A neurologist is someone who diagnoses and treats disorders related to the nervous system, which mainly includes diseases related to the spinal cord, nerves and the brain. Neurologists treat patients who have stroke related problems, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, brain and nervous system infections, speech difficulties and language disorders and other neurological disorders that may be of either chronic or temporary nature. It is to be noted that neurologists do not perform any kinds of surgeries, which are in fact performed only by specialized neurosurgeons. They are however authorized to recommend surgical treatment to their patients, suffering from any sort of neurological disorder. Neurologists are extensively trained and educated to deal with an array of neurological diseases and thus are frequently called to assist at emergency rooms and also offer their assistance to other physicians and neurosurgeons. The origin of neurology can be traced back to the ancient Egyptian period and the Vedic period in ancient India. The different branches of neurology include, Geriatric neurology, Restorative Neurology, Neurotology and Neuroepidemiology. Here is a compilation of famous neurologists. Explore the biographies that include trivia, interesting facts, timeline and life history and learn more interesting facts and details about them with their biographies.
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 1 Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud
Famous As: Neurologist
Birthdate: May 6, 1856
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Příbor, Czechia
Died: September 23, 1939

Regarded as the father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud was a neurologist. Despite suffering criticism, psychoanalysis remains influential in the fields of psychology and psychiatry; such is the influence Freud has on humanities. Scholars believe that Freud is one of the most influential personalities of the 20th century and that his impact is comparable to that of Marxism and Darwinism.

 2 Ben Carson

Ben Carson
Famous As: U.S. Secretary of Housing & Urban Development (2017 – 2021)
Birthdate: September 18, 1951
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Detroit, Michigan, U.S.

Neurosurgeon Ben Carson is credited with many pioneering neurosurgical procedures. He became a Library of Congress “Living Legend” and received the Presidential Medal of Freedom. He later contested in the 2016 presidential primaries, has authored numerous books, was a Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, and earned 60 honorary doctorates.

 3 Sam Sheppard

Sam Sheppard
Famous As: Neurosurgeon
Birthdate: December 29, 1923
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Cleveland, Ohio
Died: April 6, 1970

Sam Sheppard went from being a popular doctor at the Bay View Hospital to a murder suspect. After spending a decade behind bars, convicted of bludgeoning his wife, Marilyn Reese, to death in their bedroom and sentenced to life, he was eventually acquitted due to a lack of sufficient evidence.

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 4 Roger Bannister

Roger Bannister
Famous As: Athlete
Birthdate: March 23, 1929
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Harrow, England
Died: March 3, 2018

British middle-distance athlete and neurologist Sir Roger Gilbert Bannister was the first athlete to run a mile in less than four minutes. Before achieving such feat, Bannister set a British record in the 1500 metres during the 1952 Summer Olympics. In the medical field, Bannister became a neurologist and Master of Pembroke College, Oxford.

 5 Paul Kalanithi

Paul Kalanithi
Famous As: Neurosurgeon
Birthdate: April 1, 1977
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: New York
Died: March 9, 2015

Indian-American neurosurgeon and author Paul Kalanithi was a brilliant student, who initially studied both English literature and human biology at Stanford and later studied medicine at Yale. He died of metastatic lung cancer but not before penning the memoir When Breath Becomes Air, a New York Times bestseller, released posthumously.

 6 Ralph Northam

Ralph Northam
Famous As: Politician
Birthdate: September 13, 1959
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Nassawadox, Virginia, USA

Initially an army doctor and a pediatric neurologist, Ralph Northam, he joined politics after an 8-year stint with the US Army and after being named a major. The Democratic Party member has also been a senator and then a governor of Virginia. An avid runner, he likes competing in various races.

 7 Wilder Penfield

Wilder Penfield
Famous As: Surgeon, Neuroscientist, Neurosurgeon, University teacher, Neurologist
Birthdate: January 26, 1891
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Spokane
Died: April 5, 1976

Neuroscientist Wilder Penfield redefined medical science with his innovative way of treating epilepsy patients through surgery. He would note down his patients’ responses when they would be conscious under local anesthesia. He also founded the Montreal Neurological Institute, but was unable to cure his sister’s brain cancer.

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 8 Rita Levi-Montalcini

Rita Levi-Montalcini
Famous As: Neurologist
Birthdate: April 22, 1909
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Turin, Italy
Died: December 30, 2012

Rita Levi-Montalcini was an Italian neurologist whose discovery of nerve growth factor earned her the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Throughout her life, Levi-Montalcini's work in neurobiology earned her several other honors and awards, including the Golden Plate Award from the American Academy of Achievement and the European Academy of Sciences' Leonardo da Vinci Award.

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 9 Jean-Martin Charcot

Jean-Martin Charcot
Famous As: Neurologist
Birthdate: November 29, 1825
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Paris
Died: August 16, 1893
French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot is best remembered for his work with hysteria patients. He was also an extraordinary professor and had Sigmund Freud as one of his students. He was one of the first to include photos and drawings as tools for instruction in neurology classes.

 10 Walter Jackson Freeman II

Walter Jackson Freeman II
Famous As: American physician
Birthdate: November 14, 1895
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
Died: May 31, 1972

American neurologist Walter Jackson Freeman II is remembered for co-developing the technique of prefrontal lobotomy as a treatment for mental ailments, along with neurosurgeon James W. Watts. Though many of his patients died due to the treatment, he is still considered a pioneer in the field of neurosurgery.

 11 Howard Gardner

Howard Gardner
Famous As: Teacher, Psychologist, University teacher, Neurologist
Birthdate: July 11, 1943
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Scranton

Cognitive psychologist and Harvard professor Howard Gardner is known for introducing the theory of multiple intelligences, first mentioned in his book Frames of Mind. Born to Jewish immigrants in the US, Gardner was a talented pianist in his younger days and later studied social relations and developmental psychology at Harvard.

 12 Ludwig Guttmann

Ludwig Guttmann
Famous As: Neurologist
Birthdate: July 3, 1899
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Toszek
Died: March 18, 1980

Born in Germany, neurosurgeon Ludwig Guttmann fled the country during the Nazi regime and later settled in the UK. What started as his effort to rehabilitate injured soldiers, materialized into the launch of the Paralympic Games to encourage sports among the disabled. He also worked extensively on paraplegia.

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 13 Colleen McCullough

Colleen McCullough
Famous As: Novelist, Writer, Neurologist, Biographer, Science fiction writer
Birthdate: June 1, 1937
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Wellington
Died: January 29, 2015

Australian author Colleen McCullough soared to fame with her bestselling novel The Thorn Birds, which was also made into a hit miniseries. Fans also lover her Masters of Rome and Carmine Delmonico series of novels. A former neuropsychologist, she has previously taught at the Yale School of Medicine.

 14 Roberta Bondar

Roberta Bondar
Famous As: Astronaut & Neurologist
Birthdate: December 4, 1945
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Sault Ste. Marie, Canada

Canadian neurologist, educator, scientist, astronaut and photographer Roberta Bondar CC OOnt FRCPC FRSC is noted as the first female astronaut and the first neurologist of Canada to travel into space. She flew as part of the Space Shuttle Discovery mission STS-42 and performed over forty experiments in Spacelab. She later served as head of an international team of researchers at NASA.

 15 Eric Kandel

Eric Kandel
Famous As: Neurologist, Psychiatrist, Neuroscientist, Psychologist, Biochemist
Birthdate: November 7, 1929
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Vienna

Nobel Prize-winning neurobiologist Eric Kandel is known for his research on the role of synapses in memory and learning. An Austrian Jew, he left his country with his family and moved to the U.S. in the wake of anti-Semitism. A doctor, specializing in psychiatry, he later taught at Columbia University.

 16 James T. Goodrich

James T. Goodrich
Famous As: Neurosurgeon
Birthdate: April 16, 1946
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Portland, Oregon, United States
Died: March 30, 2020

Pediatric neurosurgeon James T. Goodrich was an expert in cranial reconstructive surgeries and also conducted multiple successful operations on separating conjoined twins. The Columbia University alumnus also had also served the US Marines during the Vietnam War. He was also fond of travel and surfing. He succumbed to COVID-19 at age 73.

 17 António Egas Moniz

António Egas Moniz
Famous As: Neurologist
Birthdate: November 29, 1874
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Avanca, Estarreja, Portugal
Died: December 13, 1955

 18 Henry Marsh

Henry Marsh
Famous As: Neurosurgeon
Birthdate: March 5, 1950
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Oxford, England

A neurosurgeon and best-selling author, Henry Thomas Marsh is also the subject of two BBC documentaries, Your Life in Their Hands and The English Surgeon, the later being based on his pioneering work in the field neurosurgery in Ukraine. A senior consultant neurosurgeon till his retirement from St George's Hospital, London, he specializes in performing brain operation under local anesthesia.

 19 Sid Watkins

Sid Watkins
Famous As: Neurologist, Surgeon, Neurosurgeon, Physician
Birthdate: September 6, 1928
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Liverpool
Died: September 12, 2012

Eric Sidney Watkins or Professor Sid, as he was known within the Formula One fraternity, wanted to become a doctor since his childhood. An experienced neurosurgeon and academician, he later became Formula One's trackside consultant and safety adviser. He concentrated on creating sophisticated medical back-up necessary for providing timely treatment, thus saving many lives through prompt actions.

 20 John Langdon Down

John Langdon Down
Famous As: Physician, Psychiatrist, Neurologist
Birthdate: November 18, 1828
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Torpoint
Died: October 7, 1896

British doctor John Langdon Down was pushed to assist at his father’s shop at 14. He gained an interest in medicine after apprenticing with a London surgeon. A pioneer in the treatment of mentally challenged patients, he is remembered for his study of what is now known as Down syndrome.

 21 Majid Samii

Majid Samii
Famous As: Iranian Neurosurgeon and Medical scientist who has won multiple awards for his work
Birthdate: June 19, 1937
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Tehran, Iran

 22 Thomas Stoltz Harvey

Thomas Stoltz Harvey
Famous As: Pathologist, Neurologist
Birthdate: October 10, 1912
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Louisville
Died: April 5, 2007

Pathologist Thomas Stoltz Harvey was the man who conducted an autopsy on Albert Einstein. It is believed the Princeton Hospital employee later stole Einstein’s brain without his family’s permission and even lost his job for it. He kept parts of the brain with him for 43 years.

 23 Georges Gilles de la Tourette

Georges Gilles de la Tourette
Famous As: Physician, Psychiatrist, Neurologist
Birthdate: October 30, 1857
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Saint-Gervais-les-Trois-Clochers
Died: May 26, 1904

 24 Alexander Luria

Alexander Luria
Famous As: Neuropsychologist
Birthdate: July 16, 1902
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Kazan, Russia
Died: August 14, 1977

Alexander Luria was a Soviet neuropsychologist who served as the leader of the Vygotsky Circle, an informal network of psychologists, physiologists, neuroscientists, and medical specialists. Often referred to as the father of neuropsychological assessment, Luria came up with influential books that serve as psychological textbooks for students. His book The Mind of a Mnemonist inspired films like Away with Words.

 25 Julius Wagner-Jauregg

Julius Wagner-Jauregg
Famous As: Physician, Politician, Neurologist, Psychiatrist, Professor
Birthdate: March 7, 1857
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Wels
Died: September 27, 1940

Nobel Prize-winning Austrian psychiatrist Julius Wagner-Jauregg is best known for revolutionizing medical science by partially treating general paresis through artificial induction of malaria. He paved the path for shock therapy and fever therapy to treat mental ailments. He also studied thyroid and ovarian issues. He later became a Nazi sympathizer.

 26 Carl Wernicke

Carl Wernicke
Famous As: Anatomist, Physician, Neuroscientist, Psychiatrist, University teacher, Neurologist
Birthdate: May 15, 1848
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Tarnowskie Góry
Died: June 15, 1905

German neurologist, pathologist, and anatomist Carl Wernicke is best remembered for his extensive work on the various types of aphasia, or disorders that hinder the ability to speak or write. He also distinguished between motor aphasia and sensory aphasia, or what is now known as Wernicke's aphasia.

 27 Sándor Ferenczi

Sándor Ferenczi
Famous As: Psychanalyst, Psychiatrist, Non-fiction writer, Neurologist
Birthdate: July 7, 1873
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Miskolc
Died: May 22, 1933

Sándor Ferenczi is best remembered for his research on free association and the psychoanalytic theory. Initially an army doctor, he specialized in subjects such as neuropathology and hypnosis. He was also close to Sigmund Freud and later taught at the University of Budapest. He also established the Hungarian Psychoanalytic Society.

 28 Silas Weir Mitchell

Silas Weir Mitchell
Famous As: Physician
Birthdate: February 15, 1829
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
Died: January 4, 1914

A pioneer of medical neurology, Silas Weir Mitchell not only discovered the causalgia and erythromelalgia but also penned more than 100 monographs on various medical treatments. A talented author, he also penned children’s stories, poems, and novels, such as Roland Blake. He also developed rest cure during the American Civil War.

 29 Ernest Jones

Ernest Jones
Famous As: Psychoanalyst
Birthdate: January 1, 1879
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Gowerton, Wales
Died: February 11, 1958

 30 Charles Bell

Charles Bell
Famous As: Surgeon
Birthdate: November 12, 1774
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Edinburgh, Scotland
Died: April 28, 1842

Charles Bell was a Scottish surgeon, physiologist, anatomist, and neurologist. He was also an artist and philosophical theologian. He discovered the difference between sensory nerves and motor nerves in the spinal cord. He is also known for describing Bell's palsy. He played a key role in the creation of the Middlesex Hospital Medical School. 

 31 Stanley B. Prusiner

Stanley B. Prusiner
Famous As: Neurologist and Biochemist
Birthdate: May 28, 1942
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Des Moines, Iowa, United States

The son of an architect, Stanley B. Prusiner earned the nickname "little Genius" for inventing a bug repellent in school. The Nobel Prize-winning biochemist and neurologist is best known for discovering prions, or proteins that cause diseases, and thus suggesting an explanation for the mad cow disease.

 32 W. H. R. Rivers

W. H. R. Rivers
Famous As: Anthropologist
Birthdate: March 12, 1864
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Chatham, Kent, England
Died: June 4, 1922

English anthropologist and psychologist W. H. R. Rivers is best remembered for his work on the Todas of the Nilgiri Hills. A qualified physician, he also taught at Cambridge and worked extensively on medical psychology. One of his best-known works is Kinship and Social Organisation.

 33 Vladimir Bekhterev

Vladimir Bekhterev
Famous As: Neurologist
Birthdate: February 1, 1857
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Sorali, Russia
Died: December 24, 1927

Neurologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Bekhterev is best remembered for his research on the brain and conditioned reflexes and for his pioneering research on objective psychology. He taught at institutes such as the University of Kazan and was also known for his rivalry with contemporary Ivan Pavlov.

 34 Duchenne de Boulogne

Duchenne de Boulogne
Famous As: Photographer, Neurologist, Physician
Birthdate: September 17, 1806
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Boulogne-sur-Mer
Died: September 15, 1875

 35 Henry Markram

Henry Markram
Famous As: Neuroscientist, University teacher, Neurologist
Birthdate: March 28, 1962
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: South Africa
Born in South Africa, Henry Markram completed his PhD in Israel and then moved to the U.S. as a Fulbright scholar. The acclaimed neuroscientist and Brain Mind Institute founder now teaches at the EPFL in Switzerland. His now-famous Blue Brain Project was aimed at digitally reconstructing the mouse brain.

 36 Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard

Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard
Famous As: Neurologist
Birthdate: April 8, 1817
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Port Louis, Mauritius
Died: April 2, 1894

 37 Robert Remak

Robert Remak
Famous As: Physiologist
Birthdate: July 26, 1815
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Poznań, Poland
Died: August 29, 1865

German embryologist and neurologist Robert Remak is known for pathbreaking scientific feats such as the discovery of the Remak’s ganglia and the use of electrotherapy to treat nervous ailments. He also named the three layers of the embryo, the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. His Jewish origin deprived him from valid recognition.

 38 John Hughlings Jackson

John Hughlings Jackson
Famous As: Neurologist
Birthdate: April 4, 1835
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Green Hammerton, England
Died: October 7, 1911

John Hughlings Jackson was an English neurologist best known for his research on epilepsy. He attended the York Medical and Surgical School and became the house physician to the York Dispensary. He later established his reputation as a neurologist and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.  He was one of the founders of the important journal Brain. 

 39 Eleanor Maguire

Eleanor Maguire
Famous As: Neuroscientist
Birthdate: March 27, 1970
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Dublin, Ireland

Irish neuroscientist and UCL professor Eleanor Maguire is best known for her work on the role of the human brain, especially the hippocampus. One of her best-known works was on the spatial abilities of cab drivers in London. She has been named a Fellow of the Royal Society and of the British Academy.

 40 Joseph Erlanger

Joseph Erlanger
Famous As: Physiologist
Birthdate: January 5, 1874
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: San Francisco
Died: December 5, 1965

Nobel Prize-winning physiologist Joseph Erlanger is best known for discovering that fibers in the same nerve cord have different functions. He was also known for his association with the University of Wisconsin and Washington University. He conducted most of his studies with his former student Herbert Spencer Gasser.

 41 Henri Laborit

Henri Laborit
Famous As: Surgeon
Birthdate: November 21, 1914
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Hanoi, Vietnam
Died: May 18, 1995

 42 Constantin von Economo

Constantin von Economo
Famous As: Former psychiatrist, neurologist known for his discovery of encephalitis lethargica and his atlas of cytoarchitectonics of the cerebral cortex
Birthdate: August 21, 1876
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Brăila, Romania
Died: October 21, 1931

 43 Pierre Marie

Pierre Marie
Famous As: Neurologist
Birthdate: September 9, 1853
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: April 13, 1940

 44 Manfred Sakel

Manfred Sakel
Famous As: Neurophysiologist
Birthdate: June 6, 1900
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Nadvirna, Ukraine
Died: December 2, 1957

Austrian-American neurophysiologist and psychiatrist Manfred Sakel is remembered for his pioneering use of the insulin shock therapy to treat patients of schizophrenia. Initially a researcher in Vienna, he fled to the US in the wake of the Nazi invasion. His brand of therapy was later replaced by electroconvulsive therapy.

 45 Sabina Brennan

Sabina Brennan
Famous As: Actresses
Birthdate: 0000 AD
Birthplace: Dublin, Ireland

 46 Édouard Claparède

Édouard Claparède
Famous As: Neurologist
Birthdate: March 24, 1873
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Geneva, Switzerland
Died: September 29, 1940

Known for his pioneering work in the fields of child and educational psychology, Édouard Claparède was also the co-founder of the journal Archives de psychologie. A professor at the University of Geneva, too, he also conducted research on animal psychology and the biological theory of sleep.

 47 Joseph Ransohoff

Joseph Ransohoff
Famous As: Neurosurgeon
Birthdate: July 1, 1915
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: United States
Died: January 30, 2001

Part of the Ransohoff family of surgeons, Joseph Ransohoff had a 30-year stint at the New York University. It is believed the series Ben Casey was based on his experiences. The Harvard alumnus had also wished to be part of the Spanish Civil War at one point.

 48 Edward Flatau

Edward Flatau
Famous As: Neurologist
Birthdate: December 27, 1868
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Płock, Poland
Died: June 7, 1932

 49 Marshall Hall

Marshall Hall
Famous As: Physician
Birthdate: February 18, 1790
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Basford, England
Died: August 11, 1857

Marshall Hall was an English physician, neurologist, and physiologist. He is credited with contributing immensely to the theory of reflex arc. Hall also wrote many books on neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and apoplexy (stroke). An ardent supporter of the abolitionist movement, Marshall Hall was inducted into the American Philosophical Society (APS) in 1853.

 50 Pilar Mazzetti

Pilar Mazzetti
Famous As: Physician
Birthdate: September 9, 1956
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Lima, Peru