German endocrinologist and sexologist Harry Benjamin initially moved to the U.S. to meet a doctor who claimed to have cured tuberculosis, but got stuck there due to World War I. He is remembered for his extensive work with transgenders and guided a patient to undergo one of the first gender-reassignment operations.
Andrew Schally escaped Poland and went to Romania and the UK with his family following the Nazi invasion, eventually settling in Canada. He grew up to be a renowned endocrinologist and won the Nobel Prize for his research on the hypothalamus and how it controls the hormones in the body.
Gregorio Marañón was a Spanish scientist, physician, writer, historian, and philosopher. He is widely regarded as one of the 20th century's most brilliant Spanish intellectuals. In order to honor his work and contributions, the Gregorio Marañón Foundation was founded on 11 November 1988.
Otto Naegeli Prize-winning Swiss zoologist and endocrinologist Kitty Ponse was born to Dutch parents in the then-Dutch colony, Sumatra, present-day Indonesia. She moved to Switzerland at 8, and grew up to be a pioneering researcher of sex determination and differentiation in amphibians. She also co-founded the journal Acta Endocrinologica.