter Zeeman
2
Birthdate: May 25, 1865
Birthplace: Zonnemaire, Netherlands
Died: October 9, 1943

Pieter Zeeman was a Dutch physicist whose discovery of the Zeeman effect earned him the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physics in 1902, which he shared with Hendrik Lorentz. Over the course of his career, Zeeman received several other awards, such as the Matteucci Medal in 1912, Henry Draper Medal in 1921, Rumford Medal in 1922, and Franklin Medal in 1925.

 40 
Aage Bohr
(Physicist)

Aage Bohr
3
Birthdate: June 19, 1922
Birthplace: Copenhagen, Denmark
Died: September 8, 2009

Nobel Prize-winning Danish nuclear physicist Aage Bohr is best remembered for his work related to the geometry of atomic nuclei. Son of Nobel laureate physicist Niels Bohr, Aage had started his career as an assistant to his father and working on the development of the atomic bomb.

 41 

William Crookes
3
Birthdate: June 17, 1832
Birthplace: London, England
Died: April 4, 1919

William Crookes was a British chemist and physicist remembered as a pioneer of vacuum tubes. He was the inventor of what became known as the Crookes tube. He is also credited with the discovery of the element thallium. He was the first person to describe the spectrum of terrestrial helium. He was interested in spiritualism and occultism as well. 

 42 
Alexander Shulgin
(Rediscoverer of MDMA)

Alexander Shulgin
4
Birthdate: June 17, 1925
Birthplace: Berkeley, California, United States
Died: June 2, 2014

A pioneer of psychedelic drug synthesis, Alexander Shulgin came to be known as The Godfather of Ecstasy, for reinventing the drug MDMA, or ecstasy, for medical use. The Harvard drop-out, who later studied psychiatry and pharmacology, would often experiment his newly invented drugs on himself, his wife, and his friends.

 43 
Abraham de Moivre
(Mathematician, Statistician)

Abraham de Moivre
5
Birthdate: May 26, 1667
Birthplace: Vitry-le-François
Died: November 27, 1754

 44 
Andrey Markov
(Mathematician)

Andrey Markov
5
Birthdate: June 14, 1856
Birthplace: Ryazan, Russia
Died: July 20, 1922

 45 
Lawrence M. Krauss
(Astronomer, Physicist, Astrophysicist, Academic, Non-fiction writer, University teacher, Theoretical physicist)

Lawrence M. Krauss
4
Birthdate: May 27, 1954
Birthplace: New York City

American-Canadian theoretical physicist Lawrence M. Krauss has taught at institutes such as ASU and Yale and also penned several bestselling books. Known for his research on dark energy and zero-energy states, he was later accused of sexual misconduct and thus lost the directorship of the ASU’s Origins Project.

 46 
John Wilder Tukey
(Mathematician)

John Wilder Tukey
8
Birthdate: June 16, 1915
Birthplace: New Bedford, Massachusetts, United States
Died: July 26, 2000

 47 
Johann Gottfried Galle
(Astronomer, University teacher)

Johann Gottfried Galle
2
Birthdate: June 9, 1812
Birthplace: Radis
Died: July 10, 1910

Johann Gottfried Galle was a German astronomer who worked at the Berlin Observatory. On 23 September 1846, he became the first person to view and recognize the planet Neptune. The discovery of Neptune is considered one of the most significant moments of 19th-century science and is widely regarded as a validation of celestial mechanics.

 48 
Edward Norton Lorenz
(Mathematician)

Edward Norton Lorenz
4
Birthdate: May 23, 1917
Birthplace: West Hartford, Connecticut, United States
Died: April 16, 2008

 49 
Ted Nelson
(Philosopher)

Ted Nelson
5
Birthdate: June 17, 1937
Birthplace: Chicago, Illinois, United States

Ted Nelson is an American sociologist and philosopher. A pioneer of information technology, Nelson coined the terms hypermedia and hypertext in 1963. He is also credited with coining several new words, including transclusion, intertwingularity, and virtuality. In 1960, he founded Project Xanadu in an attempt to create a computer network with an unambiguous user interface.

 50 
Dennis Gabor
(Father of Holography)

Dennis Gabor
3
Birthdate: June 5, 1900
Birthplace: Budapest
Died: February 8, 1979

Dennis Gabor was a Hungarian-British physicist and electrical engineer best remembered for inventing holography. His invention earned him the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physics in 1971. Gabor won several awards during his lifetime. After his demise, many awards are given in his honor. The Dennis Gabor Award and Gabor Medal are some of the awards that are named after him.